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Cuxhaven ([kʊksˈhaːfən], Low German: Cuxhoben) is an independent town and seat of the Cuxhaven district, in Lower Saxony, Germany. The town includes the northernmost point of Lower Saxony. It is situated on the shore of the North Sea at the mouth of the Elbe River. Cuxhaven has a footprint of 14 kilometres (9 miles) (east–west) by 7 km (4 mi) (north–south). Its town quarters Duhnen, Döse and Sahlenburg are especially popular vacation spots on the North Sea and home to about 52,000 residents.
Kugelbake, symbol of Cuxhaven
|• Mayor||Ulrich Getsch (independent)|
|• Total||161.91 km2 (62.51 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2 m (7 ft)|
|• Density||300/km2 (770/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
27472, 27474, 27476, 27478
Cuxhaven is home to an important fisherman's wharf and ship registration point for Hamburg as well as the Kiel Canal until 2008. Tourism is also of great importance. The city and its precursor Ritzebüttel belonged to Hamburg from the 13th century until 1937. The island of Neuwerk, a Hamburg dependency, is located just northwest of Cuxhaven in the North Sea. The city's symbol, known as the Kugelbake, is a beacon once used as a lighthouse; the wooden landmark on the mouth of the Elbe marks the boundary between the river and the North Sea and also adorns the city's coat of arms.
Ritzebüttel, today a part of Cuxhaven, belonged to the Land of Hadeln, first an exclave of the younger Duchy of Saxony and after its de facto dynastic partition in 1296 of the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg, established de jure in 1260. In 1394 the city of Hamburg conquered the fortress of Ritzebüttel and made it its stronghold to protect the estuary of the river Elbe, which connects that city with the open sea.
The Hamburg America Line built a large ocean liner terminal at Cuxhaven in 1900. Connected directly to Hamburg by a dedicated railway line and station, it served as the major departure point for German and European emigrants until 1969 when ocean liner travel ceased. The ornate assembly hall and associated buildings survived wartime damage and peacetime demolition to be restored in 1998 for use as a museum and cruise ship terminal.
On 15 March 1907 Cuxhaven gained city status within the state of Hamburg. In 1937 Cuxhaven became an urban district of the Stade Region within the Prussian Province of Hanover by the Greater Hamburg Act. In 1972 some municipalities of the neighboured rural district of Land of Hadeln were incorporated into the urban district of Cuxhaven. In 1977 Cuxhaven lost the status as urban district and was integrated into the new rural District of Cuxhaven, being its capital.
During the First World War Nordholz Airbase with its airship hangars, near Nordholz to the south of Cuxhaven, was one of the major German naval airship stations. On Christmas Day 1914 it was attacked by Royal Navy seaplanes in the Cuxhaven Raid.
During the Second World War, the town hosted a base of a German military radio network, codenamed BROWN, which transmitted data regarding experimental weapon developments, including rocketry. From this location the last ENIGMA-code encrypted message of the war was transmitted on 7 May 1945. It reported the arrival of British troops and ends: "Closing down for ever - all the best - goodbye."
Between 1945 and 1964 various civilian experiments in rocketry were performed near Cuxhaven.
The origins of tourism go back to the year 1816 when a seaside resort was founded in Cuxhaven. Since 1964 Cuxhaven has been a state-recognized climate seaside resort (Seeheilbad) and centre of the so-called holiday region of Cuxland.
Geographical and cultural backgroundEdit
The town is served by Cuxhaven station.
The island of Neuwerk is situated 8 kilometres (5 mi) off the coast from Cuxhaven. At low tide the water recedes so far from the coast that the island can be reached either by mudflat hiking or by horse carriage.
A modern landmark of Cuxhaven is the Friedrich-Clemens-Gerke Tower, a telecommunication tower built of concrete, which is not accessible to the public. It is not really a landmark, for many cities in Germany have a similar tower.
The high test peroxide (HTP) submarine U 1407, was raised from where she had been scuttled in Cuxhaven after WWII and rebuilt by the British, being commissioned as HMS Meteorite. It was the catalyst for a series of German-made Air-independent propulsion submarines such as the Type 212 submarine and Type 214 submarine.
Sister cities and twin townsEdit
|Penzance||Cornwall||United Kingdom||1967–1974, 2009–present|
- Rainer Feist (1945–2007), Admiral, Deputy Supreme Commander of the NATO – HQ
- Jochen Fraatz (born 1963), handball player, member of German national handball team
- Volker Neumüller (born 1969), music manager and former DSDS jury member
- Carsten Niebuhr, (1733–1815), German mathematician, cartographer, and explorer of the Arabian Peninsula under the service of Denmark
- Lena Petermann (born 1994), football player
- Joachim Ringelnatz, (1883–1934), German poet, cabaret artiste and painter. Since 2002 the city hosts the Joachim Ringelnatz-Museum, managed by the Joachim Ringelnatz-Foundation.
- Curt Rothenberger (1896–1959), lawyer and Nazi politician
- Gunnar Sauer (born 1964), professional football player
- Stefanie Schneider (born 1968), photographer/artist
- Constantin Schreiber (born 1979), journalist and author
- Anna Strohsahl (1885–1953), first woman city councillor in Cuxhaven
- Landesamt für Statistik Niedersachsen, LSN-Online Regionaldatenbank, Tabelle 12411: Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes, Stand 31. Dezember 2018.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 677. .
- Hapag Halle Museum Cuxhaven
- Corera, Gordon (8 May 2020). "VE Day 2020: Last Nazi message intercepted by Bletchley Park revealed". BBC News. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cuxhaven.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Cuxhaven.|