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Viverravidae is an extinct family within the superfamily Miacoidea. They are related to carnivorans, and lived from the early Palaeocene to the Eocene.

Viverravidae
Temporal range: Paleocene-Eocene 66–40 Ma
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Superfamily: Miacoidea
Family: Viverravidae
Wortman & Matthew 1899, p. 136[1]
Genera

Bryanictis
Didymictis
Ictidopappus
Mustelodon
Pristinictis
Protictis
Raphictis
Simpsonictis
Viverravus
Viverriscus

In viverravids, the number of molars is reduced to two and the skull is elongated. Viverravidae is a monophyletic family, a plesion-group. They are not thought to be ancestral to any extant carnivorans.[2]

The viverravids were thought to be the earliest carnivorans: they first appeared in the Paleocene of North America about 60 million years ago. One author proposed that they should be placed outside the order Carnivora based on cranial morphology.[3]

Wang and Tedford propose that they arose in North America 65-60 million years ago, spread to Asia then later to Europe, and were the first carnivorans and possessed the first true pair of carnassial teeth.[4]:p8

TaxonomyEdit

Taxonomy retrieved from the Paleobiology Database[5]

  • Family †Viverravidae Wortman and Matthew 1899 (synonym: Didymictidae Flynn and Galiano 1982)
    • Genus †Didymictis Cope 1875
      • Didymictis altidens Cope 1880
      • Didymictis leptomylus Cope 1880
      • Didymictis protenus Cope 1874 (synonym: Didymictis curtidens Cope 1882)
      • Didymictis proteus Polly 1997 (synonym: Didymictis dellensis Dorr 1952)
      • Didymictis vancleveae Robinson 1966
    • Genus †Intyrictis Gingerich and Winkler 1985
      • Intyrictis vanvaleni MacIntyre 1966
    • Genus †Orientictis Huang and Zheng 2005
      • Orientictis spanios Huang and Zheng 2005
    • Genus †Preonictis Tong and Wang 2006
      • Preonictis youngi Tong and Wang 2006
    • Genus †Protictis Matthew
      • Subgenus. †Protictis (Bryanictis) MacIntyre 1966
        • Bryanictis microlestes Simpson 1935
        • Bryanictis paulus Meehan and Wilson 2002
      • Subg. †Protictis (Protictis) Matthew 1937
      • Subg. †Protictis (Protictoides) Flynn and Galiano 1982
        • Protictoides aprophatos Flynn and Galiano 1982
      • Protictis agastor Gingerich and Winkler 1985
      • Protictis haydenianus Cope 1882 (synonyms: Didymictis primus Cope 1884, Prolimnocyon macfaddeni Rigby, Jr. 1980)
      • Protictis minor Meehan and Wilson 2002
      • Protictis paralus Holtzman 1978
      • Protictis simpsoni Meehan and Wilson 2002
    • Genus †Simpsonictis MacIntyre 1962
      • Simpsonictis jaynanneae Rigby, Jr. 1980
      • Simpsonictis pegus Gingerich and Winkler 1985
      • Simpsonictis tenuis Simpson 1935
    • G. †Variviverra Tong and Wang 2006
      • Variviverra vegetatus Tong and Wang 2006
    • Genus †Viverravus Marsh 1872
      • Viverravus acutus Matthew and Granger 1915
      • Viverravus gracilis Marsh 1872 (type species)(synonyms: Didymictis dawkinsianus Cope 1881, Harpalodon vulpinus Marsh 1872, Triacodon fallax Marsh 1871, Ziphacodon rugatus Marsh 1872)
      • Viverravus lawsoni Hooker 2010
      • Viverravus laytoni Gingerich and Winkler 1985 (synonym: Viverravus bowni Gingerich 1987)
      • Viverravus lutosus Gazin 1952
      • Viverravus minutus Wortman 1901
      • Viverravus nitidus Marsh 1872
      • Viverravus politus Matthew and Granger 1915 (synonym: Protictis schaffi Gingerich and Winkler 1985)
      • Viverravus rosei Polly 1997
      • Viverravus sicarius Matthew 1909 (synonym: Ziphacodon Marsh 1872)
    • Genus †Viverriscus Beard and Dawson 2009
      • Viverriscus omnivorus Beard and Dawson 2009
    • incertae sedis:

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Wortman, J. L.; Matthew, W. D. (1899). "The ancestry of certain members of the Canidae, Viverridae, and Procyonidae". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 12: 109–138. OCLC 46687698. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  2. ^ Wesley-Hunt, G.D.; Flynn, J.J. (2005). "Phylogeny of the Carnivora: basal relationships among the carnivoramorphans, and assessment of the position of 'Miacoidea' relative to Carnivora". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 3: 1–28. doi:10.1017/S1477201904001518.
  3. ^ Polly, David, Gina D. Wesley-Hunt, Ronald E. Heinrich, Graham Davis and Peter Houde (2006). "Earliest known carnivoran auditory bulla and support for a recent origin of crown-clade carnivora (Eutheria, Mammalia)" (PDF). Palaeontology. 49 (5): 1019–1027. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2006.00586.x.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Wang, Xiaoming; Tedford, Richard H.; Dogs: Their Fossil Relatives and Evolutionary History. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.
  5. ^ Paleobiology Database. Retrieved with Fossilworks (March 3, 2017)
  6. ^ Zack, Shawn P. (2012). "Deciduous dentition of Didymictis(Carnivoramorpha: Viverravidae): implications for the first appearance of "Creodonta"". Journal of Mammalogy. 93 (3): 808–817. doi:10.1644/11-MAMM-A-245.1. ISSN 0022-2372.