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The following events occurred in July 1923:

Contents

July 1, 1923 (Sunday)Edit

  • The Chinese Immigration Act went into effect in Canada.
  • France passed a naval budget providing for the construction of four new submarines.[1]

July 2, 1923 (Monday)Edit

July 3, 1923 (Tuesday)Edit

  • Four Germans were shot dead in Buer for being outdoors after the curfew that was imposed after the June 30 train bombing.[6]

July 4, 1923 (Wednesday)Edit

July 5, 1923 (Thursday)Edit

July 6, 1923 (Friday)Edit

July 7, 1923 (Saturday)Edit

July 8, 1923 (Sunday)Edit

  • President Warren G. Harding arrived at Metlakatla, Alaska, becoming the first president to visit the state.[15][16]
  • In Czechoslovakia, woman deputy Betta Kerpiskova introduced a bill that would make bigamy mandatory, as it required all men to take two wives as a means of replenishing the population lost in the years of the war. Wives of the deputies shouted down the bill from the gallery, and one speaker said Czechoslovakia would face ridicule around the world if the law was passed. The session was adjourned after a shouting match.[17]
  • The bodies of Takeo Arishima and his wife were found in the Japanese novelist's villa. They both committed suicide by hanging but were not found for a month.[18]
  • Born: Harrison Dillard, track and field athlete, in Cleveland, Ohio

July 9, 1923 (Monday)Edit

July 10, 1923 (Tuesday)Edit

July 11, 1923 (Wednesday)Edit

  • France notified Britain that it would not accept an international conference to discuss the German reparations problem. "The reparations commission was legally created by the Versailles treaty to handle the problem and this cannot be transferred elsewhere without violating the treaty", a spokesperson for the government said.[22]
  • Harry Frazee sold the Boston Red Sox to a group led by Bob Quinn for $1.25 million.[23]
  • Born: Dan Berry, American cartoonist (d. 1997)

July 12, 1923 (Thursday)Edit

  • British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin made a speech before the House of Commons about the issue of German reparations and the occupation of the Ruhr, stating that "if we ask Germany to pay in excess of her capacity we shall not succeed ... We are convinced that an indefinite continuation of this state of affairs is fraught with great peril. Germany herself appears to be moving fast towards economic chaos, which may itself be succeeded by social and industrial ruin." Baldwin proposed that an impartial body be allowed to investigate Germany's capacity to pay.[24]
  • Turkey and Poland signed a trade agreement.[25]
  • Died: Ernst Otto Beckmann, 70, German pharmacist and chemist

July 13, 1923 (Friday)Edit

  • France refused to sign on to the British reply to Germany's offer on reparations unless its primary demand stated that passive resistance in the Ruhr be ended.[26]
  • The Hollywood Sign was officially dedicated. It was originally erected earlier that year as a temporary structure to promote real estate, but the sign quickly became a landmark. The sign actually read "Hollyoodland" until the 1940s.[27]
  • American explorer Roy Chapman Andrews discovers the first dinosaur eggs near Flaming Cliffs, Mongolia.
  • Born: Erich Lessing, photographer, in Vienna, Austria (d. 2018); Norma Zimmer, singer, in Larson, Idaho (d. 2011)

July 14, 1923 (Saturday)Edit

July 15, 1923 (Sunday)Edit

  • French Prime Minister Raymond Poincaré made a speech to the senate rejecting almost every item of Stanley Baldwin's speech, saying that "we wish only that the treaty signed by twenty-eight powers shall not be considered an antediluvian fossil and placed in an archaeological museum after four years. It seems that we ask too much. Certain friends say to make concessions for a common interest. Since the end of the armistice we have done nothing but make concessions. We are at the end of making concessions because until now we stood all the costs ... Instead of helping us obtain payment Germany has organized resistance, forcing us to accentuate the pressure. We thus are not responsible for the resulting situation."[30]
  • Bobby Jones won his first career major golf championship at the U.S. Open.
  • The Alaska Railroad was completed when President Harding drove the golden spike at Nenana.[31]
  • The Italian parliament passed Benito Mussolini's electoral reform law by a vote of 303 to 140 which permitted gerrymandering favorable to the incumbent Fascist Party.[32]
  • Died: Wilhelm Jerusalem, 69, Austrian Jewish philosopher

July 16, 1923 (Monday)Edit

July 17, 1923 (Tuesday)Edit

  • A libel trial opened in England between Lord Alfred Douglas and The Morning Post. Douglas was suing the newspaper for printing a letter from a Jewish correspondent saying that it must no longer be a paying proposition for men like Douglas "to invent vile insults against the Jews." This remark was a reference to Douglas' newspaper, Plain English, which regularly printed antisemitic articles alleging Jewish conspiracies.[36][37]

July 18, 1923 (Wednesday)Edit

  • Winston Churchill took the stand in the Lord Alfred Douglas libel trial and said that the plaintiff told an absolute lie when he alleged that Ernest Cassel had paid Churchill to print a false account of the Battle of Jutland attributing victory to Germany so stocks would fall and a group of Jews could turn a profit when they went up again. A deposition from Arthur Balfour was read in which he said that he alone had written the Jutland report and that Churchill had nothing to do with it. The jury returned a verdict awarding Douglas one farthing in damages.[38]
  • Italy published a "timetable" for the Italianization of South Tyrol. Italian was to be made the official language of the mostly German-speaking region, and Austro-German immigration into the region would be banned.[35]
  • Born: Jerome H. Lemelson, engineer and inventor, on Staten Island, New York (d. 1997)

July 19, 1923 (Thursday)Edit

July 20, 1923 (Friday)Edit

July 21, 1923 (Saturday)Edit

July 22, 1923 (Sunday)Edit

July 23, 1923 (Monday)Edit

July 24, 1923 (Tuesday)Edit

July 25, 1923 (Wednesday)Edit

July 26, 1923 (Thursday)Edit

July 27, 1923 (Friday)Edit

July 28, 1923 (Saturday)Edit

July 29, 1923 (Sunday)Edit

  • German communists staged a "Red Sunday" with public demonstrations across the country, but turnouts in most cities were low. Four were killed in Neuruppin when communists rushed the city jail and police fired on the unruly mob.[55]
  • Warren Harding's personal physician, Charles E. Sawyer, issued a nighttime bulletin saying the president's condition had worsened with new symptoms.[56]
  • Born: Jim Marshall, businessman and founder of Marshall Amplification, in Acton, London, England (d. 2012)

July 30, 1923 (Monday)Edit

July 31, 1923 (Tuesday)Edit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "France to Build Fleet of Giant Undersea Craft". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 3, 1923. p. 2.
  2. ^ De Santo, V. (July 3, 1923). "Pope Demands Germany Halt Ruhr Sabotage". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.
  3. ^ Sheean, Vincent (July 2, 1923). "Allies Present Final Demands to Ismet Today". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 11.
  4. ^ "Dockers Strike". The Straits Times. Singapore: 9. July 4, 1923.
  5. ^ "Ted Lyons 1923 Pitching Gamelogs". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  6. ^ Williams, Paul (July 4, 1923). "Four Germans Break Curfew in Ruhr; Slain". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.
  7. ^ Marcus, Norman (November 21, 2012). "Dempsey vs. Gibbons: "The Fight that Ruined a Town"". Boxing.com. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  8. ^ Cox, Jim (2013). Radio Journalism in America: Telling the News in the Golden Age and Beyond. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-7864-6963-5.
  9. ^ "Miss Barrymore Obtains Divorce; Tells of Abuse". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 6, 1923. p. 3.
  10. ^ Wilcox, Grafton (July 6, 1923). "Harding Sails Intrenched as G.O.P. Leader". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 2.
  11. ^ Skene, Don (July 7, 1923). "Suzanne Beats Kitty for "World's" Title". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 9.
  12. ^ "Allies to Sign Peace Pact with Turk Next Week". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 7, 1923. p. 1.
  13. ^ Skene, Don (July 8, 1923). "Little Bill Wins World Title as Hunter Falls". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. Part 2 p. 4.
  14. ^ Wales, Henry (July 8, 1923). "Naval Treaty Wins French Chamber O.K.". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.
  15. ^ Greenspan, Jesse (August 2, 2013). "The Unexpected Death of President Harding, 90 Years Ago". History. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  16. ^ Wilcox, Grafton (July 9, 1923). "Hardings Rest, Admire Lovely Canada Scenery". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 2.
  17. ^ "Wives Riot as Czechs Propose Forced Bigamy". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 9, 1923. p. 1.
  18. ^ Matheson, Roderick (July 9, 1923). "Novelist and Woman Leader Die for Love". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.
  19. ^ Sheean, Vincent (July 9, 1923). "Turk-Allied Peace Treaty is Completed". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.
  20. ^ "Cow Halted Dusk-to-Dawn Flight to Coast; Maughan, Undaunted, Will Try Again". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. July 10, 1923. p. 9.
  21. ^ "War Shell Blast Kills 11". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 11, 1923. p. 1.
  22. ^ Wales, Henry (July 12, 1923). "Crisis at Hand as London Plan is Made Known". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.
  23. ^ Powers, John; Driscoll, Ron (2012). Fenway Park: A Salute to the Coolest, Cruelest, Longest-running Major League Baseball Stadium in America. Running Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-7624-4204-1.
  24. ^ "Prime Minister's Statement". Hansard. July 12, 1923. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  25. ^ "1923". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  26. ^ Wales, Henry (July 14, 1923). "Offers Berlin "A Way Out"". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.
  27. ^ "On this day in history: Hollywood sign dedicated, 1923". The Modern Historian. July 13, 2012. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  28. ^ Schultz, Sigrid (July 15, 1923). "German Royalists Active As Leader Escapes Prison". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 2.
  29. ^ "Alaskan Town Warmly Greets Harding Party". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 15, 1923. p. 9.
  30. ^ Wales, Henry (July 16, 1923). "Poincaré Rebuffs British". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.
  31. ^ "Alaska Railroad History". Alaska Railroad Corporation. Archived from the original on December 21, 2013. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  32. ^ De Santo, V. (July 15, 1923). "Dictatorship of Italy Clinched for Mussolini". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 3.
  33. ^ De Santo, V. (July 17, 1923). "Anglo-Italian Agreement on Ruhr Reached". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.
  34. ^ "Minnesota Elects Johnson". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 17, 1923. p. 1.
  35. ^ a b c d Mercer, Derrik (1989). Chronicle of the 20th Century. London: Chronicle Communications Ltd. p. 308. ISBN 978-0-582-03919-3.
  36. ^ Steele, John (July 18, 1923). "British Lord's Attack on Jews Resented; Sues". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 2.
  37. ^ The Sydney Morning Herald: 9. July 19, 1923. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  38. ^ "One Farthing in Damages Given to British Lord". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 19, 1923. p. 3.
  39. ^ "Day Sea to Sea Air Dash Ends in Wyoming". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 20, 1923. pp. 1–2.
  40. ^ "Villa Slain, As He Slew Many, from Ambush". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 21, 1923. p. 1.
  41. ^ "Germany Can't Pay, Carengeir Survey Finds". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 21, 1923. p. 1.
  42. ^ "Kansas Defied by Klan; Mask Parade is Held". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 22, 1923. p. 1.
  43. ^ Official Major League Baseball Fact Book, 2003 Edition. Sporting News and Major League Baseball. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-89204-701-7.
  44. ^ "North San Jacinto Fault Earthquake". Southern California Earthquake Data Center. California Institute of Technology. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  45. ^ Ryan, Thomas (July 24, 1923). "British Spurn Disarm Parley; 'Time Not Ripe'". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.
  46. ^ Fendrick, Raymond (July 25, 1923). "Christian Bells Welcome Turkey". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.
  47. ^ Kost, Ingrid (July 25, 2013). "The Hague Academy of International Law: Celebrating 90 Years of Academic Excellence". Peace Palace Library. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  48. ^ "Lila Lee Wed on 18th Birthday". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 26, 1923. p. 1.
  49. ^ Wilcox, Grafton (July 27, 1923). "Harding at Vancouver". Chicago Daily Tribune. pp. 1–2.
  50. ^ Roberts, James; Skutt, Alexander G. (2006). The Boxing Register: International Boxing Hall of Fame Official Record Book (4th Ed.). Ithica, New York: McBooks Press, Inc. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-59013-121-3.
  51. ^ Wilcox, Grafton (July 28, 1923). "Harding Finds Conservation in Alaska Vital". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.
  52. ^ Naske, Claus-M.; Slotnick, Herman E. (1987). Alaska: A History of the 49th State (2nd Ed.). University of Oklahoma Press. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-8061-2573-2.
  53. ^ "Harding Ill; Trip Shortened". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 29, 1923. p. 1.
  54. ^ "Sydney Harbour Bridge – The First Sod Turned". The Register. Adelaide: 10. July 30, 1923.
  55. ^ Schultz, Sigrid (July 30, 1923). "Germany's 'Red Sunday' Fades to Pink; 5 Slain". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.
  56. ^ "Harding's Condition Worse". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 30, 1923. p. 1.
  57. ^ "President Fights for Life". Chicago Daily Tribune. July 31, 1923. p. 1.
  58. ^ Yanow, Scott (2003). Jazz on Record: The First Sixty Years. Berkeley: Backbeat Books. p. 38. ISBN 0-87930-755-2.
  59. ^ "Harding Gains: Sleeps Well". Chicago Daily Tribune. August 1, 1923. p. 1.
  60. ^ Knox, William (1987). James Maxton. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-7190-2152-7.