Economic Freedom Fighters
This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) is a South African far-left Pan-Africanist political party. It was founded by expelled former African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) President Julius Malema, and his allies, in 2013. Malema is President of the EFF, heading the Central Command Team which serves as the central structure of the party.
|President & Commander in Chief||Julius Malema|
|Deputy President||Floyd Shivambu|
|Founded||26 July 2013|
|Split from||African National Congress|
|Headquarters||82 De Korte Street,|
|Student wing||Economic Freedom Fighters Students' Command (EFFSC)|
|Slogan||"People’s Power for Economic Freedom in Our Lifetime"|
44 / 400
|National Council of Provinces|
11 / 90
1 / 5(South African seats)
50 / 430
|City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality (council)|
30 / 270
|Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality (council)|
6 / 120
|City of Cape Town (council)|
7 / 231
It is currently the third-largest party in both houses of the South African Parliament.
- 1 History
- 2 Splinters and infighting
- 3 Policies
- 4 High-profile members
- 5 Support base
- 6 Election results
- 7 Achievements
- 8 Criticisms and controversies
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
At a 26 July 2013 press briefing in Soweto, Malema announced that the new party had over 1000 members, double the 500 required for registration with the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC). The EFF is now registered with the IEC, after an objection to its registration by the Freedom Front Plus (FF+) was dismissed in September 2013.
Splinters and infightingEdit
In 2015, the EFF suspended MP Lucky Twala and expelled three MPs, Mpho Ramakatsa, Andile Mngxitama and Khanyisile Litchfield-Tshabalala. Mngxitama formed his own party, named Black First Land First (BLF), while Litchfield-Tshabalala joined the United Democratic Movement. Malema has been chiefly accused by former members of purging his critics to consolidate his power, thus ruling the party with an iron first. Malema acknowledged this criticism in a press conference and further went on to say, the party should have expelled more ill disciplined members.
The EFF "draws inspiration from the broad Marxist–Leninist tradition and Fanonian schools of thought in their analyses of the state, imperialism, culture and class contradictions in every society", according to one of its declarations.
It criticises the African National Congress and their primary opposition, the Democratic Alliance, for their allegedly pro-business stances, which it claims have sold out the black people of South Africa to capitalism as cheap labour. It promises to tackle corruption, provide quality social housing, and provide free primary healthcare and education for all, as well as proposing to expropriate stolen land, nationalise the mining and banking sectors, double welfare grants and the minimum wage, and end the proposed toll system for highways.
The EFF takes significant inspiration from Thomas Sankara in terms of both style and ideology. In a May 2014 column, the prominent EFF member Jackie Shandu declared his party a "proudly Sankarist formation".
The EFF has been vocal in its criticism of black business owners and black owners of mining companies in South Africa. In an address at the Oxford Union in November 2015, Malema spoke out against billionaire mining company owner Patrice Motsepe. Further protests in 2015, the EFF delivered demands that included the socialization of the mining sector and called for more explicit targets for the 26% BEE ownership required by law. The EFF is a vocal proponent of expanding the role of South African state owned enterprises in the country's economy.
Malema addressed a crowd in Marikana, Rustenburg in the platinum mining area, blaming mining companies and calling out platinum mining company Lonmin in particular, for poverty in the region.
In 2016, after local elections in South Africa, the EFF has suggested that they will back the Democratic Alliance in hung-metro areas, but would not be entering into a coalition with any political party in South Africa.
The EFF was the only parliamentary party that opposed the 2018 political party funding bill.
High-profile members of the Central Command Team include Floyd Shivambu, Fana Mokoena and Mbuyiseni Ndlozi (National Spokesperson). Controversial businessman Kenny Kunene joined the Central Command Team in July 2013 before resigning from the Central Command Team on 20 August 2013 and from the organisation on 26 August 2013. On 4 November 2013, it was announced that Dali Mpofu had left the African National Congress (ANC) after 33 years of membership and joined the EFF. Musician and actress Ntando Duma also publicly pledged allegiance to EFF in February 2019.
According to a November 2013 Ipsos survey, the party's supporters are younger than average, with 49% being younger than 24, overwhelmingly black (99%) and mostly male, with women representing only 33% of the support base. A disproportionate number of supporters live in Malema's home province of Limpopo (28%), while only 1% live in KwaZulu-Natal, a more populous province. A 2018 survey conducted by social research company Citizen Surveys found that around 70% of EFF supporters were between the ages of 18 - 34, overwhelmingly black (97%), mostly based in major metropolitan cities (48%), predominantly male (62%) with 43% of their support base located in Gauteng Province.
The party was expected to make an impact in the 2014 general election, taking between 4 per cent and 8 per cent of the national vote. This was potentially enough for the party to hold the balance of power in provinces where the governing African National Congress was in danger of losing its absolute majority. The ANC retained is absolute majority whilst the EFF got 6.35% of the vote in the 2014 election.
|Election||Total votes||Share of vote||Seats||+/–||Government|
25 / 400
44 / 400
National Council of ProvincesEdit
|Election||Total # of
7 / 90
11 / 90
|Eastern Cape||Free State||Gauteng||Kwazulu-Natal||Limpopo||Mpumalanga||North-West||Northern Cape||Western Cape|
On 6 August 2015 the EFF announced that it has secured a Constitutional court case for its Jacob Zuma campaign of "#PayBackTheMoney". The case was heard on the 9 February 2016. The Judgement was released by Chief Justice Mogoeng Mogoeng. The judgement stated that The President has violated the Constitution of South Africa, along with the Speaker of the National Assembly Baleka Mbete. The President was given 60 days to fulfill the requirements of the Public Protector Thuli Madonsela.
On 27 February 2018 the EFF tabled a motion in The National Assembly to amend the Constitution so as to allow for the expropriation of land without compensation. The motion, brought by the EFF leader Julius Malema, was adopted with a vote of 241 in support, and 83 against. The only parties who did not support the motion were the Democratic Alliance, Freedom Front Plus, Cope and the ACDP. Land Expropriation is one of the EFF's Seven cardinal pillars.
In 2018, the student wing of the EFF, the EFF Student Command won many universities across the country. The red berets defeated the ANC-aligned South African Students Congress (Sasco) at the Durban University of Technology, the University of Zululand and Mangosuthu University of Technology. They also won in Cape Town, the District Six, Mowbray and Bellville Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT) campuses with landslide victories, meaning they now are in charge of the institution's SRC. They also won the University of Cape Town. Peter Keetse, president of the EFFSC, said the win was a warning shot for what was going to happen in 2019 national general elections. He said the youth were the influencers of the future, “therefore, this is an indication of what is to follow”.
Criticisms and controversiesEdit
In October 2018, a group of 17 former EFF members and councillors in the Northern Cape accused the party's senior leadership of corruption and sexual exploitation of more junior female party members. Four months later two former female employees of the EFF claimed that party leadership intimidated and engaged in acts of bullying behaviour towards them and other party staff members.
In April 2019 a former member of the EFF's central command, Thembinkosi Rawula, accused senior party leaders of dictatorial leadership practices and of using party finances for personal benefit. The EFF denied Rawula's accusation and stated that they would sue him for defamation as well as make the party's financials public.
The EFF was found guilty of defamation of character in May 2019 by the South Gauteng High Court and ordered to pay R500,000 in damages to former Finance Minister Trevor Manuel. Manuel brought the EFF and its leader, Julius Malema, to court after they alleged that the appointment of Edward Kieswetter as commissioner of SARS by Manuel was the result of nepotism. Following the judgement Manuel stated that he would be donating the R500,000 in damages to victims of the VBS Mutual Bank scandal which the EFF is alleged to have participated in.
Following a string of court case losses for inciting supporters to commit acts of either intimidation (against Karima Brown), land invasion (AfriForum) or of defamation of character (against Trevor Manuel) the party was left with combined court costs amounting to almost R1 million.
A number of articles published by investigative journalists have accused the party of using their influence to earn improper payments from government suppliers in cities where the EFF has significant representative power. An investigation by the amaBhungane centre for investigative journalism stated that the EFF received R500,000 in kickbacks from a company in return for a R1.26 billion contract to manage a fleet of vehicles used by the City of Johannesburg with tacit acquiescence of the Democratic Alliance. Another investigation alleges that the party improperly benefited from the awarding of a fuel supply contract for the City of Tshwane netting the party R15 million from successful contractors.
VBS Mutual BankEdit
Following the publication of a South African Reserve Bank report into the collapse of VBS Mutual Bank implicating EFF deputy president Floyd Shivambu's brother media reports came out alleging that Shivambu received R10 million in illicit payments from VBS prior to it being placed under curatorship in March 2018. Prior to the publication of the Reserve Bank's report the EFF criticised the Reserve Bank for placing VBS under curatorship and accused it of victimising VBS on racial grounds. The EFF stated that it had seen no evidence that Shivambu received the R10 million and called for government to recapitalise VBS Mutual Bank whilst also taking legal action against those mentioned in the Reserve Bank report. A follow up investigation by the Daily Maverick alleged that the EFF illicitly received R1.8 million of VBS money through a network of proxy companies with the party's leadership (notably Shivambu and Malema) also illicitly reviving money though this network. After being approached by the Mail & Guardian for comment on his personal financial expenses Floyd Shivambu admitted that money from VBS, channeled through his brother, was used to buy his Range Rover Sport valued at R680,000.
A follow up investigation by the Daily Maverick found that R454,000 of VBS money was used to pay for the 2017 EFF birthday celebration. It also found that a total of R16.1 million was channeled through a Shivambu associated company largely for the benefit of the EFF. An additional investigation traced financial statements from an account that received VBS funds and allegedly controlled by Julius Malema; leading the author of the investigation to estimate that Malema received and directly benefited from R5.3-million illegally taken from VBS. Additional media reports in October 2019 alleged that the party received R4 million of VBS funds into a slush fund that was channeled to Malema via a company named Santaclara Trading.
A former member of the EFF's leadership accused the party leadership of accepting donations from VBS Mutual Bank prior to its collapse.
In mid-June 2016 a group calling themselves "Anonymous Africa", claiming to be associated with the hacktivist group Anonymous, perpetrated a DDoS attack on the EFF's website stating the reason for the attack was the party's "nationalist socialist rhetoric". The South African Communist Party also condemns this party.
Violence and bigotryEdit
Vusi Khoza, the party's candidate for Premier of KwaZulu-Natal, has a criminal conviction for his involvement in what was believed to be a xenophobic attack on foreigners at Albert Park, Durban in December 2009.
In January 2018, EFF Deputy President Floyd Shivambu congratulated the party supporters for causing damage to various H&M stores across South Africa due to a picture of a young black child wearing a green hoodie reading, "Coolest Monkey in the Jungle". A Vodacom store in Polokwane was damaged and looted by EFF members following a presentation by Corruption Watch at the 2018 Vodacom Awards which included an image depicting EFF leaders Malema and Shivambu as "abusers of Democracy".
In February 2019, after the SONA address in parliament by the SA President, EFF MP Marshall Dlamini physically assaulted a member of the presidential security team after a disagreement between EFF MPs and the security.
Actions against journalists and the mediaEdit
Journalist Ranjeni Munusamy lodged an affidavit in December 2018 detailing threatening remarks, intimidation, harassment and personal attacks made by party members, including Malema, towards her and other journalists targeted by the party. The affidavit was supported by the South African National Editors Forum and other notable South African journalists such as Max du Preez, Pauli VanWyk, Adriaan Jurgens Basson, and Barry Bateman. The EFF denied any involvement in attacks on Munusamy and other journalists.
South African political journalist Karima Brown was the target of verbal abuse and threats of violence by EFF supporters following the EFF's publication of her personal contact details. This led charges with the police and Equity Court being laid against the party amidst speculation that this instance might be in breach of South Africa's Electoral Code of Conduct. Parties in breach of the code risk having their registration to run in elections being revoked. Malema stated on the incident that journalists have no privileges whilst accusing Brown of being a state agent and denied that EFF supporters were making threatening remarks. The court found in favour of Brown and ruled that the EFF had contravened the South African electoral code by inciting its supports to harass Brown.
Following the publication of an article by the amaBhungane Centre for investigative journalism looking into allegations of corruption by the EFF the party controversially announced that it would be banning both amaBhungane and the Daily Maverick from its public events and announced that they would be treated an enemies of the party.
Racial and ethnic prejudiceEdit
Since its establishment the EFF has made a number of controversial racially or ethnically based statements about a number of South African minority groups. The EFF is widely criticised for inciting and perpetuating racism.
The South African Minority Rights Equality Movement initiated a court case against Malema for inciting racial sentiment by stating that a "majority of Indians are racist" at an EFF Youth Day rally in 2018.
The EFF was criticised by the South African Council of Churches, the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation, and the ANC for comparing Public Enterprises Minister Pravin Gordhan to a "dog" whilst protesting the Zondo Commission inquiry into government corruption. The EFF also accused the anti-corruption investigators of being members of an "Indian cabal" commenting on the presence of Indian South African's making up the investigative team. The EFF also accused Gordhan and his daughter of corruption. The EFF accusations were proven false and Gordhan laid charge of defamation against Malema stating that the EFF's "determined defence of corruption and the corrupt, using personal attacks, racism and alleged hate speech is not acceptable and must be challenged." The Equality Court found that the EFF was not guilty of hate speech in its statements relating to Gordhan.
ANC member and government minister Jackson Mthembu accused the EFF of being racist and having a "deep-seated hatred" for Indian South Africans whilst criticizing the party's pursuit of Gordhan whilst participating in a parliamentary debate.
Malema stated at a political rally in 2016 that “We are not calling for the slaughter of white people‚ at least for now". When asked for comment by a news agency, the ANC spokesperson, Zizi Kodwa stated that there will be no comment from the ANC, as "[h]e [Malema] was addressing his own party supporters." While still the ANCYL leader, Malema was taken to the Equality Court by AfriForum for repeatedly singing “dubul’ ibhunu”, which translate as “shoot the boer [white farmer]”. The ANC supported Malema, though AfriForum and the ANC reached a settlement before the appeal case was due to be argued in the Supreme Court of Appeal.
South Africa's Independent Electoral Commission disqualified EFF councillor Thabo Mabotja in the 2016 local elections due a tweet made by Mabotja calling for violence against white South Africans. The EFF welcomed the commission's decision and renounced Mabotja.
Julius Malema, leader of the Economic Freedom Fighters, stated at a political rally in 2018 that "Go After A White Man... We Are Cutting The Throat Of Whiteness" This led to the Democratic Alliance accusing the EFF's leader, Malema, of racism and not sharing the more tolerant views of South Africans broadly. The EFF later stated that the reference to the "throat of whiteness" was a metaphorical reference to destroying white privilege and was not referring or advocating harm to white people.
Following the death of former Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe EFF leader Julius Malema tweeted a number of controversial quotes from the late Mugabe that were interpreted as racially prejudiced towards white people. Most notable was the quote that "The only white man you can trust is a dead white man". The South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC) condemned the quote and stated that they would be taking Malema to court for allegedly spreading hate speech.
- "EFF". Archived from the original on 5 January 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2016 – via Facebook.
- "Economic Freedom Fighters Party reignites debate (in English)". Al Jazeera. 14 October 2013. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "Hundreds gather for EFF launch (in English)". News24. 13 October 2013. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Campbell, John (2016). Morning in South Africa. Indiana University Press. p. 187.
- Lewis, Megan (2016). Performing Whitely in the Postcolony: Afrikaners in South African Theatrical and Public Life. University of Iowa Press. p. 62.
- "ANC holds onto power in South Africa as other parties increase vote share". The Times of India. 11 May 2018.
- South Africa's Malema says more than 60 ANC MPs will turn on Zuma. Reuters. Authors - Ed Stoddard and Sisipho Skweyiya. Published 21 July 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- Social Changes in a Global World. p.66. Author - Ulrike Schuerkens. Published by SAGE. Published in London in 2017. Accessed via Google Books.
- The World Since 1945: An International History. p.535. 2nd edition. Authors - P. M. H. Bell and Mark Gilbert. Published by Bloomsbury in London. First published in 2001, 2nd edition in 2017.
- Chaos in parliament as party gets ejected for grilling Zuma over corruption in South Africa. Independent. Author - Lamiat Sabin. Published 13 February 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- South African lawmakers disrupt parliament and demand Zuma #PayBackTheMoney. AlJazeera. Published 22 August 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- South African parliament descends into chaos. Radio New Zealand. Published 13 February 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- "Red Tide: From 'economic freedom' to 'white genocide', extremism grabs the spotlight (in English)". Daily Maverick. 14 October 2013. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "South Africa's opposition EFF introduces bill to nationalise..." Reuters. 17 August 2018. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
- Meggan Saville (12 July 2013). "Malema launches his Economic Freedom Fighters". Dispatch Online. Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- Setumo Stone (11 July 2013). "Malema takes command of Economic Freedom Fighters". Business Day. Archived from the original on 14 July 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- SAPA (28 July 2013). "EFF readies for election registration as over 1 000 members recruited". The Times. Archived from the original on 30 July 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- Verashni Pillay (5 September 2013). "It's official: Malema's EFF is a political party". Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Genevieve Quintal (5 June 2015). "Litchfield-Tshabalala UDM's new national organiser". Archived from the original on 30 September 2015.
- "Declaration". effonline.org.
- "Economic Freedom Fighters on rise in South Africa". The Irish Times. 1 May 2014. Archived from the original on 6 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- Duval Smith, Alex (30 April 2014). "'Africa's Che Guevara': Thomas Sankara's legacy". British Broadcasting Corporation. London. Archived from the original on 1 November 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- Shandu, Jackie (22 May 2014). "The Sankarist makings of the EFF". Daily Maverick. Johannesburg. Archived from the original on 6 November 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- "Business Day". www.bdlive.co.za. Archived from the original on 29 December 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
- Jordaan, Buchule Raba And Nomahlubi. "Patrice Motsepe has no power‚ says Malema". Times LIVE. Archived from the original on 27 November 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
- John, Victoria. "Yes and no to EFF's list of demands". The M&G Online. Archived from the original on 28 November 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
- Lourie, Gugu (3 February 2019). "EFF Wants State To Create AI, Robotics And BioTechnology Firms". TechFinancials. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "The EFF`s 2019 election manifesto (IV) - DOCUMENTS | Politicsweb". www.politicsweb.co.za. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- Tatai, Sello. "SABC News - Malema blames mining companies for high levels of poverty:Thursday 7 July 2016". www.sabc.co.za. Archived from the original on 27 November 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
- "iafrica.com Juju wants death penalty". News.iafrica.com. Archived from the original on 1 September 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Malema wants death penalty #EFFlaunch | Economic Freedom Fighters - EFF". Economic Freedom Fighters. 13 October 2013. Archived from the original on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Feltham, Luke. "Malema says the EFF won't form coalitions, but will support DA in hung metros". The M&G Online. Archived from the original on 28 November 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
- Economic Freedom Fighters. "Central Command Team". effonline.org. Archived from the original on 12 August 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- Poloko Tau (21 August 2013). "'Sushi King' quits EFF leadership". Independent Online. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- SAPA (26 August 2013). "Kunene quits EFF". News24. Archived from the original on 29 August 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- "Dali Mpofu joins EFF - Cape Times". IOL.co.za. 4 November 2013. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
- "The supporter profiles of SA`s three largest parties". Politicsweb. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "Citizen Surveys: How many white EFF supporters exist, and 11 other stats". Citizen Surveys. 1 November 2018. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- "ANC wins 249 seats". News24. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- "2014 National and Provincial Elections Results - 2014 National and Provincial Election Results". IEC. Archived from the original on 10 May 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- "Results Summary - All Ballots" (PDF). elections.org.za. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- "Results Dashboard". www.elections.org.za. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- Emsie Ferreira (6 August 2015). "Lets meet in court, Malema tells Zuma". Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- Jan Gerber (27 February 2018). "National Assembly adopts motion on land expropriation without compensation". Archived from the original on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
- Kwandokuhle Njoli (30 September 2018). "Comrades see red as students back EFF on campus". Retrieved 12 October 2018.
- Natasha Marrian (29 July 2013). "Mantashe hits out at EFF for 'distorting the Freedom Charter'". Business Day. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
- reporter, Citizen (7 October 2018). "Expelled EFF members accuse Malema, Shivambu of corruption, want to work with Hawks". The Citizen. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
- Peter, Zamayirha (16 February 2019). "More women make claims of EFF bullying and abuse". CityPress. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- Lizeka Tandwa and Tshidi Madia (5 April 2019). "Former EFF leader accuses Malema, Shivambu of taking VBS donation, party denies claims". News24. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- Tandwa, Lizeka (10 April 2019). "Malema to sue Rawula, offers journalists access to EFF's financial records". News24. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
- Quintal, Genevieve (30 May 2019). "Court vindicates Trevor Manuel in defamation battle with EFF". BusinessLIVE. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- Modise, Kgomotso. "Challenge me, don't defame - Manuel to EFF in Kieswetter nepotism matter". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- Khumalo, Sibongile (31 May 2019). "Trevor Manuel: I don't need a cent of EFF money". Fin24. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- Watson, Amanda. "EFF wallows in legal debt of almost R1m". citizen.co.za. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
- "Malema and EFF get R15m in 'kickbacks' in Tshwane fuel scandal – report". citizen.co.za. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
- Micah Reddy and Stefaans Brümmer (29 November 2018). "Firm that won R1bn Jo'burg fleet contract paid Malema-EFF 'slush-fund' - amaBhungane". amabhungane.org. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- "Tender comrades part 1: Trailing the Juju tractor". amaBhungane. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
- amaBhungane, Stefaans Brummer & Micah Reddy for. "AMABHUNGANE: Tender Comrades Part Two: Tshwane tenderpreneur's R15m 'EFF tithe'". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
- Motau, Terry (10 October 2018). "The Great Bank Heist: Investigator's Report to the Prudential Authority" (PDF). South African Reserve Bank. p. 135. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
- Van Wyk, Pauli (11 October 2018). "The Shivambu Brothers and the Great VBS Heist". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
- Jika, Sabelo Skiti, Thanduxolo (12 October 2018). "PIC, VBS, Floyd and his baby brother". The M&G Online. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
- Ndlozi, Mbuyiseni Quintin (11 March 2018). "EFF STATEMENT ON VBS CURATORSHIP | EFF: Economic Freedom Fighters". Economic Freedom Fighters. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
- "Money was exchanged - but Floyd did not get any from VBS bank, says Malema". Retrieved 16 October 2018.
- Zintle, Mahlati (16 October 2018). "EFF calls for VBS to be recapitalised | IOL News". IOL. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
- Mvumvu, Zingisa (16 October 2018). "Malema: VBS allegations meant to 'discredit the EFF'". Dispatch Live. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
- Wyk, Pauli Van (21 November 2018). "VBS bank heist: EFF's family ties and moneyed connections". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
- Skiti, Thanduxolo Jika, Sabelo. "VBS's R680k paid for Floyd's wheels". The M&G Online. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- Wyk, Pauli Van. "SCORPIO: 'Cruising nicely' on VBS: EFF's Parties, Lies and Looted Money". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- Wyk, Pauli Van (8 September 2019). "SCORPIO: VBS Theft, Money Laundering & Life's Little Luxuries: Julius Malema's time of spending dangerously". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- "Over R4m in 'concerning' payments made into Malema slush fund – report". citizen.co.za. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
- "Julius Malema's 'slush fund' exposed". TimesLIVE. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
- "Malema linked to another company that had a VBS loan - report". News24. 13 October 2019. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
- "WATCH: 'VBS was meant to collapse and finish EFF' – Malema". News24. 3 May 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- Shanti Aboobaker (29 December 2013). "Numsa wary of 'capitalist' Malema". Sunday Independent. Archived from the original on 3 January 2014.
- Siphokazi Magadla (2013). "EFF & the Return of the Warrior Citizen". Thought Leader. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014.
- "EXCLUSIVE: Why Anonymous 'hacked' the SABC, Gupta websites". Fin24. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- "SACP supports ANC, condemns Julius Malema`s propagation of war in the strongest possible terms, calls on the police ?to act swiftly in terms of the rule of law". www.sacp.org.za. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
- EFF’s KZN man has criminal past Archived 22 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine, BHEKI MBANJWA, The Daily News, 2014
- Floyd Shivambu: Despicable Me Archived 24 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Sipho Hlongwane, The Daily Maverick, 2012
- Remembering Thomas Sankara, the EFF’s muse Archived 24 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Rebecca Davis, The Daily Maverick, 2013
- Elections Analysis: The Economic Freedom Fighters Archived 22 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Sonja Bornman, Feminist SA, 2013
- EFF: Two senior party officials accused of involvement in 2008 gang rape Archived 22 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Rebecca Davis, The Daily Maverick, 2013
- de Lange, Ilse (29 February 2016). "EFF's 'petrol bomb recipe' fuels Tuks fears". The Citizen. Archived from the original on 14 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- @FloydShivambu (13 January 2018). "That @hm nonsense of a clothing store is now facing consequences for its racism" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "H&M monkey hoodie sparks outrage for "racist" image - CBS News". CBS News. 8 January 2018. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- "Critics call for boycott of H&M over 'racist' advert - Daily Mail Online". Daily Mail. 8 January 2018. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- "H&M apologizes for using black child to sell 'coolest monkey' top". CNN. 8 January 2018. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- "H&M slammed as racist for 'monkey in the jungle' hoodie". CNBC. 8 January 2018. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- "H&M is apologizing for a product image called out as racist - Quartz". Quartz. 8 January 2018. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- "H&M apologises following backlash over 'racist' image of child model on website - The Independent". The Independent. 8 January 2018. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- "Shoppers slam H&M over 'racist' advert showing black youngster wearing a 'coolest monkey in the jungle' hoodie". The Sun. 8 January 2018. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- "H&M Faces Twitter Backlash for "Racist" Hoodie - Pret-a-Reporter". The Hollywood Reporter. 8 January 2018. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- Seleka, Ntwaagae (4 December 2018). "'Matter now closed' - EFF, Vodacom issue joint statement following unrest". News24. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Staff Writer (4 December 2018). "Why Vodacom met with the EFF". mybroadband.co.za. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Gerber, Jan (8 February 2019). "EFF MP slaps man after SONA". www.news24.com. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- Munusamy, Ranjeni (19 December 2018). "Supporting Affidavit: Navaranjeni Munusamy" (PDF). South African National Editors Forum. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Shange, Naledi (19 December 2018). "EFF denies involvement in attacks on journalists". www.timeslive.co.za. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- "Karima Brown vows to lay further complaints as EFF supporters continue to attack". African News Agency. 20 March 2016. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Karima Brown vows to lay further complaints as EFF supporters continue to attack | IOL News". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "'How do you hold an underground editor accountable ' – Malema on Karima Brown matter". News24. 6 March 2019. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- Davis, Rebecca. "REPORT: EFF court losses mount as Karima Brown wins battle, but faces criticism of her own". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
- "Malema and EFF get R15m in 'kickbacks' in Tshwane fuel scandal – report". citizen.co.za. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
- Maverick, Daily. "Editorial: This is What Panic Looks Like". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
- "Sanef 'appalled' by Malema's call to ban amaBhungane, Daily Maverick's Scorpio from EFF events". News24. 13 September 2019. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
- "Malema bans amaBhungane and Daily Maverick's Scorpio from EFF events: 'We shall treat them as enemies'". News24. 12 September 2019. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
- The EFF and the Question of National Unity Archived 13 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Duncan, Jane, SACSIS WEBSITE, 29 JAN, 2014
- Sain, Raahil (8 March 2016). "'EFF must #PayBackTheMoney for damage to varsities'". Archived from the original on 14 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Mngoma, Nosipho (18 June 2018). "Group to take #JuliusMalema to court for racist rant | IOL News". www.iol.co.za. The Mercury. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- "'No one is going to intimidate us' - EFF hits back at clergy and Ahmed Kathrada Foundation". News24. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
- "'EFF bullies' trying to 'hide their own shenanigans' - ANC chief whip Mthembu". News24. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
- "'Indian cabal' narrative is to protect the looting project". CityPress. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
- "Malema to Gordhan: I am not scared of the Indian cabal". eNCA. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Smit, Sarah. "Gordhan decries EFF attack on daughter". The M&G Online. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Jean le Roux, Kyle Cowan, Pieter du Toit and Adriaan Basson (28 November 2018). "FACT CHECKED: EFF's charges against Pravin Gordhan". News24. Retrieved 1 January 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Poplak, Richard. "SnowBank – BLEFF, Pravin Gordhan and the imaginary R6..." Daily Maverick. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Ndaba, Baldwin (26 November 2018). "Pravin Gordhan lays defamation charges against Malema | IOL News". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Sutherland, Roland (31 October 2019). "Pravin Gordhan vs Julius Malema". www.politicsweb.co.za. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
- "Judge slates Malema's 'juvenile' rant as EFF leader wins case against Gordhan". TimesLIVE. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
- Makinana, Andisiwe (17 July 2019). "'Of course, you are racist. You are,' Jackson Mthembu tells EFF MPs". TimesLIVE. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- van Diemen, Ethan (18 July 2019). "Cigarettes, corruption and racism: Why the EFF hates Gordhan, according to Jackson Mthembu". News24. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- "Malema slammed for comments on whites". ENCA. 8 November 2016. Archived from the original on 17 April 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
- "IEC disqualifies EFF councillor for racist tweet". eNCA. 29 August 2016. Archived from the original on 14 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "EFF councillor candidate disqualified after calling for whites to be 'hacked and killed' reports". News24. 29 July 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
- "'He's on his own' Juju says of Mabotja". eNCA. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
- "Electoral Court right to give Thabo Mabotja the chop". www.politicsweb.co.za. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
- "South Africa politician vows to 'remove' white mayor". Mail Online. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
- "'We are cutting the throat of whiteness' – Malema on plans to remove Trollip". News24. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
- "South Africans don't share Malema's racist views - Maimane | IOL News". Retrieved 11 March 2018.
- Thambo, Sinawo. "OPINIONISTA: Empty analysis will not deter the EFF from its core task — reaching out to the electorate". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- "Yep, it's hate speech, says SAHRC on Julius Malema's 'dead white man' tweet". TimesLIVE. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
- Grootes, Stephen. "ANALYSIS: Malema's Mugabe closing gambit". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
- "SAHRC to take Malema to court for hate speech". South African Human Rights Commission. 19 September 2019.
- Van Onselen, Gareth (29 July 2013). "Malema steals young communists' thunder". Business Day. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- Pillay, Verashni (21 February 2014). "EFF: You want land, a loan? You got it". Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- Julius Malema (preface), EFF 2014 Elections Manifesto, Economic Freedom Fighters.