According to Janusz Bugajski, "in its most extreme or developed forms, ultra-nationalism resembles fascism, marked by a xenophobic disdain of other nations, support for authoritarian political arrangements verging on totalitarianism, and a mythical emphasis on the 'organic unity' between a charismatic leader, an organizationally amorphous movement-type party, and the nation".
Roger Griffin asserts that ultranationalism is essentially xenophobic and is known to legitimise itself "through deeply mythicized narratives of past cultural or political periods of historical greatness or of old scores to settle against alleged enemies". It can also draw on "vulgarized forms of physical anthropology, genetics, and eugenics to rationalize ideas of national superiority and destiny, of degeneracy and subhumanness".
Ultranationalist political partiesEdit
Currently represented in national legislaturesEdit
The following political parties have been characterised as ultranationalist.
- Bulgaria: Attack
- Finland: Finns Party
- Germany: Alternative for Germany
- Greece: Greek Solution
- India: Shiv Sena
- Israel: National Union-Tkuma
- Italy: CasaPound, New Force
- Japan: Liberal Democratic Party (faction)
- Poland: National Movement
- Russia: Liberal Democratic Party of Russia
- Serbia: Serbian Radical Party
- Slovakia: Kotleba – People's Party Our Slovakia
- Spain: Vox
- Turkey: Nationalist Movement Party, Great Union Party
- Ukraine: Freedom
- Ultranationalism. Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- Ultranationalism. Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- Roger Griffin, "Nationalism" in Cyprian Blamires, ed., World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia, vol. 2 (Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2006), pp. 451–53.
- The Politics of National Minority Participation in Post-communist Europe. EastWest Institute. p.65. Section author - Janusz Bugajski. Book edited by Johnathan P.Stein. Published by M.E. Sharpe. Published in New York in 2000. Retrieved via Google Books.
- World fascism: a historical encyclopedia. 2006. p. 452.
- Katsikas, Stefanos (2011). "Negotiating Diplomacy in the New Europe: Foreign Policy in Post-Communist Bulgaria". I.B. Tauris: 64. Cite journal requires
- "Finns Kick Out Austerity Government as Leftists Win Election". Bloomberg. 15 April 2019.
But he faces a tough set of coalition talks, after the ultra nationalist Finns Party came in second, beating the conservative National Coalition for the first time.
- "The 1619 Project and the far-right fear of history". Washington Post. 20 August 2019.
A leader of Germany's ultranationalist AfD party in 2017 bemoaned how the country's focus on atoning ...
- "Frankenstein pact puts AfD in coalition". The Times. 23 July 2019.
A married couple have run into trouble for forging the first local pact between Angela Merkel’s party and the ultranationalist Alternative for Germany (AfD) in defiance of the chancellor.
- "Greek elections: landslide victory for centre-right New Democracy party". The Guardian. 7 July 2019.
Smaller parties, such as the ultra-nationalist Greek Solution and leftist MeRA25, headed by Yanis Varoufakis, the former finance minister, were targeting younger Greeks.
- Mark Magnier (8 March 2012). "In India, battle continues over Hindu temple's riches - latimes". Los Angeles Times. Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved 2015-12-02.
- "Election Polls: 6-14 Seats for Bennett and Shaked's New Right-wing Party, Labor Party Crashes". Times of Israel. 30 December 2018.
- "Reggio Emilia - Contro ogni nazionalismo, per un'Europa di diritti e dignità". Global Project.
- "Reggio Emilia - Contro ogni nazionalismo, per un'Europa di diritti e dignità - Global Project".
- "Beautiful Harmony: Political Project Behind Japan's New Era Name – Analysis". eurasia review. 16 July 2019.
The shifting dynamics around the new era name (gengō 元号) offers an opportunity to understand how the domestic politics of the LDP’s project of ultranationalism is shaping a new Japan and a new form of nationalism.
- "Polish Interior Minister Issues Last-Minute Ban on Neo-Fascist Show of Force Outside Israeli Embassy in Warsaw". The Algemeiner. 31 January 2018.
- "Ultranationalists Move to Slap Fines on Use of Foreign Words". 21 February 2013.
- Ford, Peter (2018). "Serbian Radical Party surge may complicate reform". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- "Not Even a Prosperous Slovakia Is Immune to Doubts About the E.U." New York Times. 17 December 2016.
- Acha, Beatriz (6 January 2019). "No, no es un partido (neo)fascista". Agenda Pública.
- Antón-Mellón, Joan (29 April 2019). "Vox. Del nacional-catolicismo al ultranacionalismo neoliberal". Agenda Pública.
- Arman, Murat Necip (2007). "The Sources Of Banality In Transforming Turkish Nationalism". CEU Political Science Journal (2): 133–151.
- Eissenstat, Howard. (November 2002). Anatolianism: The History of a Failed Metaphor of Turkish Nationalism. Middle East Studies Association Conference. Washington, D.C.
- Gocek, Fatma Muge (2014). Denial of Violence. Oxford University Press. p. 402.
- "Svoboda: The rise of Ukraine's ultra-nationalists". BBC. 25 December 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
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