List of Japanese supercentenarians

  (Redirected from Misao Okawa)

Japanese supercentenarians are citizens, residents or emigrants from Japan who have attained or surpassed 110 years of age. As of January 2015, the Gerontology Research Group (GRG) had validated the longevity claims of 318 Japanese supercentenarians, most of them women.[1] According to the Gerontology Research Group, the oldest verified Japanese and Asian person ever is Kane Tanaka, born 2 January 1903, aged 118 years, 160 days. Japan was also home to the world's oldest man ever, Jiroemon Kimura (1897–2013), who lived to age 116 years, 54 days.[2]

Chiyono Hasegawa (1896–2011), a resident of Saga, was one of hundreds of Japanese women to have lived past 110 years. She is pictured here in September 2010. She was the oldest person in Japan. She died at 115 years, 12 days.

100 oldest Japanese peopleEdit

  Deceased   Living

Rank Name Sex Birth date Death date Age Prefecture of birth Prefecture of death
or residence
01 Kane Tanaka[3] F 2 January 1903 Living 118 years, 160 days Fukuoka Fukuoka
02 Nabi Tajima[4] F 4 August 1900 21 April 2018 117 years, 260 days Kagoshima Kagoshima
03 Chiyo Miyako[4] F 2 May 1901 22 July 2018 117 years, 81 days Wakayama Kanagawa
04 Misao Okawa[4] F 5 March 1898 1 April 2015 117 years, 27 days Osaka Osaka
05 Tane Ikai[5] F 18 January 1879 12 July 1995 116 years, 175 days Aichi Aichi
06 Jiroemon Kimura[1] M 19 April 1897 12 June 2013 116 years, 54 days Kyoto Kyoto
07 Shigeyo Nakachi[4] F 1 February 1905 11 January 2021 115 years, 345 days Saga Saga
08 Shimoe Akiyama[4] F 19 May 1903 29 January 2019 115 years, 255 days (unknown) Aichi
09 Anonymous of Tokyo[4] F 15 March 1900 27 September 2015 115 years, 196 days (unknown) Tokyo
10 Shin Matsushita[4] F 30 March 1904 27 August 2019 115 years, 150 days Miyagi Miyagi
11 Mina Kitagawa[3] F 3 November 1905 19 December 2020 115 years, 46 days Shiga Shiga
12 Koto Okubo[1][6] F 24 December 1897 12 January 2013 115 years, 19 days Tokyo Kanagawa
13 Chiyono Hasegawa[7] F 20 November 1896 2 December 2011 115 years, 12 days Saga Saga
14 Kama Chinen[8] F 10 May 1895 2 May 2010 114 years, 357 days Okinawa Okinawa
15 Kiyoko Ishiguro[4] F 4 March 1901 5 December 2015 114 years, 276 days Tokyo Kanagawa
16 Yukie Hino[4] F 17 April 1902 13 January 2017 114 years, 271 days (unknown) Niigata
17 Hide Ohira[5] F 15 September 1880 9 May 1995 114 years, 236 days Wakayama Wakayama
18 Yone Minagawa[9] F 4 January 1893 13 August 2007 114 years, 221 days Fukuoka Fukuoka
19 Ura Koyama[5] F 30 August 1890 5 April 2005 114 years, 218 days Hiroshima Fukuoka
20 Iso Nakamura[4] F 23 April 1903 23 November 2017 114 years, 214 days Ishikawa Ishikawa
21 Mitsue Toyoda[4] F 15 February 1902 25 August 2016 114 years, 192 days (unknown) Ōita
22 Tase Matsunaga[5] F 11 May 1884 18 November 1998 114 years, 191 days Niigata Tokyo
Kame Ganeko[4] F 10 April 1905 18 October 2019 Okinawa Okinawa
24 Yukichi Chuganji[5] M 23 March 1889 28 September 2003 114 years, 189 days Fukuoka Fukuoka
25 Kame Nakamura[10] F 8 March 1898 12 September 2012 114 years, 188 days Okinawa Okinawa
26 Mitoyo Kawate[5] F 15 May 1889 13 November 2003 114 years, 182 days Hiroshima Hiroshima
27 Anonymous of Fukuoka[3] F 17 December 1906 Living 114 years, 176 days (unknown) Fukuoka
28 Toshie Yorimitsu[4] F 30 September 1901 28 February 2016 114 years, 151 days Kōchi Okinawa
30 Tae Ito[4] F 11 July 1903 13 November 2017 114 years, 125 days Iwate Iwate
29 Hama Yasukawa[4] F 19 January 1907 23 May 2021 114 years, 124 days Hyogo Hyogo
31 Chiyo Shiraishi[11] F 6 August 1895 19 November 2009 114 years, 105 days Fukushima Ibaraki
32 Asa Takii[5] F 28 April 1884 31 July 1998 114 years, 94 days Hiroshima Hiroshima
33 Waka Shirahama[5] F 23 March 1878 16 June 1992 114 years, 85 days Kagoshima Miyazaki
34 Suekiku Miyanaga[5] F 7 April 1884 20 June 1998 114 years, 74 days Kagoshima Kagoshima
35 Shige Hirooka[7] F 16 January 1897 29 March 2011 114 years, 72 days (unknown) Osaka
36 Fusa Tatsumi[3] F 25 April 1907 Living 114 years, 47 days (unknown) Osaka
37 Tomoe Iwata[4] F 25 March 1904 13 April 2018 114 years, 19 days Iwate Iwate
38 Tane Yonekura[4] F 2 May 1904 19 May 2018 114 years, 17 days (unknown) Kagoshima
39 Kura Bingo[4] F 20 October 1905 31 October 2019 114 years, 11 days (unknown) Nara
40 Yoshi Baba[3] F 3 June 1907 Living 114 years, 8 days (unknown) Yamanashi
41 Yoshiyo Bessho[4] F 1 April 1904 8 April 2018 114 years, 7 days Okayama Okayama
42 Hatsue Ono[10] F 31 October 1898 17 October 2012 113 years, 352 days Iwate Hokkaidō
43 Yasu Akino[5] F 1 March 1885 12 February 1999 113 years, 348 days Shizuoka Shizuoka
44 Kimi Asanuma[4] F 3 November 1905 22 August 2019 113 years, 292 days (unknown) Tokyo
45 Tsuneyo Toyonaga[12] F 21 May 1894 22 February 2008 113 years, 277 days Kochi Kōchi
46 Tomoji Tanabe[11] M 18 September 1895 19 June 2009 113 years, 274 days Miyazaki Miyazaki
47 Mitsue Nagasaki[1] F 18 September 1899 17 June 2013 113 years, 272 days Kumamoto Hiroshima
48 Shizue Nagata[4] F 25 July 1903 12 April 2017 113 years, 261 days (unknown) Kumamoto
Teru Oshiro[13] F 10 May 1904 26 January 2018 Okinawa Okinawa
50 Hatsuno Goto[4] F 1 September 1903 15 May 2017 113 years, 256 days Niigata Tokyo
51 Tsurue Amou[4] F 1 March 1904 6 November 2017 113 years, 250 days (unknown) Tokushima
52 Katsue Kurimoto[3] F 20 March 1907 22 November 2020 113 years, 247 days Tokushima Nara
53 Hisa Arai[4] F 10 September 1904 4 May 2018 113 years, 236 days Gifu Gifu
54 Shitsu Nakano[9] F 1 January 1894 19 August 2007 113 years, 230 days Fukuoka Fukuoka
55 Taka Tsuji[4] F 6 August 1906 4 March 2020 113 years, 211 days Saga Saga
56 Tsukimi Kishi[4] F 31 August 1905 19 March 2019 113 years, 200 days Tochigi Tochigi
57 Masazō Nonaka[4] M 25 July 1905 20 January 2019 113 years, 179 days Hokkaidō Hokkaidō
58 Kiku Usami[4] F 1 September 1904 26 February 2018 113 years, 178 days (unknown) Niigata
59 Tame Yamaguchi[4] F 20 March 1907 6 September 2020 113 years, 170 days Kagoshima Miyazaki
60 Masa Iseri[4] F 19 September 1902 5 March 2016 113 years, 168 days (unknown) Kumamoto
61 Koito Furukawa[1] F 8 May 1901 11 October 2014 113 years, 156 days (unknown) Tokushima
62 Katsue Hiraishi[4] F 9 June 1904 6 November 2017 113 years, 150 days Tokushima Tokushima
63 Yoshino Tanaka[1] F 3 March 1900 30 July 2013 113 years, 149 days Okinawa Nagasaki
64 Terue Ashida[1] F 20 September 1899 15 February 2013 113 years, 148 days Hyōgo Hyōgo
65 Kesa Yamada[4] F 30 March 1907 15 August 2020 113 years, 138 days Gunma Gunma
66 Komiya Miyazaki[7] F 20 August 1897 4 January 2011 113 years, 137 days (unknown) Hiroshima
67 Mise Ito[5] F 6 November 1890 18 March 2004 113 years, 133 days Shizuoka Shizuoka
68 Jun Kitamasu[1] F 2 March 1900 11 July 2013 113 years, 131 days Hiroshima Hiroshima
69 Ine Kizu[14] F 5 February 1908 Living 113 years, 126 days (unknown) Chiba
70 Kaku Yamanaka[12] F 11 December 1894 5 April 2008 113 years, 116 days Aichi Aichi
Motome Hirata[4] F 12 August 1906 6 December 2019 Nagano[15] Chiba
Setsuko Moriyama[4] F 5 November 1907 1 March 2021 Okinawa Okinawa
73 Kahoru Furuya[16][17] F 18 February 1908 Living 113 years, 113 days (unknown) Shizuoka
74 Sue Utagawa[5] F 19 January 1884 4 May 1997 113 years, 105 days Yamaguchi Yamaguchi
75 Niwa Kawamoto[5] F 5 August 1863 16 November 1976 113 years, 103 days (unknown) Shiga
76 Tome Takaoka[10] F 1 January 1899 12 April 2012 113 years, 102 days Osaka Ibaraki
77 Masayo Ito[4] F 1 October 1902 6 January 2016 113 years, 97 days (unknown) Miyagi
78 Nahi Yonamine[18][19] F 9 March 1908 Living 113 years, 94 days (unknown) Okinawa
79 Kame Takamiyagi[10] F 10 June 1899 10 September 2012 113 years, 92 days Okinawa Okinawa
80 Natsuyo Kinase[4] F 30 October 1906 26 January 2020 113 years, 88 days Miyagi Kanagawa
81 Chiyono Ohta[8] F 1 November 1896 25 January 2010 113 years, 85 days Miyagi Miyagi
82 Sumie Yabune[3] F 5 February 1907 23 April 2020 113 years, 78 days Wakayama Wakayama
83 Kano Ebara[3] F 30 March 1907 14 June 2020 113 years, 76 days (unknown) Okayama
84 Mie Ishiguro[5] F 2 June 1888 14 August 2001 113 years, 73 days Hokkaidō Hokkaidō
85 Hina Shikawatari[10] F 1 January 1899 15 February 2012 113 years, 45 days (unknown) Ishikawa
86 Kuni Onose[4] F 31 December 1904 5 February 2018 113 years, 36 days (unknown) Ibaraki
87 Yoshino Ide[11] F 1 January 1896 28 January 2009 113 years, 27 days (unknown) Hyōgo
88 Ito Konno Kinase[5] F 31 December 1889 24 January 2003 113 years, 24 days Fukushima United States
89 Tase Hayasaka[5] F 1 July 1885 23 July 1998 113 years, 22 days Miyagi Niigata
90 Tane Shimada[4] F 25 September 1903 16 October 2016 113 years, 21 days (unknown) Saitama
91 Kou Iijima[11] F 25 March 1896 22 March 2009 112 years, 362 days (unknown) Chiba
Kitsuyo Yamamoto[4] F 12 March 1902 9 March 2015 (unknown) Shimane
93 Chitetsu Watanabe[3] M 5 March 1907 23 February 2020 112 years, 355 days Niigata Niigata
94 Yaoe Koda[7] F 1 July 1898 9 June 2011 112 years, 343 days Kōchi Kōchi
95 Sugino Tamai[4] F 9 March 1902 14 February 2015 112 years, 342 days Shiga Hyōgo
96 Matsu Kayo[5] F 9 January 1886 13 December 1998 112 years, 338 days Okinawa Okinawa
97 Chikao Beppu[8] F 28 March 1897 17 February 2010 112 years, 326 days Kagoshima Kagoshima
98 Toyo Endo[5] F 13 February 1892 3 January 2005 112 years, 325 days Shizuoka Shizuoka
99 Kikue Tanaka[3] F 25 February 1907 15 January 2020 112 years, 324 days Kagoshima Kagoshima
100 Matsuno Oikawa[5] F 20 February 1889 3 January 2002 112 years, 317 days Iwate Iwate

BiographiesEdit

Yukichi ChuganjiEdit

Yukichi Chuganji (中願寺 雄吉; Chūganji Yūkichi, 23 March 1889 – 28 September 2003) was a Japanese silkworm breeder, instructor in the agricultural specialty, bank employee and community welfare officer, and at the time of his death at age 114 years, 27 weeks the 4th oldest Japanese person ever and oldest Japanese man ever (although the claimed 120-year-old Shigechiyo Izumi was still believed to have been older), surpassing Denzo Ishizaki by almost 2 years, before being surpassed by Jiroemon Kimura on 26 October 2011, and the world's oldest living person (since American woman Mae Harrington's death on 29 December 2002), being the first verified man to be the oldest living person after the pending 112-year-old James King's death on 5 June 1967. However, Chuganji was only verified as the oldest living man (since Italian World War I-veteran Antonio Todde's death on 3 January 2002), as the oldest living person was believed to be Kamato Hongo of Kagoshima, who claimed to be almost one and a half-year older but is nowadays debunked as evidence suggests she was most likely at least four years younger than she claimed.

Chuganji did not like to eat vegetables but liked beef, pork and chicken, and daily ate toffee and drank a glass of milk and the occasional apple juice and only drank alcohol in moderation, which he believed as the secrets to a long life. During the last years of his life, he had failing eye sight and was bedridden.

Chuganji, who was the 6th Japanese man to become a supercentenarian, became the oldest living Japanese man after Sadayoshi Tanabe's death on 18 January 2000 and on 3 January 2002 (the same day as he became the world's oldest living man), after Matsuno Oikawa's death, also the oldest living Japanese person (although Kamato Hongo was believed to be older), and finally also the oldest living person in the world on 29 December 2002. Just 12 weeks later, on 23 March 2003, his 114th birthday, Chuganji became the first Japanese man, and only the second man in the world after 115-year-old Danish-American Christian Mortensen who died almost 5 years earlier, to become at least 114 years old, and on 6 June 2003 (upon 111-year-old Norio Kawada's death) the only living Japanese male supercentenarian. He died of natural causes at age 114 years, 27 weeks, the evening of Sunday 28 September 2003, after being served a glass of apple juice by his 74-year-old daughter who was his only living child (as he outlived all his 4 sons),[20] and was succeeded as the world's oldest living person by Hiroshima woman Mitoyo Kawate, as the world's oldest living person by Spaniard Joan Riudavets and as Japan's oldest living man by Kameni Nakamura, who celebrated his 109th birthday just 5 days later and died on 20 May 2004 at age 109 years, 230 days; the first Japanese man who became a supercentenarian after Chuganji's death was Kohachi Shigetaka (10 May 1895 – 3 July 2005). Besides 5 children, Chuganji also had 7 grandchildren and 12 great-grandchildren.

Denzo IshizakiEdit

Denzō Ishizaki (石崎 伝蔵, Ishizaki Denzō, 20 October 1886 (or 1884?) – 29 April 1999) was an elementary school teacher and town assembly member in his hometown Kansago, Ibaraki Prefecture. At the time of his death, Ishizaki was the oldest living Japanese man for over two years after 112-year-old Gengan Tonaki's death on 24 January 1997, and later also the world's oldest living man for almost 18 weeks after 113-year-old American Walter Richardson's death on 25 December 1998 and, for almost 11 weeks after Yasu Akino's death on 12 February 1999, Japan's oldest living person as well as the 9th oldest living person in the world.[21] He died of multiple organ failure on 29 April 1999 at age 112 years, 191 days,[22] and was the third Japanese man to become a supercentenarian, after Eiju Tsuru and Gengan Tonaki, and (although the claimed 120-year-old Shigechiyo Izumi still was believed to be older) the oldest Japanese man ever, beating Gengan Tonaki's record by just 15 weeks, before October 2001 when his record was broken by Yukichi Chuganji. However, Ishizaki claimed to be two years older and thereby ten days older than Gengan Tonaki, as his birth register which shows a birth year of 1886 rather than 1884 was "delayed by two years".[23]

Ishizaki was succeeded as the oldest living man by Spaniard Antonio Urrea-Hernandez (born 18 February 1888), as Japan's oldest living person by Kayo Fujii (born 12 March 1888) and as Japan's oldest living man by Sadayoshi Tanabe (who was exactly 2 years younger), making Ishizaki the last known living man as well as Japanese person born before 1888.

Nabi TajimaEdit

Nabi Tajima (田島 ナビ, Tajima Nabi, 4 August 1900 – 21 April 2018)[24][25][26] succeeded Violet Brown as the world's oldest person for 217 days after Brown's death on 16 September 2017. She was the last person verified as being born in the 19th century.[27] She died at age 117 years and 260 days and is the fourth oldest person ever.

Tajima was born and died on the small island of Kikaijima, about halfway between Okinawa and the main Japanese islands. Her husband, Tominishi Tajima (田島 富二子), died at the age of 93 in 1991.[28][29] She had nine children, seven sons and two daughters,[28] and in September 2017 she was reported to have had around 160 descendants, including great-great-great-grandchildren.[30] She stated that her longevity was due to sleeping soundly and eating delicious food.[27] Guinness World Records was planning to certify Tajima as the world's oldest person, but she died at a nursing home in Kikai before they could do so.[31][32] She was the last member of the Lost Generation.

Masazō NonakaEdit

Masazō Nonaka (野中 正造, Nonaka Masazō, 25 July 1905 – 20 January 2019) had been, at the time of his death, Japan's oldest living man since October 2016,[33] and the world's oldest living man since January 2018.[34] Nonaka was also the oldest person ever born in Hokkaido.

Nonaka had two brothers and three sisters; he married Hatsuno Nonaka in 1931. They had five children, of whom three were living as of January 2019.[35] He ran the family onsen, which opened in 1905, and spent most of his time in a wheelchair, crediting his longevity to eating sweets and relaxing in the hot springs.[36][37] Nonaka died at home of natural causes, at 1:30 am on 20 January 2019, aged 113 years, 179 days.[35][38]

Misao OkawaEdit

Misao Okawa (大川 ミサヲ, Ōkawa Misao, 5 March 1898 – 1 April 2015) was the world's oldest living person from the death of 116-year-old Japanese man Jiroemon Kimura on 12 June 2013[39] until her own death on 1 April 2015.[40] She was the world's oldest living woman since the death of 115-year-old Japanese woman Koto Okubo on 12 January 2013 until 1 April 2015.[41] She was the oldest verified Japanese and Asian person ever, until being exceed the record by Nabi Tajima in 2017, and then Kane Tanaka in 2020.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Wikkerink, Marco; Kroczek, Waclaw Jan (1 January 2015). "GRG Database by Nation". Gerontology Research Group. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
  2. ^ いつまでも「輝く宝」で 木村次郎右衛門さん告別式 [Jiroemon Kimura's funeral – a sparkling jewel forever]. Kyoto Shimbun (in Japanese). 14 June 2013. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Epstein, Louis; Young, Robert; Adams, Johnny; Muir, Mark (22 February 2021). "GRG World Supercentenarian Rankings List – Validated Living Supercentenarians". Gerontology Research Group. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an Epstein, Louis; Young, Robert; Adams, Johnny; Muir, Mark (4 March 2021). "GRG World Supercentenarian Rankings List – Validated Deceased Supercentenarians". Gerontology Research Group. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Verified supercentenarian cases – Japan". GRG. 10 April 2007. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  6. ^ "World's oldest woman dies at 115 in Japan". Fox News. Associated Press. 13 January 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d "Deaths for 2011 (in Chronological Order)". GRG. 17 November 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  8. ^ a b c "Deaths for 2010 (in Chronological Order)". GRG. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  9. ^ a b "Deaths for 2007 (in Chronological Order)". GRG. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d e "Deaths for 2012 (in Chronological Order)". GRG. 4 November 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  11. ^ a b c d "Deaths for 2009 (in Chronological Order)". GRG. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  12. ^ a b "Deaths for 2008 (in Chronological Order)". GRG. 1 July 2013. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  13. ^ 113歳、大城テルさん死去 沖縄県内最高齢 [Mrs. Teru Ohiro died at 113, the oldest person in Okinawa Prefecture]. Ryūkyū Shimpō (in Japanese). 29 January 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  14. ^ "令和2年度老人の日記念行事「百歳高齢者に対する記念品贈呈」について" [Reiwa Commemorative Event for the 100-year-old Elderly] (in Japanese). Chiba Prefecture. 16 September 2020. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
  15. ^ https://english.kyodonews.net/news/2019/04/c7a66c879392-feature-from-meiji-to-reiwa-japans-centenarians-provide-window-to-past.html
  16. ^ "県内最高齢者の死去" [Death of the oldest person in the prefecture] (in Japanese). Shizuoka Prefecture. 23 December 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  17. ^ "敬老の日 静岡県内最高齢は伊豆の国市内の112歳の女性" [Respect of the Aged Day The oldest woman in Shizuoka Prefecture is an 112-year-old woman in Izunokuni City] (in Japanese). yahoo.co.jp. 21 September 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  18. ^ "令和2年「老人の日・老人週間」について" [Reiwa 2nd Year "Old People's Day and Old People's Week"] (PDF) (in Japanese). Okinawa Prefecture. 15 September 2020. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  19. ^ "北中城村の最高齢者" [The oldest in Kitanakashiro Village] (in Japanese). vill.kitanakagusuku.lg.jp. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  20. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3147888.stm
  21. ^ "Deaths Elsewhere – Denzo Ishizaki". The Baltimore Sun. 2 May 1999. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  22. ^ "DENZO ISHIZAKI". Orlando Sentinel. 30 April 1999. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  23. ^ http://www.kawamata.co.jp/utyu/miti_1.html
  24. ^ Schumann, Rebecka (9 June 2014). "Misao Okawa, The World's Oldest Woman, And 39 Other Female Supercentenarians". International Business Times. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  25. ^ "Worlds oldest age 117-year-old Tashima Navi died". Archived from the original on 21 April 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  26. ^ Guinness World Records 2015. Guinness World Records. 11 September 2014. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-9088-4370-8.
  27. ^ a b Daniel Politi, The Last Known Person Born in the 19th Century Dies in Japan at 117, Slate Magazine, 22 April 2018.
  28. ^ a b 「ナビばあちゃんちばりよー」/喜界町の田島さんに県祝い状 ["Grandma Nabi" – Kikai City holds provincial celebration for Mrs. Tajima] (in Japanese). 16 September 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  29. ^ 子孫140人…発酵飲料好み、よく食べ 国内最高齢117歳の田島ナビさん (in Japanese)
  30. ^ 117歳 世界一へ県民栄誉検討 田島ナビさんを知事訪問 鹿児島県喜界町 Archived 28 October 2017 at archive.today (in Japanese)
  31. ^ World’s oldest woman misses record, The World News, 22 April 2018
  32. ^ Horton, Alex (22 April 2018). "The world's oldest person died at 117. She was the last known person born in the 19th century". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
  33. ^ 国内最高齢112歳の男性死去 東京の吉田正光さん. 産経ニュース (in Japanese). 産経新聞. 15 December 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  34. ^ http://grg.org/GRGNews2019.html
  35. ^ a b Japan’s Masazo Nonaka, declared world’s oldest living man in 2018, dies aged 113
  36. ^ "World's oldest man revealed as 112-year-old Masazo Nonaka". news.sky.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  37. ^ "The Key to Longevity for the World's Oldest Man Alive? Sumo Wrestling and Hot Springs". Time. Associated Press. 11 April 2018. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
  38. ^ "World's Oldest Man, Who Loved Sweets and Lived at a Hot Springs Inn, Dies in Japan at 113". PEOPLE.com. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  39. ^ Jiroemon Kimura, Oldest Man in Record History dies at age 116 ay Business Week.com
  40. ^ Cite error: The named reference nbc was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  41. ^ Ryall, Julian (14 January 2013). "Oldest woman in the world dies". The Telegraph. Tokyo: Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 28 January 2013.