FC Metalist Kharkiv
|Full name||Football Club Metalist Kharkiv|
|Nickname(s)||Hor'ky (The Weasels)|
|Founded||11 December 1925|
|Dissolved||19 April 2016|
Founded in 1925, FC Metalist Kharkiv had worked its way up the rungs of the Soviet football system, eventually being promoted to the Soviet Top League in 1960. After a difficult period which included relegation, Metalist was promoted to the Top League again in 1982, where it remained until the league's dissolution.
The club won the Soviet Cup once, and were also runners-up once. They have also won silver medals of the 2012–13 Ukrainian Premier League and six bronze medals of the Ukrainian Premier League, starting from the 2006–07 season. Their home was the Metalist Stadium, a multi-use facility with a capacity of 40,003. The stadium was originally built in 1926 and was expanded to host Euro 2012 football matches.
Metalist ceased operations in 2016 due to insolvency. It was removed from the Ukrainian Premier League after owner Serhiy Kurchenko absconded in February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution.
Following the demise of Metalist Kharkiv in 2016, two new clubs were created in Kharkiv with variations of the Metalist club name. Since July 2016, a team named "SK Metalist Kharkiv" has been playing in the Kharkiv Oblast Championship, whose owner is former Metalist owner Serhiy Kurchenko.
In August 2016, another club named "FC Metalist 1925 Kharkiv" began to operate in the Ukrainian Amateur Football League with the stated intention of competing in the (professional) Ukrainian Second League as soon as possible. "FC Metalist 1925 Kharkiv" is owned by a company not linked with the original FC Metalist Kharkiv.
In October 2017, a Ukrainian court confiscated (the original) Metalist Kharkiv from Kurchenko and placed it under state property. At the time the club did not participate in any official sanctioned competitions.
- 1 History
- 2 Stadium
- 3 Presidents
- 4 Honours and achievements
- 5 Football kits and sponsors
- 6 Rivalry
- 7 Player records
- 8 League and Cup history
- 9 Metalist in Europe
- 10 Managers
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The team has played under the following names:
- KhPZ (1925–1940)
- Dzerzhinets (1947–1952)
- Avanhard/Avangard (1956–1965)
- Metalist/Metallist (since 1965)
FC Metalist Kharkiv was initially founded on 11 December 1925 as KhPZ, when a local locomotive construction facility (Kharkiv Steam-locomotive Factory, today the Malyshev Factory) provided funding and allowed use of its land to start a football club. Ten years later, the club won the city of Kharkiv championship, which allowed the club to enter the USSR Cup in the following season. Following World War II, the club under the name Dzerzhinets resumed playing in local competitions, promoting itself to the Second Group (Soviet Second Division) in 1947 only to be demoted three seasons later. In the first post-war decade the club was completely overshadowed by its city rival FC Lokomotyv Kharkiv which was member of the Soviet Lokomotiv sports society.
In 1956, Metalist as Avanhard returned to the Soviet Second League B replacing its city rivals Lokomotyv Khakriv. Soon thereafter it was promoted first to Soviet First League in 1958, and later to the Soviet Top League in 1960. The club stayed in Top League for 4 seasons, but was demoted to First League in 1963, continuing its decline with demotion to Second League. In 1978, the club was promoted to the Soviet First League and two years later, the club finished third in the competition narrowly missing promotion to the top flight. The following season, the club improved on their previous performance and won the Soviet First League outright to earn a spot in Soviet Top League. The club sustained 10 seasons of the Soviet Top League with several successes on the domestic front. In 1983, Metalist was the runner-up in the USSR Cup (losing 1–0 to Shakhtar Donetsk) and a few years later in 1988 would win the cup, beating Torpedo Moscow 2–0. As a result, Metalist Kharkiv earned a trip to the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup. Metalist only advanced to the last sixteen of the competition, beating Yugoslavian side Borac Banja Luka and losing to the Dutch club Roda JC.
Ukrainian Premier LeagueEdit
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the formation of an independent Ukraine, Metalist joined the inaugural season of the Ukrainian Premier League in 1992. The club finished in fifth place, an achievement it would never top until the 2006–07 season, finishing in fifth place three more times since, the most notable coming during the 2001–02 season. The club finished with 40 points, on a par with Metalurh Zaporizhzhya and Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk for a three-way tie. Metalist was expected to take fourth place (and subsequently compete in the UEFA Cup) by virtue of having the best three-way, head-to-head record among the three teams (which is the official tie-breaker to be used in domestic competitions), but following a protest by Metalurh Zaporizhzhya and an arbitrary decision by PFL (the administrative body of the UPL), Metalurh Zaporizhzhya was awarded fourth place on the grounds that it had better head-to-head records independently against either side.
Following unsuccessful protests from Metalist, a disheartened management, team and fan base would see the club finish bottom in the following season and earning a demotion to the Ukrainian First League. However, the club would return to the UPL after one season and following a financial crisis and a takeover of the club by UkrSibbank owner Oleksandr Yaroslavsky, steady investment would see Metalist show improvement and balanced performance. Yaroslavsky sold the club to new owner Serhiy Kurchenko late in December 2012. Kurchenko left Ukraine in February 2014 following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution and his current whereabouts are unknown.
In the 2006–07 season, Metalist finished third place in the league, qualifying for the 2007–08 UEFA Cup, their second appearance in a UEFA competition. They were drawn against English club Everton. The first leg, away at Goodison Park, ended in a 1–1 draw while Everton won the second leg 3–2, eliminating Metalist.
Metalist's next European competition was the 2008–09 UEFA Cup. The club beat Beşiktaş 4–2 on aggregate in the first round to qualify for the group stage, where they were grouped with Galatasaray, Olympiacos, Hertha BSC and Benfica. Metalist finished top of the group, beating Galatasaray, Olympiacos and Benfica, whilst drawing 0–0 with Hertha. In the round of 32, Metalist defeated Italian club Sampdoria 3–0 on aggregate, setting up for an all-Ukrainian round of 16 tie against Dynamo Kyiv. After losing in Kiev 1–0, Metalist won the return leg 3–2, but were eliminated on the away goals rule.
When the competition was re-branded as the Europa League for the 2009–10 season, Metalist beat Croatian side HNK Rijeka 4–1 on aggregate in the third qualifying round before losing 2–1 on aggregate to Austrian side Sturm Graz, despite holding them 1–1 in Graz. The following season, they finished second in Group I behind Dutch giants PSV Eindhoven, thus qualifying for the round of 32 where they were thrashed 6–0 on aggregate by Bayer Leverkusen. They reached the quarter-finals the following season, beating Olympiacos on away goals in the round of 16, but falling to Sporting CP. The following season, they then faced Bayer Leverkusen again—after beating Leverkusen 2–0 on 22 November 2012, Metalist finished above the side on head-to-head points (13), as they both finished on 13 points and had played out a goalless draw at the BayArena. In the round of 32, Metalist then faced English club Newcastle United. After holding them to a goalless draw at St James' Park in the first leg on 14 February, Shola Ameobi scored a penalty sent Newcastle through 1–0 on aggregate.
Stoppage in 2016 and the new clubEdit
On 22 April 2016, the FFU Committee announced that Metalist would not be allowed to participate in professional competitions because of its debts to its players. On 16 May 2016, the FFU Appeal Committee left in force the decision of the FFU Football Clubs Attestation Committee of 22 April 2016 and refused in issuing attestation for the next season for the club by declining its appeals.
In July 2016, a team named SK Metalist Kharkiv started playing in the Kharkiv Oblast Championship. "SK Metalist Kharkiv" is owned (by the same man under who's watch Metalist Kharkiv was expelled from the professional league's) Serhiy Kurchenko. In 2016 Kharkiv Oblast Championship, the club competed under the name UPhC Olimpik – SC Metalist and placed the last place. UPhC Olimpik is a team of the Kharkiv State College of Physical Culture 1.
In August 2016, a new club called FC Metalist 1925 Kharkiv applied for the 2016–17 Ukrainian Football Amateur League, where it was headed by Oleksandr Pryzetko. The owner of FC Metalist 1925 Kharkiv is the company TOV Avanhard Kharkiv, later renamed to FC Metalist 1925 Kharkiv. TOV Avanhard Kharkiv is controlled by businessman and Kharkiv City Council deputy for Petro Poroshenko Bloc "Solidarity" Oleksandr Davtyan and his family. The club has planned to play in the professional Ukrainian Second League as soon as possible.
On 28 April 2017 the FFU Control and Disciplinary Committee (CDC) implemented sanctions against 14 players of the FC Metalist Kharkiv on petition of the FFU Committee on ethics and fair play. Most players were restricted from conducting any activity related to football between six months to a year. Sanctions of three out of those 14 players exceeded that period up to three years and included such players as Yevhen Malyk (2yrs), Dmytro Skarzhynskyi (3yrs), and Oleksandr Medvedev (3yrs).
(The original) Metalist Kharkiv was in October 2017 confiscated by a Ukrainian court from Kurchenko and placed under state property. At the time the club did not participate in any official sanctioned competitions.
On 22 December 2017 it became known that among creditors who filed claims against the club are Kharkivoblenerho, Kharkivgaszbut, town of Vysochansk, Metalist Stadium, Cyprus off-shore company Hensley Capital Limited (a founding company of the club), State Fiscal Service in Kharkiv Oblast, in addition about 846 million hryvnias the club indebted to its former playing and non-playing staff.
As Metalist Stadium was one of the venues for UEFA Euro 2012, the management decided to reconstruct and expand the arena and turn it into a modern recreational and leisure facility. In May 2008, Metalist Arena was the venue for 2008 Ukrainian Cup Final.
Honours and achievementsEdit
- Ukrainian Premier League
- Soviet First League
- Winners (1): 1981
- Ukrainian First League
- Runners-up (1): 2003–04
- Championship of the Ukrainian SSR
- Winners (1): 1978
- Soviet Cup
- Winners (1): 1988
- Runners-up (1): 1983
- Ukrainian Cup
- Runners-up (1): 1992
- USSR Federation Cup
- Runners-up (1): 1987
- Soviet Super Cup
- Runners-up (1): 1989
Football kits and sponsorsEdit
|Years||Football kit||Shirt sponsor|
BNP Paribas Group
Metalist Kharkiv supporters biggest rivalry centred on Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk. Despite this fans of both clubs marched in support of a "united Ukraine" in Kharkiv during the April 2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine.
A group of Metalist Kharkiv Ultras named "Sect 82" had a violent rivalry with Dynamo Kyiv. "Sect 82" was (at least until September 2013) allied with FC Spartak Moscow Ultras. (In 2014 "Sect 82" morphed into the Azov Battalion of the National Guard of Ukraine.)
- Other – National Super Cup
As of 25 May 2014
- Other – National Super Cup
League and Cup historyEdit
|Season||Div.||Pos.||Pl.||W||D||L||GS||GA||P||Soviet Cup||Ukrainian Cup||Notes|
|1940-1945||World War II|
|Dzerzhynets / Dzerzhinets|
|9||24||9||3||12||43||47||21||1/128 finals||1/4 finals|
|1949||6||34||16||7||11||50||41||39||1/256 finals||Withdrew; Reorganization|
|FC Lokomotyv Kharkiv was withdrawn and replaced with Avanhard Kharkiv|
|Avanhard / Avangard|
|13||10||4||4||2||11||5||12||13-18 places group|
|6||10||2||4||4||8||10||8||1-10 places group|
|14||10||4||4||2||15||9||12||13-22 places group|
(Klass A. Pervaya gruppa)
(Klass A. Vtoraya gruppa)
|6||14||4||6||4||15||14||14||1-14 places group|
|3||16||8||2||6||19||20||18||1-16 places group|
|Metalist / Metallist|
(Klass A. Vtoraya gruppa)
(Klass A. Pervaya gruppa)
|1972||16||38||10||12||16||33||42||32||1/16 final||CoU||1/8 finals|
|1973||19||38||11||5||22||34||50||27||1/16 final||CoU||1/8 finals||Relegated|
|2||38||15||15||8||63||42||45||CoU||1/16 finals||Ukrainian Championship|
|3||5||2||2||1||7||5||6||Final group; Promoted|
|19||38||10||11||17||30||49||31||1/16 final||CoU||1/4 finals||Relegated|
|2||38||19||8||11||51||29||46||CoU||1/2 finals||Ukrainian Championship|
|1977||4||44||22||16||6||59||24||60||1/16 final||Ukrainian Championship|
|1978||1||44||29||12||3||66||20||70||Champions of Ukraine|
|1||2||1||0||1||1||1||2||Promotion playoff won|
|1988||11||30||8||10||12||29||36||26||Winner||CW||2nd round||First international participation|
|1991||15||30||8||9||13||32||43||25||1/16||Joined Vyshcha Liha|
|1992||no league competition||1/4||withdrew from the Soviet Cup|
|2007–08||3||30||19||6||5||50||27||63||1/8 finals||UC||1st round||Bronze stripped|
|3||30||17||8||5||44||25||59||1/2 finals||UC||Round of 16|
|2009–10||3||30||19||5||6||49||23||62||1/8 finals||EL||Play-off round|
|2010–11||3||30||18||6||6||58||26||60||1/16 finals||EL||Round of 32|
|2011–12||3||30||16||11||3||54||32||59||1/8 finals||EL||1/4 finals|
|2012–13||2||30||20||6||4||59||25||66||1/8 finals||EL||Round of 32|
|2013–14||3||28||16||9||3||54||29||57||1/4 finals||UCL||3rd qual. round|
|2014–15||6||25||8||11||6||34||32||35||1/4 finals||EL||Group stage|||
|2016||Club was reformed as SC Metalist competing at regional level.|
Metalist in EuropeEdit
UEFA Team rankingEdit
Last update: May 5, 2017
Metalist Kharkiv participates in European competitions since 1988 after playing its first against Borac Banja Luka. From 2007 to 2014, however, the club continuously participated on annual basis with variable successes. This ended when Metalist failed to qualify.
|UEFA Cup / Europa League|
|2011–12||Quarter-Finalist||eliminated by Sporting CP 1–2 in Lisbon, 1–1 in Kharkiv|
|Games of Metalist in UEFA competitions|
|1988–89||Cup Winners' Cup||First round||Borac Banja Luka||4–0||0–2||4–2|
|Second round||Roda JC||0–0||0–1||0–1|
|2007–08||UEFA Cup||First round||Everton||2–3||1–1||3–4|
|2008–09||UEFA Cup||First round||Beşiktaş J.K.||4–1||0–1||4–2|
|Group B||Hertha BSC||0–0||—||1st|
|Round of 32||Sampdoria||2–0||1–0||3–0|
|Round of 16||Dynamo Kyiv||3–2||0–1||3–3 (a)|
|2009–10||UEFA Europa League||Third qualifying round||Rijeka||2–0||2–1||4–1|
|Play-off round||Sturm Graz||0–1||1–1||1–2|
|2010–11||UEFA Europa League||Play-off round||Omonia||2–2||1–0||3–2|
|Group I||PSV Eindhoven||0–2||0–0||2nd|
|Round of 32||Bayer Leverkusen||0–4||0–2||0–6|
|2011–12||UEFA Europa League||Play-off round||Sochaux||0–0||4–0||4–0|
|Round of 32||Red Bull Salzburg||4–0||4–1||8–1|
|Round of 16||Olympiacos||0–1||2–1||2–2 (a)|
|2012–13||UEFA Europa League||Play-off round||Dinamo București||2–1||2–0||4–1|
|Group K||Bayer Leverkusen||2–0||0–0||1st|
|Round of 32||Newcastle United||0–1||0–0||0–1|
|2013–14||UEFA Champions League||Third qualifying round||PAOK||1–1||2–0||3–1|
|Play-off round||Schalke 04||Disqualified due to match-fixing|
|2014–15||UEFA Europa League||Play-off round||Ruch Chorzów||0–0||1–0||1–0|
|Group L||Legia Warsaw||0–1||1–2||4th|
- Oleksandr Ponomarov (1960–61)
- Viktor Zhylin (1962–63)
- Yevgeni Yeliseyev (1965–66)
- Viktor Kanevskyi (1968–71)
- Viktor Terentiev (1972)
- Yuriy Voynov (1972–73)
- Oleg Oshenkov (1975–76)
- Yevhen Lemeshko (1977–88)
- Leonid Tkachenko (1984–??)
- Oleksandr Dovbiy (1990–91)
- Viktor Aristov (1993)
- Oleksandr Dovbiy (1994)
- Mykhaylo Fomenko (July 1996 – June 2000)
- Oleksandr Dovbiy (1999–2000)
- Mykhaylo Fomenko (July 2001 – Nov 2002)
- Hennadiy Lytovchenko (July 2003 – Dec 2004)
- Oleksandr Zavarov (Jan 2005 – June 2005)
- Myron Markevych (July 2005 – 24 Feb 2014)
- Ihor Rakhayev (24 Feb 2014 – 4 June 2015)
- Oleksandr Sevidov (4 June 2015 – 18 April 2016)
- Oleksandr Pryzetko (interim) (18 April 2016 – May 2016)
- On 14 August 2013 UEFA announced that Metalist was banned from the 2013–14 UEFA Champions League due to an ongoing match fixing investigation related to match fixing arising from a game played against FC Karpaty Lviv in April 2008. The club appealed the decision at the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS), but it rejected Metalist's request, disqualifying the club from European 2013–14 competitions on 16 August 2013. The club was on the verge of competing in the qualifying phase of the tournament at the time of the decision. The CAS announced its final decision on Metalist's complaint on 28 August 2013 (thus one day after the club's final match in the qualifying phase of the tournament would have taken place); it upheld UEFA's decision to disqualify Metalist from European competitions.
- (in Ukrainian) The court returned the Metalist FC to the state property, The Ukrainian Week (3 October 2017)
- (in Russian) Kharkiv Regional League standings Archived 27 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine
(in Russian) In Kharkiv was created an alternative "Metallist", SQ news (10 July 2016)
- "СК «Металлист» vs «Металлист 1925»: что это за клубы и чем они отличаются". 20 August 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- (in Russian) In Kharkov, presented the team "Metallist 1925", SQ (25 August 2016)
- (in Russian) They became known to the founders of the new "Metalist", SQ news (20 August 2016)
- "Metalist" celebrates anniversary, SQ (12 December 2015) (in Russian)
- "Ukraine 2001/02". RSSSF. Retrieved 30 May 2007.
- New owner of FC Metalist intends to win Ukrainian Cup, ready to buy city's share in stadium, Kyiv Post (25 December 2012)
Kernes:Yaroslavsky sold Metalist in anticipation of court's decision on fixed matches, Kyiv Post (25 December 2012)
Akhmetov shocked to learn of Metalist sale, Kyiv Post (27 December 2012)
- EU imposes assets freeze on Yanukovich and ‘family’, Financial Times (March 6, 2014)
Russia's Rosneft might buy Ukraine's Odessa refinery: newspaper, Reuters (March 3, 2014)
- Lausanne court upholds UEFA decision to disqualify FC Metalist from European competitions, says club’s vice president, Interfax-Ukraine (28 August 2013)
UEFA happy with CAS decision on Metalist complaint, Interfax-Ukraine (28 August 2013)
- Lausanne court rejects Metalist’s request to suspend UEFA decision barring club from European competition, Interfax-Ukraine (16 August 2013)
- Lausanne court dismisses Metalist repeat request to suspend its disqualification, Interfax-Ukraine (20 August 2013)
CAS to announce final decision on Metalist’s complaint on August 28, Interfax-Ukraine (20 August 2013)
UEFA welcomes CAS’s decision to reject Metalist’s request to suspend its disqualification from Europe, Interfax-Ukraine (20 August 2013)
FC METALIST KHARKIV V. UEFA – Second request for urgent provisional measures rejected Archived 23 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Court of Arbitration for Sport (20 August 2013)
- Dnipro received license for the next season. It is enough for them the European disqualification. Segodnia. 25 April 2016
- Металісту, Говерлі і Волині відмовлено в атестації, Дніпро - допущений до чемпіонату [Metalist, Hoverla and Volyn denied certification, Dnipro - admitted to the Championship] (in Ukrainian). UA-Football. 25 April 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
- Апеляційний комітет ФФУ відхилив апеляції "Металіста" та "Говерли" [The FFU Appeal Committee decline appeals of Hoverla and Metalist] (in Ukrainian). Football Federation of Ukraine. 16 May 2016. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Результаты Чемпионата Харьковской области по футболу среди аматоров. 2016 г. Высшая лига". 4 March 2017. Archived from the original on 4 March 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- (in Ukrainian) Tavria and Metalist - potential participants of amateur championship of Ukraine, UA-Football (August 5, 2016)
- (in Ukrainian) Metalist Kharkiv in 1925 will play in the amateur championship of Ukraine, UA-Football (August 10, 2016)
- (in Ukrainian) Metalist Kharkiv headed Prizetko 1925, UA-Football (August 16, 2016)
- (in Russian) Shakhtar Donetsk and Metalist in 1925 will hold matches in the same stadium, Bigmir.net (7 March 2017)
- CDC implemented sanctions towards footballers of FC Metalist Kharkiv (КДК застосував санкції щодо футболістів ФК "Металіст" Харків). Football Federation of Ukraine. 28 April 2017
- Metalist has debts of at least 883 million hryvnias and salary debts of minimum 846 million hryvnias (Металіст має борги щонайменше на 883 млн грн, борги з зарплати – мінімум на 846 млн грн). Football 24. 22 December 2017
- Ozirnyi, O. Frankly. Vitaliy Pushkutsa (Part 1) (Откровенно. Виталий Пушкуца (часть 1)). Football.ua. 28 March 2013
- Yaroslavskyi: Metalist-1925? I do not know such Metalist (Ярославский: «Металлист-1925? Я не знаю такого Металлиста»). Sport Arena. 4 November 2019
- Jerseys of Ukrainian clubs Archived 25 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Technocom website". Archived from the original on 18 September 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- "Concern AVEC". avec.ua. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- "Главная". www.dch.com.ua. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- VETEK website Archived 21 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Mayor of Ukraine’s 2nd-biggest city shot in the back, New York Post (28 April 2014)
- (in Ukrainian) "We are trying to come to power through elections, but we have all sorts of possibilities" - as "Azov" becomes party, Hromadske.TV (13 October 2016)
- Baczynska, Gabriela (25 March 2015). "Ukrainian battalion gears up for more fighting". Reuters. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- "Рекордсмены клуба по забитым голам за все годы - Сайт истории и статистики ФК "Металлист" Харьков". metalist-kh-stat.net.ua. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- Pavlushko, Anton. "Metalist Kharkiv - all scorers in Ukrainian football championship (145 players)". Статистика чемпионата Украины по футболу - все игроки, матчи и голы, составы команд и переходы. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- "Рекордсмены клуба по сыгранным матчам за все годы - Сайт истории и статистики ФК "Металлист" Харьков". metalist-kh-stat.net.ua. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- Competition was reorganized
- total of 9 games were drawn, 5 out of which were won on penalty kicks for which Metalist earned one point, while the other four were lost
- won on penalty kicks
- Forfeited its quarterfinal game with FC Lokomotiv Moscow on March 25 and along with the two other Ukrainian clubs quit the competition
- Note: Metalist was disqualified by UEFA due to match fixing in the 2007–08 season.
"Metalist disqualified from UEFA competitions". UEFA. 14 August 2013.
- The Round 26 match between Chornomorets Odesa and Metalist Kharkiv was not played as per recommendation of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine.
Матч "Чорноморець" – "Металіст" не відбудеться [Match between Chornomorets Odesa – Metalist Kharkiv will not take place] (in Ukrainian). Ukrainian Premier League. 29 May 2015. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to FC Metalist Kharkiv.|
- Old website
- Unofficial website
- Official website of FC Metalist 1925 Kharkiv
- Vadim Shevyakin. Первый «Металлист» Маркевича (The first Metalist of Markevych). "mediaport". 7 September 2013.