The following events occurred in January 1937:
- In retaliation for the Palos incident of the previous week, the German cruiser Königsberg forced the Spanish steamer Soton aground near Santander while the Graf Spee stopped another steamer, the Aragon, and forced it to change course to a Nationalist-held port.
- The Public Order Act went into effect in the United Kingdom, banning the wearing of political uniforms and empowering the police to stop political marches when there is risk of disorder.
- Anastasio Somoza García became President of Nicaragua.
- The Pittsburgh Panthers beat the Washington Huskies 21-0 in the 1937 Rose Bowl.
- The Santa Clara Broncos defeated the LSU Tigers 21-14 in the Sugar Bowl.
- The Duquesne Dukes edged the Mississippi State Bulldogs 13-12 in the Orange Bowl.
- The 1st Cotton Bowl was played in Dallas, Texas. The TCU Horned Frogs beat the Marquette Golden Avalanche 16-6.
- In the 3rd Sun Bowl, the Hardin-Simmons Cowboys beat the Texas Western Miners 34-6.
- Born: Lenita Airisto, business leader and TV journalist, in Helsinki, Finland
- Alan Turing's seminal 1936 paper on the principles of modern computing was published entitled On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem in which is presented the concept of a Universal Turing Machine.
- The Spanish Republican government called Germany's recent naval actions "acts of aggression and war." Germany sent a note offering to release the Aragon and cease attacks on Spanish shipping as soon as restitution was made for the cargo of the Palos not being fully returned. This proposal was rejected.
- During the Second Battle of the Corunna Road, the Nationalists captured Villafranca del Castillo west of Madrid.
- In China, 128 drug addicts were taken to a village near Tianjin and executed by firing squad.
- France restored the Constitution of Lebanon after it had been suspended for a number of years.
- The winners of the 2nd New York Film Critics Circle Awards were announced. Mr. Deeds Goes to Town was named Best Film of 1936.
- The U.S. Supreme Court decided De Jonge v. Oregon.
- Born: Grace Bumbry, opera singer, in St. Louis, Missouri; Dyan Cannon, actress, in Tacoma, Washington
- Died: Paul Behncke, 67, German admiral
- Nazi Germany recommended its artists depict at least four children in illustrations of German families.
- U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivered the annual State of the Union address to Congress. "The statute of NRA has been outlawed", the president said. "The problems have not. They are still with us." Roosevelt said that means "must be found to adapt our legal forms and our judicial interpretation to the actual present national needs of the largest progressive democracy in the modern world."
- The U.S. Congress strictly forbade the export of arms to Spain.
- The Soviet Census of 1937 was held.
- Born: Paolo Conte, singer and pianist, in Asti, Italy; Underwood Dudley, mathematician, in New York City
- Died: André Bessette, 91, Canadian religious leader
- President Roosevelt signed an amendment to the Neutrality Act to establish an embargo on the shipment of weapons to Spain. His signature came too late to stop the vessel Mar Cantabrico, which had already left New York with just such a cargo.
- Born: Shirley Bassey, singer, in Tiger Bay, Cardiff, Wales
January 10, 1937 (Sunday)Edit
- France massed troops in French Morocco and threatened to occupy the Spanish side if the Nationalists refused to quickly oust the Germans reported in the territory. France feared that Germany was building up troops there under the guise of "volunteers" in preparation for a surprise attack on French Morocco.
- The Spanish government ordered an evacuation of all citizens remaining in Madrid.
- Britain warned its citizens that anyone volunteering to fight for either side in the Spanish Civil War would be subject to prosecution under the Foreign Enlistment Act of 1870.
January 11, 1937 (Monday)Edit
January 12, 1937 (Tuesday)Edit
January 13, 1937 (Wednesday)Edit
- At the Temple of Heaven in Beijing, a crowd of 50,000 onlookers watched as authorities burned 10,000 ounces of drugs and then executed 5 drug traffickers.
- Pope Pius XI left his sickbed for the first time in a month.
- Born: George Barr, science fiction and fantasy artist, in Tucson, Arizona; George Reisman, economist, in New York City; Ati George Sokomanu, President of Vanuatu, in Vanuatu
January 14, 1937 (Thursday)Edit
January 15, 1937 (Friday)Edit
January 16, 1937 (Saturday)Edit
January 17, 1937 (Sunday)Edit
- A prison riot broke out near Guelph, Canada. Inmates started fires and fought police for ten hours until order was restored. An estimated $250,000 in damage was done and it was feared that 200 of the prison's 700 inmates had escaped.
- The Soviet Union sent Britain a note on the Spanish Civil War explaining that the Soviet government, although it "presently does not practice the dispatchment of volunteer detachments, does not consider it expedient to adopt unilateral prohibitive measures."
- The melodrama film Black Legion starring Humphrey Bogart premiered in New York City.
- Died: Richard Boleslawski, 47, Polish director and actor
January 18, 1937 (Monday)Edit
- The Ohio River flood began when the river exceeded the flood stage of 52 feet.
- Hitler authorized the creation of Adolf Hitler Schools, special new schools for gifted boys 12 to 18 that would prepare them for the NS-Ordensburgen.
- Born: Yukio Endo, artistic gymnast, in Akita City, Japan (d. 2009); John Hume, politician and Nobel laureate, in Derry, Northern Ireland
January 19, 1937 (Tuesday)Edit
- Howard Hughes set a new transcontinental aviation record by flying from Los Angeles to New York in 7 hours, 28 minutes and 25 seconds.
- British Parliament convened for its first session of the New Year. Anthony Eden gave a speech on the foreign situation saying that the future of the continent lay with Germany, who "has it in her power to influence a choice which will decide not only her fate, but that of Europe. If she chooses co-operation with other nations, full and equal co-operation, there is nobody in this country who will not assist wholeheartedly to remove misunderstandings and to make the way smooth for peace and prosperity."
- Nap Lajoie, Tris Speaker and Cy Young were elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.
- Born: Giovanna Marini, singer-songwriter, in Rome, Italy
January 20, 1937 (Wednesday)Edit
- The Second inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt was held. It was the first to take place on January 20 as per the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution instead of March 4. In the best-known line of Roosevelt's second inauguration speech he said, "I see one-third of a nation ill-housed, ill-clad, ill-nourished."
- Born: Bailey Howell, basketball player, in Middleton, Tennessee
January 21, 1937 (Thursday)Edit
- France placed an embargo on arms and volunteers in the Spanish Civil War.
- Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta by Hungarian composer Béla Bartók premiered in Basel, Switzerland.
- Born: Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria, heir to the Bavarian royal house, in Munich, Germany
- Died: Marie Provost, 38, Canadian-born film actress (acute alcoholism)
January 22, 1937 (Friday)Edit
January 23, 1937 (Saturday)Edit
- The second Moscow Trial began. 17 lesser communist leaders known as the Anti-Soviet Trotskyist Center were charged with an anti-Stalin conspiracy.
- The entire Japanese cabinet resigned due to a split between military leaders and anti-military political parties in the National Diet who thought that the army had too much influence over the government.
January 24, 1937 (Sunday)Edit
January 25, 1937 (Monday)Edit
- The soap opera Guiding Light premiered on NBC Radio. It would make the jump to television in 1952 and become the longest-running soap opera in history by the time of its cancellation in 2009.
- Born: Ange-Félix Patassé, politician, in Paoua, Ubangi-Shari (d. 2011)
- Died: Addison Burkhardt, 57, American librettist and lyricist
January 26, 1937 (Tuesday)Edit
January 27, 1937 (Wednesday)Edit
- The 1935 salaries of Hollywood movie stars were made public as part of a Congressional study on salaries paid by corporations. Greta Garbo topped the list at $332,500, followed by Wallace Beery ($278,749), Joan Crawford ($241,403), William Powell ($238,750) and Clark Gable ($211,553).
- The Duke of Norfolk married Lavinia Mary Strutt at Brompton Oratory in London. 5,000 women jostled each other and fought police outside the venue in an effort to get a glimpse of the proceedings.
- Born: John Ogdon, pianist and composer, in Mansfield Woodhouse, England (d. 1989)
January 28, 1937 (Thursday)Edit
January 29, 1937 (Friday)Edit
- The Japanese aircraft carrier Sōryū entered service.
- The drama film The Good Earth, based on the novel of the same name by Pearl S. Buck, premiered in Los Angeles.
- Born: Bobby Scott, jazz musician, record producer and songwriter, in Mount Pleasant, New York (d. 1990)
- Died: Aleen Cust, 68, Irish veterinary surgeon
January 30, 1937 (Saturday)Edit
- The Trial of the Anti-Soviet Trotskyist Center ended. 13 of the 17 defendants were sentenced to execution by firing squad.
- The Associated Press reported a total of 333 known deaths across eight U.S. states from the recent flooding. 225 of the deaths were in Kentucky.
- On the fourth anniversary of the Nazis coming to power, Adolf Hitler made a speech in which he formally renounced Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles.
- Hitler banned Germans from accepting Nobel Prizes.
- Born: Vanessa Redgrave, actress and political activist, in Greenwich, London, England; Boris Spassky, chess grandmaster, in Leningrad, USSR
- Died: Georgy Pyatakov, 46, Ukrainian Communist leader (executed)
January 31, 1937 (Sunday)Edit
- "Spanish Ship Seized by Germans". The Barrier Miner. Broken Hill, New South Wales. January 2, 1937. p. 1.
- "German Warships Off Spain". The Sydney Morning Herald. January 4, 1937. p. 9.
- Darrah, David (January 4, 1937). "Spain Charges Acts of War". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.
- Mercer, Derrik, ed. (1989). Chronicle of the 20th Century. London: Chronicle Communications Ltd. p. 478. ISBN 978-0-582-03919-3.
- "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem". academic.oup.com. 1937. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
- "Chronology 1937". indiana.edu. 2002. Retrieved September 9, 2015.
- Cortada, James W., ed. (1982). Historical Dictionary of the Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 505. ISBN 0-313-22054-9.
- Powell, John (January 4, 1937). "China Starts Shooting Drug Addicts". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.
- Schultz, Sigrid (January 6, 1937). "Nazis Order 4 Children in All Family Scenes". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.
- Peters, Gerbhard; Woolley, John T. "Annual Message to Congress – January 6, 1937". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved September 9, 2015.
- "Juliana and Prince Are Wed in Splendor". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. January 7, 1937. p. 1.
- "Neutrality Bill Signed". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. January 8, 1937. p. 1.
- Tierney, Dominic (2007). FDR and the Spanish Civil War: Neutrality and Commitment in the Struggle That Divided America. Duke University Press. pp. 51–52. ISBN 978-0-8223-4076-8.
- "France's Army Ready to Enter Spanish Africa". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 11, 1937. p. 1.
- Brewer, Sam (January 11, 1937). "Britain Forbids Her Citizens to Enlist in Spain". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 2.
- Small, Alex (January 12, 1937). "Nazis Will Stay Out of Morocco, Hitler's Pledge". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 5.
- "30 Lives Lost in Wreck off Scottish Coast". Singapore Free Press. January 26, 1937. p. 12.
- "50,000 Watch Shooting of 5 Drug Peddlers". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 14, 1937. p. 2.
- "Pope Arises From Sickbed For First Time in a Month". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. January 13, 1937. p. 1.
- "Speed Up War! Hitler and Duce Warn Franco". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 15, 1937. p. 1.
- "France Votes to Halt Spanish War Volunteers". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 16, 1937. p. 4.
- "French May Let Jews Settle on Island on Madagascar". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 17, 1937. p. 4.
- "Prisoners Riot; Fire Buildings; Many Escape". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 18, 1937. p. 1.
- "Russia Rejects Individual Curb on Help to Spain". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 18, 1937. p. 9.
- Schrage, Robert (2011). Carl Kiger: The Man Beyond The Murder. Covington. Kentucky: The Merlot Group, LLC. pp. 20–22. ISBN 978-0-9816123-4-8.
- Schultz, Sigrid (January 19, 1937). "Hitler to Train Cream of Youth for Leadership". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 7.
- "Hughes, Riding Gale, Sets Record Of 7 1/2 Hours in Flight From Coast". The New York Times. January 20, 1937. p. 1.
- "Mr. Eden's Statement". Hansard. January 19, 1937. Retrieved September 9, 2015.
- "Fame Comes to Speaker, Lajoie and Cy Young". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 20, 1937. p. 23.
- Pederson, William D. (2006). Presidential Profiles: The FDR Years. New York: Facts on File. p. 358. ISBN 978-0-8160-7460-0.
- "Record Flood Surges Down Ohio Valley". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 23, 1937. p. 1.
- Vadim Z Rogovin, 1937: Stalin's Year of Terror (Mehring books 1998; ISBN 0-929087-77-1.) p. 113.
- "Japan Cabinet Resigns; Fight in Parliament". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 23, 1937. p. 13.
- "Japanese Army Balks Effort to Pick Cabinet". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 27, 1937. p. 8.
- "Film Stars Top Their Bosses in 1935 Salaries". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 28, 1937. p. 1.
- Brewer, Sam (January 28, 1937). "5,000 Women Riot as Duke Weds a Beauty". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.
- Pelletier, Joe (November 17, 2009). "Howie Morenz's Death Bed". Greatest Hockey Legends. Retrieved September 9, 2015.
- "1937". MusicAndHistory. Archived from the original on August 29, 2012. Retrieved September 9, 2015.
- "13 Must Die for Russian Pliot; Radek Spared". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 30, 1937. p. 1.
- "Flood by States and Cities". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 30, 1937. p. 12.
- Schultz, Sigrid (January 31, 1937). "Hitler Retracts War Guilt". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.