Nagercoil ("Temple of the Nāgas", Nagaraja Temple) is a city in the southernmost Indian district of Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu and a corporation. It is the administrative headquarters of Kanyakumari District in Tamil Nadu. The city, situated close to the tip of the Indian peninsula, lies in an undulating terrain between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea.
Granary of South Travancore
|• Body||Nagercoil Corporation|
|• Mayor||Vacant-Not assigned|
|• Corporation Commissioner||Vacant-Not assigned IAS|
|• Commissioner of Police||Vacant-Not assigned IPS|
|• Total||49.371 km2 (19.062 sq mi)|
|Elevation||40 m (130 ft)|
|• Density||9,813/km2 (25,420/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Telephone code||91-4652 & 91-4651|
|Vehicle registration||TN-74 Nagercoil|
|Precipitation||2,128.3 millimetres (83.79 in)|
The present city of Nagercoil grew around Kottar, a mercantile town that dates back to the Sangam period. Kottar is now a locality within the city limits. For 735 years it was a central part of the erstwhile Travancore kingdom and later Kerala State, till almost a decade after India's independence from Britain in 1947. In 1956, Kanyakumari District, along with the town, was merged with Tamil Nadu.
The city is a centre for a range of economic activities in the small but densely-populated district, including tourism, software, wind energy, marine fish production and exports, rubber and cloves plantations, agro-crops, floral production, manufacture of fish nets, rubber products among other activities.
The municipality of Nagercoil was upgraded as a Municipal corporation on the eve of its 100th year as a city on February 14th 2019.
Known as the Granary of Travancore, Nagercoil not only served as the food basket of Kerala, but was also one among the important spice-trading centers in the kingdom of Travancore from the 14th century onward, and maintained a trade network with Arab merchants from the pre-Islamic era. Various Tamil and Kerala kings fought over this rich agricultural land, which boasted six rivers. Various historians cite that the land's climate and diverse, luxuriant vegetation had no comparison anywhere else in Tamil Nadu.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
|Climate data for Nagercoil|
|Record high °C (°F)||29.4
|Average high °C (°F)||28.8
|Average low °C (°F)||22.4
|Record low °C (°F)||16.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||117.4
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||6||4||5||7||12||21||22||20||13||20||21||6||157|
|Source: India Meteorological Department|
According to the 2011 census, Nagercoil had a population of 224,849 with a female-male sex ratio of 1.05, well above the national average of 0.929 females/male . A total of 20,241 were under the age of six, constituting 10,119 males and 10,122 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 4.19% and 0.17% of the population respectively. The literacy rate of the city was 95.35%. The city had a total of 59,997 households. There were a total of 76,345 workers, comprising 244 cultivators, 1,155 main agricultural laborers, 2,271 in household industries, 67,050 other workers, 5,625 marginal workers, 110 marginal cultivators, 361 marginal agricultural laborers, 447 marginal workers in household industries and 4,707 other marginal workers.
The major software companies present in Nagercoil are Hinduja Global Solutions, Navigant Consulting and American stock exchange NASDAQ. The city also has small aerospace manufacturing plants and satellite fabricating firms serving the Indian Space Research Organisations facility in ISRO Propulsion Complex, Mahendragiri. The Regional Academic Centre for Space by Indian Space Research Organisation, one among the only six incubation centers for Space Startups in India, is under construction in Nagercoil. The Integral Coach Factory has small scale windmill unit. The export of 95 tons of fruits and vegetables to the Gulf Countries through the Thiruvananthapuram airports is a major source of revenue for the city, with food processing companies generating a daily revenue of 16.7 lakh rupees and an annual revenue of 6.1 billion rupees. The flower market of Thovalai exports 350 tons of Flowers to Kerala, Europe and Middle Eastern countries generating an annual revenue of Rs.250 crore. The major cottage industries like Fish-net manufacturing, Rubber industries, Jewellery manufacturing are industries serving the domestic and export markets. The minor cottage industries include Surgical Gloves, Coir-making, floral trade, handloom-weaving, cashew nut, spices, food-processing units, and lace-making (export-oriented). Nagercoil has the highest per capita income of Rs.276,454 (US$3,800), making it among the richest small cities in India.
The city has an installed windmill capacity of 1500 MW catering to 20% of the state's renewable electricity needs. Muppandhal has emerged as the wind power hub, with plant owners eager to cash in on the Rs 2.90 per unit purchase price being offered by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board.
The architecture of Nagercoil consists of an eclectic combination of architectural styles, ranging from those that predate the creation of the town, from the early Dravidian architecture and Kerala Architecture, to English Gothic Revival, to the 21st century contemporary. Although there are prehistoric and classical structures in the city, the architectural history of Nagercoil effectively begins with the first small settlements from 3 A.D. The Roman naturalist and writer Pliny the Elder mentions Nagercoil as a commercial metropolis, having trade links with his contemporaneous Roman merchants, who traded and stayed in unique rock-walled, clay-roofed structures. This legacy can be found in some of the town's old heritage structures like the Nagaraja Temple, Nagercoil. The temple has two main deities, Krishna (revered as Ananda Krishna) and Nagaraja. The upadevathas are Shiva, Subrahmanya Swami, Ganesha, Devi, and Dwarapalaka. As an ancient tradition the priests are Namboothiri Brahmins who are referred by the Pambumekkat mana in Thrissur, Kerala. The 14th century St. Francis Xavier's Cathedral, Kottar serves as a testimony to the mix of Roman and native architecture. While Saint Xavier was doing missionary work at Kottar and its neighborhood, he averted an invasion of Padagas with the help of his cross alone and thus protected the people of the Venad kingdom from that attack which was appreciated by the king, Unni Kerala Varma, who became closer to the priest and befriended him from then on. In recognition of Xavier's services, the king allotted him a piece of land to construct a Catholic church, as a gesture of goodwill, as per the church records. There was already a small church, in the same place where St. Xavier's church stands at present, dedicated to Mary the Mother of God, since AD 1544. Later on, Dravidian and Kerala architectural styles began to appear in the area. This can be attributed to the construction of the Thanumalayan Temple in the 16th Century.
The brilliant artistic influence of Kerala and British architecture marvels are seen in the Nagercoil Palace, Nagercoil Clock Tower, Home Church, Scott Christian College, Scott School, Carmel School, ST. Joseph Convent, Sethu Lakshmi Bayi School, Nagercoil Court, The Concordia Seminary, Filter House, Catherine Booth Hospital and many more heritage structures in and around the town. Among these, the Nagercoil Clock Tower is the most visible to the outside world, situated in the heart of the town, which was built to commemorate the visit of Sri Moolam Thirunal, the ruler of Travancore, in 1893, and was designed by Hogeorf and S. Horesly of England. The Maharajah himself inaugurated it on 15 February of that year. The pendulum of the clock was made in Derbyshire by Smith of Derby Group, London. The clock is attached to a 60-foot-long chain with a weight, operated with pulleys through gravitational force. The clock in the Nagercoil Clock Tower was presented to the Maharajah by Rev. James Duthie. of the London Missionary Society. The total cost for constructing the Nagercoil Clock Tower was Rs.3258, 9 Chakrams and 12 Kasu. The Maharajah of Travancore donated Rs.1017, and the balance was donated by the public. However, the declining interest by the government to uphold and preserve the heritage monuments is a cause of concern to heritage enthusiasts and the citizens of the town. The fear, that with time, the extinction of this heritage will be imminent is growing with the demolition of a few structures.
Marshal Nesamony, one of the leading lawyers of the Nagercoil Bar, was elected as the Chairman of the Nagercoil Municipal Council in 1943. He enlarged the town boundary, improved the town's water supply system, established a home for destitutes and increased the income of the Nagercoil Municipality. In the same year, he was elected to the Travancore State Assembly and was also nominated to the Senate of the Kerala University, then known as the Travancore University. Later on K. Kamaraj, the former chief minister of Tamil Nadu, won from the Kanyakumari constituency without even canvassing. . The Nagercoil (Lok Sabha constituency) is perhaps the only constituency in Tamil Nadu to not have elected any Dravidian parties in the state's history.
Tamil is the official language in Nagercoil and is spoken by the majority of the population here. There are many schools and colleges in Nagercoil that are more than 100 years old, such as Scott Christian College (est 1809)) and Scott Christian Higher Secondary School (est 1819).
At Vadasery, a locality in Nagercoil, a unique Temple jewellery is made. The Vadasery Temple jewellery has Geographical Indications (GI) registry of the Government of India. These jewels are used by classical dancers in India.
Nagercoil has the distinction of housing one of the two Sports Authority of India Centers in the state, the other being in Chennai. There are plans to make the city hub for sports in South India by merging it with the Thiruvananthapuram and Kochi Centers with Headquarters in Thiruvananthapuram .
- "Census2011". Tamil Nadu Population Census data 2011. Tamil Nadu Government. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
- "Nagercoil Tourism, Nagercoil Travel Guide - Cleartrip". Cleartrip Tourism.
- "Nagercoil" (PDF).
- "Kanyakumari District Statistical Handbook" (PDF).
- "Cultivation of Spices".
- "Kanniyakumari tops HDI rankings".
- "Tamil Nadu's Hosur, Nagercoil to become corporations - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2019-02-14.
- Sadasivan, S. N. (9 March 2019). "River Disputes in India: Kerala Rivers Under Siege". Mittal Publications – via Google Books.
- "Climatological Services". Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- "Ever Recorded Maximum Temperature, Minimum Temperature and 24 Hours Heaviest Rainfall up to 2010" (PDF). Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- Kumar, P. s Suresh (4 February 2012). "Time to ensure scientific disposal of garbage" – via www.thehindu.com.
- "Census Info 2011 Final population totals". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "Census Info 2011 Final population totals - Nagercoil". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- India, Press Trust of (6 May 2010). "Hinduja Global Solutions opens centre at Nagercoil in TN" – via Business Standard.
- www.ETtech.com. "Nasdaq to work with Indian fintech cos to build next gen local products - ETtech". ETtech.com.
- "Chandrayaan-2 set for bungee jump test in Mahendragiri hills of Tamil Nadu". The New Indian Express.
- "Noorul Islam University hands over nano satellite to ISRO". Deccan Chronicle. 9 October 2016.
- "ISRO to fund research in twelve cities". The New Indian Express.
- "ISRO opens first of its six planned incubation centres". Deccan Herald. 18 September 2018.
- "ICF to install windmills - Times of India". The Times of India.
- Radhakrishnan, S. Anil (18 August 2017). "Export of perishables hit" – via www.thehindu.com.
- "Thovalai flowers gearing up for Onam". Mathrubhumi.
- Sudhakar, P. (17 August 2018). "Traders stare at losses as Kerala floods hit business" – via www.thehindu.com.
- "Worst Onam for Thovalai flower market in recent times - Times of India". The Times of India.
- "Nagercoil temple jewellery made with peculiar stones gets Geographical Indications tag - Times of India". The Times of India.
- "Fishermen thirst for scientific solutions". 2 October 2007 – via www.thehindu.com.
- "Form casteless society, youth told". The Hindu. 3 October 2004. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
- "State betters its record in windmill energy production". 3 August 2007 – via www.thehindu.com.
- "The Hindu : History of Suchindram temples". www.thehindu.com.
- "Nagercoil Clock Tower - Nagercoil Mani Medai". OnlineKanyakumari.Com. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- Arivanantham, R. (13 April 2015). "Conserve heritage building in Nagercoil: INTACH" – via www.thehindu.com.
- Joy Gnanadason,`A Forgotten History`,1994, Gurukul L.T. College and Research Institute, Chennai. Page:151.
- "Archive News". The Hindu.
- "Sangh power BJP's southern comfort - Times of India". The Times of India.
- Reporter, Staff (24 December 2012). "Chidambaram distributes welfare aid in Nagercoil" – via www.thehindu.com.
- ""Will BJP make history by winning Nagercoil?"".
- ""Dravidians don't wind up in Nagercoil"".
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- "Nagercoil Municipality City Population Census 2011-2019 - Tamil Nadu". www.census2011.co.in.
- "Literacy Rate of India - Population Census 2011". www.census2011.co.in.
- "Tamil Nadu Population Sex Ratio in Tamil Nadu Literacy rate data 2011-2019". www.census2011.co.in.
- "A Dazzle in the Dark".
- "Nagercoil temple jewellery made with peculiar stones gets gets Geographical Indications tag".
- "The Hindu : Tamil Nadu / Nagercoil News : Onam - day of flowers, feast, fun and frolic". www.thehindu.com.
- "Onam festivities begin in Kanyakumari". 24 August 2007 – via www.thehindu.com.
- "The Hindu : Sports Authority of India sub-centre coming up near Nagercoil". www.thehindu.com.
- ""Regional Centres"".
- "City may lose SAI sub-centre to Nagercoil". The New Indian Express.