Gonzalo Queipo de Llano
Gonzalo Queipo de Llano y Sierra (5 February 1875 – 9 March 1951) was a Spanish military leader who rose to prominence during the July 1936 coup d'état and the subsequent Spanish Civil War and White Terror.
Gonzalo Queipo de Llano
|Born||5 February 1875|
Tordesillas, Kingdom of Spain
|Died||9 March 1951 (aged 76)|
Seville, Francoist Spain
La Macarena Basilica, Seville( )
|Allegiance|| Kingdom of Spain (1896–1931)|
Spanish Republic (1931–1936)
Francoist Spain (1936–1951)
|Years of service||1896–1939|
|Commands held||Nationalist Army of the South|
Captain General of Andalusia
División General of Madrid
Spanish Civil War
|Awards||Laureate Cross of Saint Ferdinand (Grand Cross)|
Order of Military Merit (Grand Cross)
A career Army man, Queipo de Llano was a brigadier general in 1923 when he began to speak out against the army and Miguel Primo de Rivera. Demoted, he served three years in prison but refused to stop criticizing even on his release, as a result of which he was dismissed altogether in 1928. In 1930, he became a revolutionary but on a failed attempt to overthrow King Alfonso XIII, he fled to Portugal. He returned to his native land in 1931 after the departure of Alfonso XIII and assumed command of the 1st Military District of the Spanish Republican Army. He was later appointed by Niceto Alcalá Zamora to the Chief of the military staff of the President (Queipo's daughter was married to a son of Alcalá Zamora). Even as he rose in prominence, he remained critical of the shifting governments, joining in on a plot to overthrow the Popular Front government in May, 1936.
During the Spanish Civil War, Queipo de Llano secured the capture of Seville with a force of at least 4,000 troops. There, he ordered mass killings. Subsequently, he was appointed the commander of the Nationalist Army of the South. His influence began to decline in February 1938, when Francisco Franco named himself Sole Head of the New State and appointed his brother-in-law Ramón Serrano Súñer Minister of the Interior and Propaganda.
- Jackson, Gabriel. The Spanish Republic and the Spanish Civil War, 1931–1939. Princeton University Press. Princeton. 1967. p. 225.
- Preston, Paul. The Spanish Civil War: Reaction, Revolution and Revenge. Harper Perennial. London. 2006. p. 106.
- Preston, Paul. 2012. The Spanish Holocaust. Harper Press. London. p. 330–331.
- Antony Beevor (2006). The Battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War 1936–1939. Penguin Books. 2006. ISBN 0-14-303765-X
- Tom Buchanan, (1997). Britain and the Spanish Civil War. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45569-3
- Gabriel Jackson, (1965). The Spanish Republic and the Civil War, 1931–1939. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00757-8. OCLC 185862219, another edition, 1967.
- Minder, Raphael (October 15, 2018). "In Seville, Burial of Civil War Commander Reopens Decades-Old Wounds". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
- Stanley G. Payne (1970). The Spanish Revolution. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-00124-8.
- Stanley G. Payne (2004). The Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union, and Communism. New Haven; London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10068-X. OCLC 186010979.
- Stanley G. Payne, (1999). Fascism in Spain, 1923–1977. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-16564-7.
- Stanley G. Payne, (2008). Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany, and World. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12282-4.
- Paul Preston. The Spanish Civil War: Reaction, Revolution and Revenge. Harper Perennial. London. (2006). ISBN 0-393-32987-9 / 0-393-32987-9 ISBN 978-0-393-32987-2.
- Paul Preston (2012). The Spanish Holocaust. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. (2012), ISBN 9780393064766.
- Ronald Radosh; Mary Habeck, Grigory Sevostianov (2001). Spain Betrayed: The Soviet Union in the Spanish Civil War with Mary R. Habeck and Grigorii Nikolaevich Sevostianov. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08981-3. OCLC 186413320
- Rúben Emanuel Serém (2012). Conspiracy, Coup d'État and Civil War in Seville (1936–1939): History and Myth in Francoist Spain (PDF). PhD dissertation. London: LSE.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hugh Thomas. The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. 2003, 4th edition. (1961, 1987, 2003). London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-101161-0. OCLC 248799351.
|New creation|| Marquis of Queipo de Llano
1 April 1950 – 9 March 1951
Gonzalo Queipo de Llano y Martí