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The Prime Minister of Italy, officially President of the Council of Ministers, is the political leader of Italy since 1861. The Palazzo Chigi in Rome is the official residence of the Prime Minister.[1]

The Prime Minister is the President of the Council of Ministers (which holds effective executive power) and he must receive a vote of approval from it to execute most political activities. The office is similar to those in most other parliamentary systems, but the leader of the Italian government is not authorized to request the dissolution of the Parliament or to dismiss the ministers.

The office was established by Articles 92 through to 96 of the current Constitution of Italy. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic after each general election. Commonly referred to in Italy as Premier, the right title of the office holder is Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri, or just Presidente del Consiglio. The formal Italian order of precedence lists the office as being ceremonially the fourth most important Italian state office.

Contents

HistoryEdit

The office was first established in 1848 in Italy's predecessor state, the Kingdom of Sardinia, although it was not mentioned in the constitution, the Albertine Statute. The candidate for office was appointed by the king and presided over a very unstable political system. In its first 60 years of existence (1861–1921), Italy changed its prime minister 37 times. Regarding this situation, the first goal of Benito Mussolini, appointed in 1922, was to abolish the Parliament's ability to put him to a vote of no confidence, thus basing his power on the will of the king and the National Fascist Party alone. With the proclamation of the Italian Republic in 1946, the office received constitutional recognition and 26 men assumed the office in 70 years.

Prime Ministers of ItalyEdit

Presidents of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)Edit

Parties:

  • 1861–1912: (two-party system)

  Historical Right   Historical Left

  • 1912–1922: (multiparty system)

  Liberal Union   Radical Party   Reformist Socialist Party   Military

  • 1922–1943: (single-party state)

  National Fascist Party

  • 1943–1946: (multiparty system)

  Labour Democratic Party   Action Party   Christian Democracy

Governments:   Rightist coalition   Leftist coalition   Liberal coalition   Fascist   Military   Mixed coalition

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Tenure
(Years and days)
Party Government Composition Legislature King
  Camillo Benso,
Conte di Cavour

(1810–1861)
23 March
1861
6 June
1861†
75 days Historical Right Cavour IV Right VIII
(1861)
Victor Emmanuel II
 
(1861–1878)
  Bettino Ricasoli
(1809–1880)
12 June
1861
3 March
1862
264 days Historical Right Ricasoli I Right
  Urbano Rattazzi
(1808–1873)
3 March
1862
8 December
1862
280 days Historical Left Rattazzi I RightLeft
  Luigi Carlo Farini
(1812–1866)
8 December
1862
24 March
1863
106 days Historical Right Farini Right
  Marco Minghetti
(1818–1886)
24 March
1863
28 September
1864
1 year, 188 days Historical Right Minghetti I Right
  General
Alfonso Ferrero la Marmora
(1804–1878)
28 September
1864
31 December
1865
1 year, 265 days Historical Right La Marmora II Right
31 December
1865
20 June
1866
La Marmora III IX
(1865)
  Bettino Ricasoli
(1809–1880)
20 June
1866
10 April
1867
294 days Historical Right Ricasoli II Government of National Unity
(RightLeft)
  Urbano Rattazzi
(1808–1873)
10 April
1867
27 October
1867
200 days Historical Left Rattazzi II RightLeft X
(1867)
  Luigi Federico Menabrea
(1809–1896)
27 October
1867
5 January
1868
1 year, 48 days Historical Right Menabrea I Right
5 January
1868
13 May
1869
Menabrea II
13 May
1869
14 December
1869
Menabrea III
  Giovanni Lanza
(1810–1882)
14 December
1869
10 July
1873
3 years, 208 days Historical Right Lanza Right XI
(1870)
  Marco Minghetti
(1818–1886)
10 July
1873
25 March
1876
2 years, 259 days Historical Right Minghetti II Right XII
(1874)
  Agostino Depretis
(1813–1887)
25 March
1876
25 December
1877
1 year, 364 days Historical Left Depretis I Left XIII
(1876)
26 December
1877
24 March
1878
Depretis II Umberto I
 
(1878–1900)
  Benedetto Cairoli
(1825–1889)
24 March
1878
19 December
1878
270 days Historical Left Cairoli I Left
  Agostino Depretis
(1813–1887)
19 December
1878
14 July
1879
214 days Historical Left Depretis III Left
  Benedetto Cairoli
(1825–1889)
14 July
1879
25 November
1879
1 year, 319 days Historical Left Cairoli II Left
25 November
1879
29 May
1881
Cairoli III XIV
(1880)
  Agostino Depretis
(1813–1887)
29 May
1881
25 May
1883
6 years, 61 days Historical Left Depretis IV Left
25 May
1883
30 March
1884
Depretis V XV
(1882)
30 March
1884
29 June
1885
Depretis VI
29 June
1885
4 April
1887
Depretis VII XVI
(1886)
4 April
1887
29 July
1887†
Depretis VIII
  Francesco Crispi
(1819–1901)
29 July
1887
9 March
1889
3 years, 192 days Historical Left Crispi I Left
9 March
1889
6 February
1891
Crispi II XVII
(1890)
  Antonio Starabba,
Marchese di Rudinì

(1839–1908)
6 February
1891
15 May
1892
1 year, 99 days Historical Right Rudinì I LeftRight
  Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
15 May
1892
15 December
1893
1 year, 214 days Historical Left Giolitti I Left XVIII
(1892)
  Francesco Crispi
(1819–1901)
15 December
1893
14 June
1894
2 years, 86 days Historical Left Crispi III LeftRight
14 June
1894
10 March
1896
Crispi IV XIX
(1895)
  Antonio Starabba,
Marchese di Rudinì

(1839–1908)
10 March
1896
11 July
1896
2 years, 111 days Historical Right Rudinì II Right
with Left's external support
11 July
1896
14 December
1897
Rudinì III
14 December
1897
1 June
1898
Rudinì IV LeftRight XX
(1897)
1 June
1898
29 June
1898
Rudinì V Right
with Left's external support
  General
Luigi Pelloux
(1839–1924)
29 June
1898
14 May
1899
1 year, 360 days Military Pelloux I LeftMilitary
14 May
1899
24 June
1900
Pelloux II LeftRightMilitary
  Giuseppe Saracco
(1821–1907)
24 June
1900
15 February
1901
236 days Historical Left Saracco LeftRight XXI
(1900)
Victor Emmanuel III
 
(1900–1946)
  Giuseppe Zanardelli
(1826–1903)
15 February
1901
3 November
1903
2 years, 261 days Historical Left Zanardelli LeftRight
  Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
3 November
1903
12 March
1905
1 year, 129 days Historical Left Giolitti II LeftRight
with PSI's external support
XXII
(1904)
  Tommaso Tittoni
(1855–1931)
12 March
1905
28 March
1905
16 days Historical Right Tittoni LeftRight
  Alessandro Fortis
(1842–1909)
27 March
1905
24 December
1905
318 days Historical Left Fortis I LeftRight
24 December
1905
8 February
1906
Fortis II
  Sidney Sonnino
(1847–1922)
8 February
1906
29 May
1906
110 days Historical Right Sonnino I LeftRightRadicals
  Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
29 May
1906
11 December
1909
3 years, 196 days Historical Left Giolitti III LeftRight
  Sidney Sonnino
(1847–1922)
11 December
1909
31 March
1910
110 days Historical Right Sonnino II LeftRight XXIII
(1909)
  Luigi Luzzatti
(1841–1927)
31 March
1910
30 March
1911
364 days Historical Right Luzzatti LeftRight
  Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
30 March
1911
21 March
1914
2 years, 356 days Liberal Union Giolitti IV ULPR
  Antonio Salandra
(1853–1931)
21 March
1914
5 November
1914
2 years, 89 days Liberal Union Salandra I UL XXIV
(1913)
5 November
1914
18 June
1916
Salandra II ULPRI
  Paolo Boselli
(1838–1932)
18 June
1916
30 October
1917
1 year, 134 days Liberal Union Boselli Government of National Unity
(ULPRUECIPSRI)
  Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
(1860–1952)
30 October
1917
23 June
1919
1 year, 236 days Liberal Union Orlando Government of National Unity
(ULPRUECIPSRI)
  Francesco Saverio Nitti
(1868–1953)
23 June
1919
21 May
1920
358 days Radical Party Nitti I ULPLDPPIPRPSRI
21 May
1920
15 June
1920
Nitti II ULPLDPPIPR XXV
(1919)
  Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
15 June
1920
4 July
1921
1 year, 19 days Liberal Union Giolitti V ULPLDPPIPDSIPRPSRI
  Ivanoe Bonomi
(1873–1951)
4 July
1921
26 February
1922
237 days Italian Reformist
Socialist Party
Bonomi I PPIPLIPLDPDSIPSRI XXVI
(1921)
  Luigi Facta
(1861–1930)
26 February
1922
1 August
1922
247 days Liberal Union/
Italian Liberal Party
Facta I PPIPLIPLDPDSIPSRIPA
1 August 1922 31 October 1922 Facta II PPIPLIPLDPDSIPSRI
  Duce
Benito Mussolini
(1883–1945)
31 October
1922
25 July
1943
20 years, 267 days National Fascist Party Mussolini PPIPLIPDSIPNFANI
PNF XXVII
(1924)
XXVIII
(1929)
XXIX
(1934)
XXX
(no election)
  Marshal
Pietro Badoglio
(1871–1956)
25 July
1943
24 April
1944
329 days Military Badoglio I IndependentsDCPLI Abolished
Parliament
24 April
1944
18 June
1944
Badoglio II National Liberation Committee
(DCPCIPLIPSIUPPdAPDL)
  Ivanoe Bonomi
(1873–1951)
18 June
1944
12 December
1944
1 year, 1 day Labour Democratic Party Bonomi II National Liberation Committee
(DCPCIPLIPSIUPPdAPDL)
12 December
1944
19 June
1945
Bonomi III National Council
  Ferruccio Parri
(1890–1981)
21 June
1945
8 December
1945
172 days Action Party Parri National Liberation Committee
(DCPCIPLIPSIUPPdAPDL)
  Alcide De Gasperi
(1881–1954)
10 December
1945
13 July
1946
212 days Christian Democracy De Gasperi I National Liberation Committee
(DCPCIPLIPSIUPPdAPDL)
Umberto II
 
(1946)

Presidents of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (1946–present)Edit

Parties:

  • 1946–1994: (multiparty system)

  Christian Democracy   Republican Party   Socialist Party   Independent

  • 1994–2018: (two-coalition system)

  Centre-right (FI/PdL)   Centre-left (Ulivo/PD)

  • 2018–present: (three-coalition system)

  Independent

Coalitions:   Centrist coalition   Centre-right coalition   Centre-left coalition   Populist coalition   Mixed coalition

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Tenure
(Years and days)
Party Government Composition Legislature President
  Alcide De Gasperi
(1881–1954)
13 July
1946
2 February
1947
7 years, 38 days Christian Democracy De Gasperi II National Liberation Committee
(DCPSIUPPCIPRI)
Constituent
Assembly

(1946)
Enrico
De Nicola

 
(1946–1948)
2 February
1947
31 May
1947
De Gasperi III National Liberation Committee
(DCPSIUPPCI)
31 May
1947
23 May
1948
De Gasperi IV Centrism
(DCPSDIPLIPRI)
23 May
1948
27 January
1950
De Gasperi V I
(1948)
Luigi Einaudi
 
(1948–1955)
27 January
1950
26 July
1951
De Gasperi VI Centrism
(DCPSDIPRI)
26 July
1951
16 July
1953
De Gasperi VII Centrism
(DCPRI)
16 July
1953
17 August
1953
De Gasperi VIII DC II
(1953)
  Giuseppe Pella
(1902–1981)
17 August
1953
18 January
1954
154 days Christian Democracy Pella DC
  Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
18 January
1954
10 February
1954
23 days Christian Democracy Fanfani I DC
  Mario Scelba
(1901–1991)
10 February
1954
6 July
1955
1 year, 146 days Christian Democracy Scelba Centrism
(DCPSDIPLI)
  Antonio Segni
(1891–1972)
6 July
1955
19 May
1957
1 year, 317 days Christian Democracy Segni I Centrism
(DCPSDIPLI)
Giovanni
Gronchi

 
(1955–1962)
  Adone Zoli
(1887–1960)
19 May
1957
1 July
1958
1 year, 43 days Christian Democracy Zoli DC
  Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
1 July
1958
15 February
1959
229 days Christian Democracy Fanfani II Centrism
(DCPSDI)
III
(1958)
  Antonio Segni
(1891–1972)
15 February
1959
25 March
1960
1 year, 39 days Christian Democracy Segni II DC
  Fernando Tambroni
(1901–1963)
25 March
1960
26 July
1960
123 days Christian Democracy Tambroni DC
with MSI's external support
  Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
26 July
1960
21 February
1962
2 years, 330 days Christian Democracy Fanfani III DC
21 February
1962
21 June
1963
Fanfani IV Centrism
(DCPSDIPRI
with PSI's external support)
Antonio Segni
 
(1962–1964)
  Giovanni Leone
(1908–2001)
21 June
1963
4 December
1963
166 days Christian Democracy Leone I DC IV
(1963)
  Aldo Moro
(1916–1978)
4 December
1963
22 July
1964
4 years, 203 days Christian Democracy Moro I Organic Centre-left
(DCPSIPSDIPRI)
22 July
1964
23 February
1966
Moro II Giuseppe
Saragat

 
(1964–1971)
23 February
1966
24 June
1968
Moro III
  Giovanni Leone
(1908–2001)
24 June
1968
12 December
1968
171 days Christian Democracy Leone II DC V
(1968)
  Mariano Rumor
(1915–1990)
12 December
1968
5 August
1969
1 year, 237 days Christian Democracy Rumor I Organic Centre-left
(DCPSUPRI)
5 August
1969
27 March
1970
Rumor II DC
27 March
1970
6 August
1970
Rumor III Organic Centre-left
(DCPSIPSDIPRI)
  Emilio Colombo
(1920–2013)
6 August
1970
17 February
1972
1 year, 195 days Christian Democracy Colombo Organic Centre-left
(DCPSIPSDIPRI)
  Giulio Andreotti
(1919–2013)
17 February
1972
26 June
1972
1 year, 140 days Christian Democracy Andreotti I DC Giovanni
Leone

 
(1971–1978)
26 June
1972
7 July
1973
Andreotti II Centrism
(DCPSDIPLI)
VI
(1972)
  Mariano Rumor
(1915–1990)
7 July
1973
14 March
1974
1 year, 139 days Christian Democracy Rumor IV Organic Centre-left
(DCPSIPSDIPRI)
14 March
1974
23 November
1974
Rumor V Organic Centre-left
(DCPSIPSDI)
  Aldo Moro
(1916–1978)
23 November
1974
12 February
1976
1 year, 249 days Christian Democracy Moro IV Centrism
(DCPRI)
12 February
1976
29 July
1976
Moro V DC
  Giulio Andreotti
(1919–2013)
29 July
1976
11 March
1978
3 years, 6 days Christian Democracy Andreotti III Historic Compromise
(DC with PCI's external support)
VII
(1976)
11 March
1978
20 March
1979
Andreotti IV Sandro Pertini
 
(1978–1985)
20 March
1979
4 August
1979
Andreotti V Centrism
(DCPSDIPRI)
  Francesco Cossiga
(1928–2010)
4 August
1979
4 April
1980
1 year, 75 days Christian Democracy Cossiga I Centrism
(DCPSDIPLI)
VIII
(1979)
4 April
1980
18 October
1980
Cossiga II Organic Centre-left
(DCPSIPRI)
  Arnaldo Forlani
(1925–)
18 October
1980
28 June
1981
253 days Christian Democracy Forlani Organic Centre-left
(DCPSIPSDIPRI)
  Giovanni Spadolini
(1925–1994)
28 June
1981
23 August
1982
1 year, 156 days Italian Republican Party Spadolini I Pentapartito
(DCPSIPSDIPRIPLI)
23 August
1982
1 December
1982
Spadolini II
  Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
1 December
1982
4 August
1983
246 days Christian Democracy Fanfani V DCPSIPSDIPLI
  Bettino Craxi
(1934–2000)
4 August
1983
1 August
1986
3 years, 256 days Italian Socialist Party Craxi I Pentapartito
(DCPSIPRIPSDIPLI)
IX
(1983)
1 August
1986
17 April
1987
Craxi II Francesco Cossiga
 
(1985–1992)
  Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
17 April
1987
28 July
1987
102 days Christian Democracy Fanfani VI DC
  Giovanni Goria
(1943–1994)
28 July
1987
13 April
1988
260 days Christian Democracy Goria Pentapartito
(DCPSIPRIPSDIPLI)
X
(1987)
  Ciriaco De Mita
(1928–)
13 April
1988
22 July
1989
1 year, 100 days Christian Democracy De Mita Pentapartito
(DCPSIPRIPSDIPLI)
  Giulio Andreotti
(1919–2013)
22 July
1989
12 April
1991
2 years, 342 days Christian Democracy Andreotti VI Pentapartito
(DCPSIPRIPSDIPLI)
12 April
1991
28 June
1992
Andreotti VII Quadripartito
(DCPSIPSDIPLI)
  Giuliano Amato
(1938–)
28 June
1992
28 April
1993
304 days Italian Socialist Party Amato I Quadripartito
(DCPSIPLIPSDI)
XI
(1992)
Oscar Luigi
Scalfaro

 
(1992–1999)
  Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
(1920–2016)
28 April
1993
10 May
1994
1 year, 12 days Independent Ciampi DCPSIPDSPLIPRIPSDIFdV
  Silvio Berlusconi
(1936–)
10 May
1994
17 January
1995
252 days Forza Italia Berlusconi I PdLPBG
(FILNANCCDUdC)
XII
(1994)
  Lamberto Dini
(1931–)
17 January
1995
17 May
1996
1 year, 121 days Independent Dini Independents
(supported by PDS, LN, PPI, PSI,
FdV, LR, CS)
  Romano Prodi
(1939–)
17 May
1996
21 October
1998
2 years, 157 days The Olive Tree
(Independent)
Prodi I The Olive Tree
(PDSPPIRIFdVUD
with PRC's external support)
XIII
(1996)
  Massimo D'Alema
(1949–)
21 October
1998
22 December
1999
1 year, 187 days The Olive Tree
(DS)
D'Alema I The Olive Tree
(DSPPIRISDIFdVPdCIUDR)
22 December
1999
25 April
2000
D'Alema II Carlo Azeglio
Ciampi

 
(1999–2006)
  Giuliano Amato
(1938–)
25 April
2000
11 June
2001
1 year, 47 days The Olive Tree
(Independent)
Amato II The Olive Tree
(DSPPIDemFdVPdCI
UDEURRISDI)
  Silvio Berlusconi
(1936–)
11 June
2001
23 April
2005
4 years, 340 days Forza Italia Berlusconi II House of Freedoms
(FIANLNUDCNPSIPRI)
XIV
(2001)
23 April
2005
17 May
2006
Berlusconi III
  Romano Prodi
(1939–)
17 May
2006
8 May
2008
1 year, 357 days The Olive Tree /
Democratic Party
Prodi II The Union
(DSDL/PDPRCRnPPdCI
IdVFdVUDEUR)
XV
(2006)
Giorgio Napolitano
 
(2006–2015)
  Silvio Berlusconi
(1936–)
8 May
2008
16 November
2011
3 years, 192 days The People of Freedom Berlusconi IV Centre-right coalition
(PdLLNMpA)
XVI
(2008)
  Mario Monti
(1943–)
16 November
2011
28 April
2013
1 year, 163 days Independent Monti Independents
(supported by PdL, PD, UdC,
FLI, ApI)
  Enrico Letta
(1966–)
28 April
2013
22 February
2014
300 days Democratic Party Letta Grand coalition
(PDPdL/NCDSCPpIUdCRI)
XVII
(2013)
  Matteo Renzi
(1975–)
22 February
2014
12 December
2016
2 years, 294 days Democratic Party Renzi PDNCDSCUdC
  Paolo Gentiloni
(1954–)
12 December
2016
1 June
2018
1 year, 171 days Democratic Party Gentiloni PDNCD/APCpE Sergio
Mattarella

 
(2015–)
  Giuseppe Conte
(1964–)
1 June
2018
Incumbent 351 days Independent Conte M5SLega XVIII
(2018)

TimelineEdit

Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)Edit

Alcide De GasperiFerruccio ParriIvanoe BonomiPietro BadoglioBenito MussoliniLuigi FactaIvanoe BonomiGiovanni GiolittiFrancesco Saverio NittiVittorio Emanuele OrlandoPaolo BoselliAntonio SalandraGiovanni GiolittiLuigi LuzzatiSidney SonninoGiovanni GiolittiSidney SonninoAlessandro FortisTommaso TittoniGiovanni GiolittiGiuseppe ZanardelliGiuseppe SaraccoLuigi PellouxAntonio Starabba, Marchese di RudinìFrancesco CrispiGiovanni GiolittiAntonio Starabba, Marchese di RudinìFrancesco CrispiAgostino DepretisBenedetto CairoliAgostino DepretisBenedetto CairoliAgostino DepretisMarco MinghettiGiovanni LanzaFederico Luigi, Conte MenabreaUrbano RattazziBettino RicasoliAlfonso Ferrero La MarmoraMarco MinghettiLuigi Carlo FariniUrbano RattazziBettino RicasoliCamillo Benso, Count of Cavour 

Italian Republic (1946–present)Edit

Giuseppe ContePaolo GentiloniMatteo RenziEnrico LettaMario MontiSilvio BerlusconiRomano ProdiSilvio BerlusconiGiuliano AmatoMassimo D'AlemaRomano ProdiLamberto DiniSilvio BerlusconiCarlo Azeglio CiampiGiuliano AmatoGiulio AndreottiCiriaco De MitaGiovanni GoriaAmintore FanfaniBettino CraxiAmintore FanfaniGiovanni SpadoliniArnaldo ForlaniFrancesco CossigaGiulio AndreottiAldo MoroMariano RumorGiulio AndreottiEmilio ColomboMariano RumorGiovanni LeoneAldo MoroGiovanni LeoneAmintore FanfaniFernando TambroniAntonio SegniAmintore FanfaniAdone ZoliAntonio SegniMario ScelbaAmintore FanfaniGiuseppe PellaAlcide De Gasperi 

Living former Prime Ministers of ItalyEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

BibliographyEdit

  • Guglielmotti, Umberto, ed. (1966). I presidenti del Consiglio dei Ministri dell'Unita' d'Italia ad oggi, Volume 3 (in Italian). CEN.
  • Viviani, Maria Paola, ed. (1970). La presidenza del Consiglio dei ministri in alcuni stati dell'Europa occidentale ed in Italia (in Italian). Giuffrè.
  • Rotelli, Ettore, ed. (1972). La Presidenza Del Consiglio Dei Ministri: Il Problema Del Coordinamento Dell'amministrazione Centrale in Italia, (1848-1948) (in Italian). Giuffrè.
  • Marzo, Corradino; Amodio, Vito Domenico, eds. (2014). I governi della Repubblica. Storia dei Presidenti del Consiglio, Volume 1 (in Italian). Lupo. ISBN 978-8866671893.

External linksEdit