Giuliano Amato

Giuliano Amato OMRI (Italian pronunciation: [dʒuˈljaːno aˈmaːto]; born 13 May 1938) is an Italian politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Italy, first from 1992 to 1993 and again from 2000 to 2001.

Giuliano Amato
Giuliano Amato - Festival Economia 2013.JPG
Giuliano Amato in 2013
Prime Minister of Italy
In office
26 April 2000 – 11 June 2001
PresidentCarlo Azeglio Ciampi
Preceded byMassimo D'Alema
Succeeded bySilvio Berlusconi
In office
28 June 1992 – 29 April 1993
PresidentOscar Luigi Scalfaro
Preceded byGiulio Andreotti
Succeeded byCarlo Azeglio Ciampi
Judge of the Constitutional Court
Assumed office
18 September 2013
Appointed byGiorgio Napolitano
Preceded byFranco Gallo
Minister of the Interior
In office
17 May 2006 – 8 May 2008
Prime MinisterRomano Prodi
Preceded byGiuseppe Pisanu
Succeeded byRoberto Maroni
Minister of Treasury, Budget and
Economic Programming
In office
13 May 1999 – 26 April 2000
Prime MinisterMassimo D'Alema
Preceded byCarlo Azeglio Ciampi
Succeeded byVincenzo Visco
Minister for Institutional Reforms
In office
21 October 1998 – 13 May 1999
Prime MinisterMassimo D'Alema
Preceded byFranco Bassanini
Succeeded byAntonio Maccanico
Deputy Prime Minister of Italy
In office
29 July 1987 – 13 April 1988
Prime MinisterGiovanni Goria
Preceded byArnaldo Forlani
Succeeded byGianni De Michelis
Minister of Treasury
In office
29 July 1987 – 23 July 1989
Prime MinisterGiovanni Goria
Ciriaco De Mita
Preceded byGiovanni Goria
Succeeded byGuido Carli
Member of the Chamber of Deputies
In office
28 April 2006 – 28 April 2008
ConstituencyTuscany
In office
12 July 1983 – 14 April 1994
ConstituencyTurin (1983–1992)
Siena (1992–1994)
Member of the Senate
In office
30 May 2001 – 27 April 2006
ConstituencyGrosseto
Personal details
Born (1938-05-13) 13 May 1938 (age 83)
Turin, Piedmont, Kingdom of Italy
Political partyPSI (before 1994)
Independent (1994–2007; 2008–present)
PD (2007–2008)
Spouse(s)Diana Vincenzi
Children2
Alma materUniversity of Pisa
Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies
Columbia University
Signature

Later, he was Vice President of the Convention on the Future of Europe that drafted the European Constitution and headed the Amato Group. He is commonly nicknamed dottor Sottile, (which means "Doctor Subtilis", the sobriquet of the Scottish Medieval philosopher John Duns Scotus, a reference to his political subtlety). From 2006 to 2008, he was the Minister of the Interior in Romano Prodi's government.

He has served on the Constitutional Court of Italy since September 2013, to which he was appointed by President Giorgio Napolitano. He has served as Vice President of the Court since September 2020.

BiographyEdit

Born in Turin into a Sicilian family, Amato grew up in Tuscany. He received a first degree in law from the University of Pisa in 1960, while attending the prestigious Collegio Medico-Giuridico of the Scuola Normale Superiore, which today is Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, and a master's degree in comparative law from Columbia Law School in 1963.[1] After teaching at the Universities of Modena, Perugia and Florence, he worked as professor of Italian and Comparative Constitutional Law at the University of Rome La Sapienza from 1975 to 1997.[1]

Amato began his political career in 1958, when he joined the Italian Socialist Party. He was a Member of Parliament from 1983 to 1993. He was Undersecretary of State to the Prime Minister's office from 1983 to 1987, Deputy Prime Minister from 1987 to 1988, and Minister for the Treasury from 1987 to 1989.[citation needed]

From June 1992 to April 1993, Amato served as Prime Minister. During those ten months, a series of corruption scandals rocked Italy and swept away almost an entire class of political leaders. Amato himself was never implicated, notwithstanding how close he was to Bettino Craxi, a central figure in the corruption system.[citation needed]

As Prime Minister, Amato responded effectively to two devaluations of the lira in the wake of currency speculation that led Italy to be expelled from the European Monetary System by cutting the budget deficit drastically, thus taking the first steps in the road that would bring Italy to adopt the Euro.[citation needed]

At a point, his government was harshly contested because of a decree that suddenly moved the competence for corruption investigations into the hands of the police, which, being controlled directly by the government, would have not been independent. Fearing that the new system would have effectively blocked investigations on political corruption, Italians took to the streets in massive, spontaneous rallies. President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro refused to sign the decree, deeming it blatantly unconstitutional. While his justice minister Giovanni Conso took the blame, it has been disputed whether Amato was a victim of circumstances or whether he really wanted to save the corruption-ridden system.[citation needed]

At the end of his period as Prime Minister, Amato gave a speech to the Parliament in which he solemnly promised that at end of his term he would retire from politics, stressing that his was a true commitment and that he would not break this promise as some politicians (whom he characterized as "mandarins") used to do. However, this promise was short-lived; Amato has regularly come under criticism for having made such a solemn commitment and failing to keep it.[citation needed]

Amato was President of the Italian antitrust authority from November 1994 to December 1997,[2] Minister for Institutional Reforms in Massimo D'Alema's first government from October 1998 to May 1999, and, once again, Treasury Minister in D'Alema's second government from December 1999 to April 2000. Amato was nearly nominated for the Presidency of the Republic and was a close contender to replace Michel Camdessus as head of the International Monetary Fund.[citation needed]

Amato served as Prime Minister again from April 2000 to May 2001. He promoted economic competitiveness as well as social protection. In addition to economic reforms, he pushed ahead with political and institutional reforms, trying to deal with a weak executive and fragmented legislature.[citation needed]

In December 2001, European Union leaders at the European Council in Laeken appointed Amato and former Belgian Prime Minister Jean-Luc Dehaene to be Vice Presidents of the Convention on the Future of Europe to assist former French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in the drafting of the new European Constitution. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2002.[3]

Amato was a Member of the Senate representing the constituency of Grosseto in Tuscany from 2001 to 2006. In 2006, he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the Olive Tree list, and he was named Minister of the Interior in Romano Prodi's centre-left government.[citation needed]

Since 2010, he also leads advanced seminar classes at the Master in International Public Affairs of the LUISS School of Government.[citation needed]

On 12 September 2013, President Giorgio Napolitano appointed Amato as judge on the Constitutional Court of Italy, where he has served since then.[4] On 16 September 2020 Amato ran for the position of President of the Constitutional Court, but lost in the second round of voting against Mario Rosario Morelli who obtained nine votes, while Giancarlo Coraggio obtained five and Amato received one.[5] He was subsequently made Vice President by Morelli.[6] He was confirmed in this position by Coraggio who became president in December 2020.[7]

Amato is married to Ms Diana Vincenzi, a professor of Family Law at the University of Rome. They have two children, Elisa and Lorenzo, and five grandchildren, Giulia, Marco, Simone, Elena and Irene. As of September 2020, Amato is a member of the Italian Aspen Institute.[8]

World Justice ProjectEdit

Giuliano Amato serves as an Honorary Co-Chair for the World Justice Project. The World Justice Project works to lead a global, multidisciplinary effort to strengthen the Rule of Law for the development of communities of opportunity and equity.[9]

President of Sant'Anna School of Advanced StudiesEdit

In 2012 Giuliano Amato was appointed as President of the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies.[10][11] As alumnus of Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies (attending the prestigious Collegio Medico-Giuridico of the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, which today is Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies), he guarded close contact with the university, previously heading Sant'Anna Alumni Association.

He was appointed as President of the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies on 21 February 2012 by the Academic Senate of Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies and by a Decree of the Minister Francesco Profumo of the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (Italy).[10][11] He resigned from his post at the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies after being appointed to the Constitutional Court in September 2013.

Personal viewsEdit

In 2011, Amato declared that Italian creativity is not supported by an adequate efficiency of the organization of its public and private entities. He believes it had a role in the lost hope in the future and in the sense of a common national identity, as well as it hadn't been yet perfectioned as whole in a way that was congruent with its essence. That loss had favoured the flourishing of xenophoby and purported regional identities (e.g. the Lega Nord movement).[12]

He think the Brigandage after 1861 in Southern Italy was an unfair and unlawful movement that can't be seen as form of antinational rebellion. However, the soldiers and the officials of the Borbonic Army who joined the movement can't be defined as betrayers of the ongoing Italy. It is also not credible the Expedition of the Thousand could have caused the annexation of the Southern Italy to the Kingdom of Sardinia by itself, while the main political and cultural foundations had been thrown by the works of intellectuals like Francesco Mario Pagano and Vincenzo Cuoco produced in the ninth decade of the XVIII century.[12] If he didn't believe the national identity is always something of more important than sub-national or sovra-national ones, he believes in the multi-layer identities model proposed by Alberto Banti, in a way for which the European identity strengthens the Italian identity even when they live and work in a foreign country. According to him, the Italian identity is kept alive in any country in which they should have gone.[12]

Electoral historyEdit

Election House Constituency Party Votes Result
1983 Chamber of Deputies Turin–Novara–Vercelli PSI 32,525  Y Elected
1987 Chamber of Deputies Turin–Novara–Vercelli PSI 50,816  Y Elected
1992 Chamber of Deputies Siena–Arezzo–Grosseto PSI 32,961  Y Elected
2001 Senate of the Republic Grosseto Ulivo 83,805  Y Elected
2006 Chamber of Deputies Tuscany-at-large Ulivo [a]  Y Elected
  1. ^ Elected in a closed list proportional representation system.

First-past-the-post electionsEdit

2001 general election (S): TuscanyGrosseto
Candidate Coalition Votes %
Giuliano Amato The Olive Tree 83,805 48.1
Franco Mugnai House of Freedoms 73,921 42.4
Others 16,437 9.5
Total 174,163 100.0

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Giuliano Amato Italy's new Prime Minister". Cosmopolis. 6. May 2000. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  2. ^ Hawk B. Giuliano Amato, Antitrust and the Bounds of Power. Fordham International Law Journal [serial online]. 1998;21(4):1670-1675.
  3. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter A" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
  4. ^ "Ex-premier Amato appointed to Constitutional Court". Ansa. 12 September 2013. Archived from the original on 22 September 2020.
  5. ^ "Corte Costituzionale, Mario Morelli nuovo presidente: prende il posto di Marta Cartabia. Ma la Consulta si è divisa" (in Italian). Il Messagero. 16 September 2020. Archived from the original on 17 September 2020.
  6. ^ "Mario Rosario Morelli eletto Presidente della Corte Constituzionale" (PDF) (in Italian). Constitional Court of Italy. 16 September 2020. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 September 2020.
  7. ^ "Constitutional Court: the judge Giancarlo Coraggio, elected with the unanimity of votes, will be in charge until 22 January 2022" (in Italian). 18 December 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  8. ^ executive Committee, aspeninstitute.it/
  9. ^ "Honorary Chairs". The World Justice Project. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
  10. ^ a b Giuliano Amato designato Presidente della Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna at SSSUP
  11. ^ a b Giuliano Amato nuovo presidente della Scuola Sant'Anna at Il Tirreno
  12. ^ a b c De Bernardi, Alberto (2011). "Senza futuro è difficile avere un passato" [Without future it ould be difficult to have a past]. Storicamente (in Italian). 7 (1). doi:10.1473/stor89. ISSN 1825-411X. OCLC 8539642109. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016 – via DOAJ.

External linksEdit

Political offices
Preceded by
Deputy Prime Minister of Italy
1987–1988
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Minister of Treasury
1987–1989
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Prime Minister of Italy
1992–1993
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Minister for Institutional Reforms
1998–1999
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Minister of Treasury, Budget and
Economic Programming

1999–2000
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Prime Minister of Italy
2000–2001
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Minister of the Interior
2006–2008
Succeeded by
Legal offices
Preceded by
Judge of the Constitutional Court
2013–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Vice President of the Constitutional Court
2020–present