Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark
Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark (Greek: Όλγα; 11 June 1903 – 16 October 1997) was a Greek princess who became princess of Yugoslavia as the wife of Prince Paul, Regent of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
|Princess Paul of Yugoslavia|
|Born||11 June 1903|
Tatoi Palace, Tatoi, Kingdom of Greece
|Died||16 October 1997 (aged 94)|
(m. 1923; died 1976)
|Father||Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark|
|Mother||Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia|
Princess Olga was a daughter of Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark and Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia, and a granddaughter of King George I of Greece. After a brief engagement in 1922 to Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark, she married Prince Paul of Yugoslavia in 1923. In 1934, after the assassination of King Alexander I, Prince Paul was appointed regent of Yugoslavia on behalf of King Peter II, and Princess Olga became the senior lady of the court and acted as first lady of Yugoslavia, working side by side with her husband on representation duties. In 1941, during the Second World War, Prince Paul was forcibly removed from power after signing the Tripartite Pact, which took Yugoslavia into the Axis with Germany and Italy. Paul, Olga, and their three children were arrested and given as prisoners to the British. They spent the rest of the war in house arrest and exile in Egypt, Kenya and South Africa, and were not allowed to return to Europe until 1948. The couple and their children eventually settled in Paris, where Paul died in 1976. Having become a widow, Olga spent more and more time in the United Kingdom, the adopted country of her sister, Marina. Struck by Alzheimer's disease at the end of her life, Olga died in Paris in 1997. Her remains were buried in Lausanne, Switzerland, before being transferred to the royal mausoleum of Oplenac, in Serbia, in 2012.
Princess Olga was the eldest of three daughters of Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark (1872–1938) and his wife Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia (1882–1957). Through her father, the princess was therefore the granddaughter of King George I of Greece (1845–1913) while, through her mother, she was the great-granddaughter of Tsar Alexander II of Russia (1818–1881) .
On 22 October 1923, Princess Olga married, in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, Prince Paul of Yugoslavia (1893–1976), himself the son of Prince Arsen of Yugoslavia (1859–1938) and his wife the Princess of San Donato Aurora Pavlovna Demidova (1873–1904). Prince Paul and Princess Olga had three children:
- Prince Alexander of Yugoslavia (13 August 1924 – 12 May 2016) married Princess Maria Pia of Savoy, daughter of Umberto II of Italy, on 12 February 1955 in Estoril Portugal. They had issue. After their divorce in 1967 he married Princess Barbara of Liechtenstein on 2 November 1973. They also had issue.
- Prince Nikola of Yugoslavia (29 June 1928 – 12 April 1954)
- Princess Elizabeth of Yugoslavia (born 7 April 1936) married firstly Howard Oxenberg on 21 January 1961, divorced in 1966, two daughters, actress Catherine Oxenberg and author Christina Oxenberg; later married Neil Balfour on 23 September 1969 and they divorced in November 1978. Third time she married Peruvian Prime Minister Manuel Ulloa Elías on 28 February 1987.
Through her daughter Elizabeth, Princess Olga was the maternal grandmother of American actress Catherine Oxenberg (born 1961), well known for her role as Amanda Carrington in the Dynasty television series. Through her son Alexander, she was also the grandmother of the famous gemologist Prince Dimitri of Yugoslavia (born 1958).
A granddaughter of King George I of Greece, Princess Olga was born at Tatoi Palace, the second home of the Greek royal family, in 1903. As was the Greek tradition, she was then named after her paternal grandmother, Queen Olga.
She grew up alongside her parents and younger sisters, Princesses Elizabeth (1904–1955) and Marina (1906–1968), at the Nicholas Palace, the current seat of the Italian Embassy in Athens.[N 1] Olga was brought up in relative simplicity and her education was overseen by an English schoolteacher by the name of Miss Fox.
Once a year, Olga and her family travelled to Russia, where they were regularly received by their Romanov cousins. The princess and her sisters thus had the opportunity to play with the daughters of Tsar Nicholas II, who were roughly the same age as them. They were also in Saint Petersburg, when the First World War broke out in 1914.
World War I and exileEdit
The First World War marked a difficult period for the Greek royal family. After the fallout between King Constantine I and his prime minister Eleftherios Venizelos over whether Greece should enter the conflict, a virtual civil war shook the Hellenic kingdom, which was partially occupied by the Allies from 1915.
Finally, on June 10, 1917, King Constantine was forced to leave power by the ultimatum of the French High Commissioner Charles Jonnart and he went into exile with his wife and children in German-speaking Switzerland.[N 2] Described as the "evil genius behind the monarchy" by the Venizelists, Prince Nicolas was quickly forced to leave Athens in turn and join his brother abroad. Olga and her family then settled in St. Moritz, when Greece fell into a financial crisis for the first time during her lifetime.
The restoration of Constantine I in 1920 allowed Olga to return to her native country for a brief period, but the king's final abdication in 1922 forced the young princess and her relatives to resume their life in exile. The princess then settles successively in Sanremo, Paris and London, where she lived with members of her family.
Considered, along with her sister Marina, to be "one of the most beautiful young women of her time", Princess Olga had, according to biographer Ricardo Mateos Sainz de Medrano, a "discreet, romantic and fragile personality".
Prior to her departure into exile, she was linked to the future Frederick IX of Denmark and the engagement of the pair was announced publicly in 1922. However, the awkwardness of the Danish prince, who held the hand of one of Olga's sisters instead of hers during the official presentation of the young couple to the Athenian crowd, lastingly humiliated the future bride. Shortly after the event, Olga decided to return her ring to the heir to the Danish throne and called off their engagement.
After moving to the UK, Olga's love life was the subject of much speculation. Public rumors and claims circulated about her romantic relationships and she was linked to the Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII) for some time. Neither Edward nor Olga confirmed the rumors. A frequent guest of the British upper class, the Greek princess met Prince Paul of Yugoslavia, a grandson of Alexander Karađorđević, Prince of Serbia, at a ball given by her cousin Lady Zia Wernher.
Immediately impressed by the beauty of Olga, Paul sought to win the favor of the princess, but she was rather indifferent to him. However, other encounters followed, notably at Buckingham Palace, and Prince Paul finally managed to catch her attention.
Marriage and settlement in YugoslaviaEdit
Once Olga and Paul's engagement was announced on 26 July 1923, the young princess' dowry was purchased and prepared in Paris. However, it was in Belgrade, in the prince's homeland, that the wedding was organized the following October.
Now Princess of Yugoslavia, Olga set about learning Serbo-Croatian, which she quickly came to master though with a heavy Greek accent. Now dividing her life between the White Palace in Belgrade, a magnificent chalet in the Bohinj valley and a villa on Rumunska Ulica (now Užička Ulica), Olga benefited from the immense fortune that her husband partly inherited from his maternal family. But, accustomed to a lifestyle less provincial than that which was hers in her new homeland, the princess found her daily life all the more monotonous and boring. Her relationship with King Alexander I of Yugoslavia and his wife were hardly warm.
Olga, however, receives regular visits from her sisters and other family members. She gave birth to three children between 1924 and 1936 and spent a lot of time caring for them while her husband devoted himself to his art collections.
Regency of PaulEdit
On October 9, 1934, King Alexander I of Yugoslavia was assassinated during an official visit to Marseille by a Macedonian nationalist member of IMRO. His successor, the young Peter II was eleven years old, and a Council of Regency was set up under the leadership of Prince Paul. Although never having aspired a political life, Olga's husband had no choice but to accept the responsibility which fell to him and then took control of state affairs.
Having become in essence the "first lady" of Yugoslavia,[N 3] Olga had to more than ever represent her country alongside her husband. With him, she made several official stays abroad and notably met dictators Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, in Rome and Berlin, in April and June 1939, respectively. In the tense context of the late 1930s, the very Anglophile Prince Paul gradually committed his country to a policy of alliance with the Axis powers. It would seem, moreover, that the family ties between Olga and various members of the German elite who embraced the Nazi ideology (including her cousin, Prince Philippe of Hesse) had an effect on the political development of Prince Paul.
In 1938, Olga left Yugoslavia for a long time to look after several elderly relatives. She stayed in Athens to witness the final days of her father, Prince Nicolas, and to take care of her mother, the Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna. A few months later, the princess travelled to Paris, where she reunited with her father-in-law, Prince Arsen of Yugoslavia, who died shortly after.
Second World WarEdit
After the outbreak of World War II, Prince Paul signed a treaty of alliance on 25 March 1941, bringing his country into the Axis camp. Disapproving of this decision, the Yugoslav army revolted two days later and proclaimed the majority of young Peter II to assume full power. Paul, Olga and their three children were then arrested and handed over to the British, who deported them to Greece (where they were welcomed by King George II) then to Egypt (under the pretext of intrigue). At the same time, the overthrow of the Yugoslav regency led Hitler to bomb Belgrade and invade the country in April 1941.
Confined for some time in Cairo, the Paul and Olga were then sent to Kenya, where they arrived after three days of travel, on 28 April 1941. Settled far from Nairobi, in Osserian, in the region of Lake Naivasha, they took up residence in the country house of Lord Erroll, where they would be watched by the former governor of the colony. Condemned to inactivity, Olga therefore devoted her days to maintaining the residence, learning to cook and supervising the education of her children, while her husband sank into melancholy and depression. Relatively isolated, the couple nevertheless befriended the families of settlers who resided in the region. In September 1941, they were allowed to move to Preston's house, a more modern house located in the same region.
In September 1942, the death of Prince George, Duke of Kent, in an air crash left his wife, Princess Marina, inconsolable and the British government had to allow Olga to stay in the United Kingdom to keep her sister's company. Olga took advantage of her stay in the UK to plead her husband's cause to the government, without much success. Back in Kenya in January 1943, the princess found her husband severely affected by depression. As Paul's condition did not improve, the British government finally allowed Olga's family to settle in South Africa in June 1943. There they found several members of the Greek royal family[N 4] exiled in the dominion after the invasion of their country by the Axis forces. Above all, they ceased to be treated as prisoners, even though they did not officially regain their freedom until 1 June 1946.
Olga and her family were finally allowed to return to Europe in 1948.
Return to EuropeEdit
In 1948, Paul, Olga and their three children were finally granted permission to leave South Africa, but Yugoslavia had adopted a communist regime in 1945 and they could not return to their country. The family then settled in Switzerland, then in Paris. She also made frequent trips to London and Florence, where Paul had a residence located not far from Villa Sparta. In Tuscany, Olga had the pleasure of reuniting with her cousin and friend Helen, Queen Mother of Romania, while in the United Kingdom she was always welcomed by her sister Marina, Duchess of Kent, and the rest of the British royal family.
Widowed in 1976, Olga stayed for longer periods in Great Britain. With her sister Marina's death in 1968, she was accommodated at Kensington Palace, with Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, and after the latter's death, directly at Clarence House with Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. The Greek princess then acquired the reputation of being a demanding guest.
As she aged, Olga's health began tp deteriorate. However, she continued to attend the great events of the European elite, such as the weddings of Crown Prince Alexander of Yugoslavia in 1972, her nephew Prince Michael of Kent in 1978, and Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer in 1981. At the wedding of the Yugoslav pretender, it was also Princess Olga who accompanied him to the altar, as the prince's mother and grandmother were not able to attend the ceremony due to health issues.
Illness and deathEdit
Affected by Alzheimer's disease at the end of her life, Princess Olga was hospitalized for a long time in Meudon. A few years before her death, in 1993, her daughter Elizabeth decided to make a documentary film about her with the help of a Serbian journalist. However, with Olga being heavily affected by the disease, the project of her daughter caused a scandal. Prince Alexander brought a complaint against his sister Elizabeth before the French courts for damage to the image of their mother and claimed, in her name, $107,000 in damages.
On 28 September 2012, the remains of Princess Olga, her husband and their son Nikola were exhumed and then transported to Belgrade, Serbia. On 4 October, an official ceremony was held at St. Michael's Cathedral in Belgrade by Irinej, Serbian Patriarch. The children and grandchildren of the couple, as well as Crown Prince Alexander and his wife Princess Katherine, and Serbian President Tomislav Nikolić and his government participated in the event. Their remains were reburied in the Karađorđević family mausoleum of Oplenac in Topola.
National dynastic honoursEdit
- House of Glücksburg-Greece: Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Saints Olga and Sophia, 1st Class
- House of Glücksburg: Dame Commander of the Royal Order of Beneficence
- House of Glücksburg: Knight of the Royal Decoration of the Greek Royal House, 2nd Class
- House of Karađorđević: Dame Grand Cordon of the Royal Order of Saint Sava
|Ancestors of Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark|
Notes and referencesEdit
- The Nicholas Palace was offered by Tsar Nicholas II of Russia to his cousin the Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia, on the occasion of her marriage to Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark, in 1902. Very modern for its time, it provided running water, both cold and hot (Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 250).
- Only his second son remained in Greece, where he ascended the throne under the name of Alexander I.
- The real "first lady" was technically the queen mother Maria, but she no longer participated in any political events, unlike Olga, who was supposed to assist her husband in Yugoslavia as well as abroad.
- They were Princess Frederica and her children (Constantine and Sophia), Prince George of Greece and Denmark and his wife Marie Bonaparte, Princess Eugénie of Greece and Denmark and her family and finally Princess Katherine of Greece and Denmark.
- Palmer & Greece 1990, p. 33.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 110, 250.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 250.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 250-251.
- Van der Kiste 1994, p. 89-101.
- Van der Kiste 1994, p. 106-107.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 90.
- Van der Kiste 1994, p. 112, 115.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 251.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 251-252.
- Balfour & Mackay 1980, p. 46-50.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 266.
- Palmer & Greece 1990, p. 70.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 256.
- Balfour & Mackay 1980, p. 43-46.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 256-257, 300.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 257.
- Balfour & Mackay 1980, p. 51.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 258.
- Balfour & Mackay 1980, p. 51-54.
- Balfour & Mackay 1980, p. 54-56.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 258-259.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 259.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 262.
- Van der Kiste 1994, p. 152.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 259-260.
- Petropoulos 2009, p. 162-163.
- Balfour & Mackay 1980, p. 152-154.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 260.
- Balfour & Mackay 1980, p. 260.
- Balfour & Mackay 1980, p. 261-262.
- Petropoulos 2009, p. 215-216.
- Balfour & Mackay 1980, p. 266-267.
- Balfour & Mackay 1980, p. 268.
- Balfour & Mackay 1980, p. 269.
- Balfour & Mackay 1980, p. 278.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 271.
- Balfour & Mackay 1980, p. 284.
- Balfour & Mackay 1980, p. 284-285.
- Balfour & Mackay 1980, p. 286.
- Balfour & Mackay 1980, p. 293.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 261.
- Petropoulos 2009, p. 215.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 260-261.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 255-256.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 261-262.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 262, 412 et 456.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 412.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano 2004, p. 262-263.
- Parvex, Marie (28 September 2012). "Elisabeth de Yougoslavie exhume ses parents enterrés à Lausanne". Le Temps (in French).
- "The Royal Couple Attend Requiem in Honour of Prince Paul, Princess Olga and Prince Nikola at St. Michael's Cathedral". royalfamily.org. Royal Family of Serbia. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- Régine Salens. "Les dépouilles de Paul et Olga de Yougoslavie rapatriées à Belgrade". noblesseetroyautes.com (in French). Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- "Photo". s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com.
- "Photo". media.gettyimages.com.
- "Photo". royalchronicles.gr.
- "Photo". s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com.
- "Photo". s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com.
- "Photo". 2.bp.blogspot.com.
Biographies of the princessEdit
- Iskasen, Trond Norén (2010). ""A Broken Engagement" - Frederik of Denmark and Olga of Greece". Royalty Digest Quarterly (3).
- Prentice, Robert (2011). "Olga of Greece and Yugoslavia". Royalty Digest Quarterly (3).
About the princess and her familyEdit
- Balfour, Neil; Mackay, Sally (1980). Paul of Yugoslavia: Britain's maligned friend. H. Hamilton. ISBN 978-0-2411-0392-0.
- Mateos Sainz de Medrano, Ricardo (2004). La Familia de la Reina Sofía: La Dinastía griega, la Casa de Hannover y los reales primos de Europa (in Spanish). Madrid: La Esfera de los Libros. ISBN 978-84-9734-195-0. OCLC 55595158.
- Palmer, Alan; Greece, Michael of (1990). The Royal House of Greece. London: Weidenfeld Nicolson Illustrated. ISBN 978-0-297-83060-3. OCLC 59773890.
- Petropoulos, Jonathan (2009). Royals and the Reich: The Princes von Hessen in Nazi Germany. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-921278-1.
- Van der Kiste, John (1994). Kings of the Hellenes: The Greek Kings, 1863-1974. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 9780750921473. OCLC 41157782.
Memoirs by family membersEdit
- Greece, Prince Nicholas of (1926). My Fifty Years. London: Hutchinson & Co.
- Greece, Prince Nicholas of (1928). Political Memoirs. Londpn: Hutchinson & Co.
- Yugoslavia, King Peter II of (1955). A King's Heritage: The Memoirs of King Peter II of Yugoslavia. London: Cassell.
Media related to Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark at Wikimedia Commons
- Balfour, Neil R. "Obituary: Princess Paul of Yugoslavia". The Independent.