Ruch Chorzów

Ruch Chorzów (Polish pronunciation: [ˈrux ˈxɔʐuf]) is a Polish association football club based in Chorzów, Upper Silesia. It is one of the most successful football teams in Poland: fourteen-time national champions, and three-time winners of the Polish Cup. Currently the team plays in the Polish Third Division. Ruch plays at the Stadion Miejski with a capacity of 9,300 seats.[1] Ruch Chorzów has also had a very successful female handball team (9 times national champions).

Ruch Chorzów
Ruch Chorzów.svg
Full nameKlub Sportowy Ruch Chorzów
Nickname(s)Niebiescy (The Blues),
Niebieska eRka (The Blue R),
HKS (from Hajducki Klub Sportowy")
Founded20 April 1920; 101 years ago (1920-04-20)
GroundStadion Miejski w Chorzowie
ChairmanSeweryn Siemianowski
ManagerJarosław Skrobacz
LeagueII liga
2020–21III liga – Group 3, 1st, (Champions, Promoted)
WebsiteClub website


The club was founded on 20 April 1920 in Bismarkhuta (German Bismarckhütte, historically Hajduki), one of the many heavily industrialised municipalities in the eastern part of Upper Silesia, a disputed province between Poland and Germany. The main incentive was an appeal of the Polish Plebiscite Committee a few months earlier that led to creation of around one hundred sport associations. It took place in between the first and second Silesian Uprisings, to which the name Ruch is a supposed cover reference.[2] The Polish word ruch is however also a common noun for movement, not as strongly associated with Polishness as names of many other clubs established after the appeal (like Polonia, Powstaniec etc.). On the other hand, the club's first match, a 3:1 win against Orzeł Józefowiec, was played on 3 May 1920, the day of the first Polish Constitution. After the Upper Silesia plebiscite and the third Silesian Uprising in 1921 Bismarkhuta became part of Poland and the Silesian Voivodeship. The municipality was renamed to Wielkie Hajduki on 1 January 1923,[3] hence the club was known as Ruch Wielkie Hajduki until another merger into the town Chorzów (created in 1934 from amalgamation of Królewska Huta, Chorzów and Hajduki Nowe) in the early 1939, with a short period in 1923 after the fusion with the older local German club Bismarckhütter Ballspiel Club, when it was known as Ruch BBC Wielkie Hajduki. After the merger the team played its games on the former BBC's pitch known as na Kalinie.[4] The popular nickname of the club Niebiescy (The Blues) clung to the team already in the 1920s.[5]

Ruch Wielkie Hajduki, Silesian Vice-Champions in 1924

In autumn of 1920 Ruch won the promotion to the nascent Silesian Klasa A (see also: Lower Level Football Leagues in Interwar Poland). The Blues were third out of fourteen teams in its first season, unfinished due to the third Silesian Uprising. The next year Ruch won the championship of the Silesian Klasa A and represented the region in the 1922 Polish Football Championship. In 1924 the club finished second in the regional top league, behind AKS Królewska Huta, before 1924 considered German and known as Verein für Rasenspiele Königshütte, the first team Ruch had developed a local rivalry with. In 1925 the Silesian Klasa A did not play, instead Stanisław Flieger's Cup took place, ultimately won by Ruch, which gave the side a start in the only interwar Polish Cup competition in 1926. On 4 July 1926 Józef Sobota, before 1920 a BBC's player, became the first Ruch's player (and the fourth from Upper Silesia) of the Polish National Team, who also scored a goal (against Estonia). In the same year, two weeks after the national Cup Ruch won for the second time the regional Klasa A, firmly establishing itself as one of the strongest football clubs in this densely populated region and as such it was among the founding clubs of the Polish national league in 1927. In 1933 Ruch won its first Championship as the first side from Silesia, with all the players who were born not further as a few kilometers from the na Kalinie pitch.[6] Thus the first truly golden era began. The local steel mill (since 1934 known as Huta Batory) began to financially support the side. In the winter of 1933 the most noteworthy players such as Edmund Giemsa, Teodor Peterek and Gerard Wodarz were joined by legendary Ernst Wilimowski, bought from 1. FC Kattowitz, who with Peterek and Wodarz were collectively nicknamed the three kings and helped to win another 4 championships (1934, 1935, 1936, 1938). On 1 November 1934 the club, as the last in the league, employed its first coach, Gustav Wieser.[7] The side was also a leader in the unfinished season 1939. The successes rendered the club the most popular in the voivodeship and accelerated building of the new stadium in the years 1934-1935, the current Stadion Miejski.

Ruch in 1938

After the German occupation of Poland in 1939, the club was officially discontinued but unofficially was simply renamed Bismarckhütter SV 99 and joined the Gauliga Oberschlesien in 1941.[8] The club was officially re-established after the war. In 1947 Ruch won the regional championships. In 1948, under communist pressure (Stalinisation), the club was renamed Unia Chorzów, in 1955 it became Unia-Ruch, and finally in 1956 returned to the name Ruch. As Unia the club finished third in the first season of the reactivated national league in 1948 and in 1950 as the second team. In 1951 the club won the reactivated Polish Cup edition and were rewarded with the title of the National Champions (even though they were only sixth in the league). The next two years the club also won the title, first in 1952 after final against Polonia Bytom, another local bitter rival, and in 1953 after finishing the league on the top position. The most renowned player of that era was Gerard Cieślik, who dedicated his whole life to the club and became its icon.

Ruch in 1968

The years 1957-1966 are considered a lost decade, completely overshadowed by the successes of the new biggest regional rival, Górnik Zabrze, even though the club won the championships in 1960. A record of its kind in the national football history as the team consisted of only 14 players, 11 of whom originated in the town of Chorzów. The turn of the tide came in the season 1967/68 when Ruch won the 10th championship title breaking Górnik Zabrze's streak of five consecutive titles. Another golden era for the Blues arrived in the early 1970s with Michal Vičan as a coach. In 1972/73 the club finished second, in 1973/73 they won the only double in the history (the championship and the cup) and advanced up to the quarter-finals of the UEFA Cup. In 1974/75 they again won the league and qualified to the quarter-finals of the European Cup. The most praised players of that times were Bronisław Bula, Zygmunt Maszczyk and Joachim Marx.

These successes were followed by a bad financial plight and mediocre results until 1978/79, when the club won its 13th Championship title. In the 1980s the club was one of the poorest in the national league. The worst came in the season 1986/87, when the club, the only one in the country which so far played all the seasons of the official national top league, was relegated to the second tier. Especially shifty were the circumstances of the relegation decider, against Lechia Gdańsk, when Ruch's goalkeeper Janusz Jojko scored an infamous and bizarre own goal and the club lost the game 1:2.[9] After one year Ruch returned to the top flight as winners of the seconed league and won the 14th Championship title, as the second freshly-promoted club in the national history (the first was Cracovia in 1937), a feat, especially as it was still one of the poorest clubs in the top tier and over half of the players were home-grown,[10] including e.g. Dariusz Gęsior and the most renowned Krzysztof Warzycha, who was also, with 24 goals, the top scorer of the season.

After the political turnover in Poland in 1989 Ruch did not fare well for the first two seasons. The money from the transfer of Krzysztof Warzycha to Panathinaikos A.O. finished quickly. The team began to compete with the top teams first in 1991/92 finishing in the fifth spot, fourth the next year, furthermore the second team (Ruch II) reached the Polish cup final. Ruch was demoted for the second time in the history in the season 1994/95. As before the stay in the second tier lasted one season. While playing in the second league Ruch won its third Polish Cup trophy. In 1998 Ruch reached the final of the UEFA Intertoto Cup and in the season 1999/2000 finished third in the league. The crisis came in 2002/2003 when the club was relegated from the top tier for the third time and in the next season was for the first time in history in danger of being demoted to the third tier, however the club won the relegation play-offs against Stal Rzeszów (1:1, 2:0). In 2005 the club was restructured as spółka akcyjna. The Blues won the promotion to the top flight in the season 2006/2007. In 2009 the side reached Polish Cup final, the next year The Blues finished third in the league. The best season in the recent history was 2011/2012 when Ruch was vice-champion (only 1 point behind the champions, Śląsk Wrocław) and reached the final of the national cup (lost 0:3 against Legia Warsaw).

In 2017, it was decided that for the first time in the history of Polish football, in accordance with the Restructuring Law, SA will initiate an accelerated arrangement procedure aimed at agreeing the terms of debt repayment with creditors. These proceedings were opened before the Katowice District Court on 23 June 2017.[11] In these proceedings all 255 creditors were offered to reduce the debt, spread it into installments or convert the debt into club shares. On 30 November 2017 creditors gathered in court to decide whether or not to accept the offer. The majority agreed and the agreement was adopted, ultimately the agreement became final on 13 March 2018.[12] According to the provisions of the agreement, Ruch is to repay PLN 8 million złoty within 5 years. Installments are spread over 400 thousand złoty every quarter.

Ruch started the 2017/2018 season in Nice I liga with a 6 point deduction for unpaid debts. After a disastrous season in which the Blues suffered heavy defeats: 0:6 in a home match against Pogoń Siedlce (on the club's 98th anniversary); 1:6 in an away game against Miedź Legnica and a 0:6 in the away game against Wigry Suwałki, the club finished last in the league, being 11 points off the play-off place, which resulted in the first relegation to the third level in Ruch's history.

Ruch ended the 2018/2019 season in the II liga in last place, 8 points off of safety. It was the third season in a row in which the Blues were relegated from last place in the table.


  • Polish championship
    • Winners (14): 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1938, 1951,[n 1] 1952, 1953, 1960, 1968, 1974, 1975, 1979, 1989
  • ^ (In 1951 Wisła Kraków was league champion, however, the Polish Championship title was awarded to the Cup winners, Ruch Chorzów.)
  • Current squadEdit

    As of 2 March 2021[13]

    Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

    No. Pos. Nation Player
    2 DF   POL Konrad Kasolik
    3 DF   POL Kacper Kawula
    6 MF   POL Jakub Rudek
    7 MF   POL Daniel Paszek
    8 MF   POL Michał Mokrzycki
    10 MF   POL Tomasz Foszmańczyk
    12 GK   POL Tomasz Nowak
    14 FW   POL Łukasz Janoszka
    15 DF   POL Marcin Kowalski
    17 MF   POL Patryk Sikora
    18 MF   POL Kacper Będzieszak
    19 MF   POL Jakub Nowak
    20 MF   POL Jakub Siwek
    No. Pos. Nation Player
    22 DF   POL Jakub Słota
    27 FW   POL Mariusz Idzik
    31 DF   POL Mateusz Lechowicz
    73 DF   POL Bartłomiej Kulejewski
    82 GK   POL Jakub Bielecki
    97 FW   POL Piotr Kwaśniewski
    MF   POL Michał Biskup
    MF   POL Piotr Wyroba
    MF   POL Tomasz Mamis
    FW   POL Kamil Swikszcz
    GK   POL Jakub Grzywaczewski (on loan from Cracovia)
    DF   POL Pawel Kulisz
    MF   POL Tomasz Neugebauer

    Out on loanEdit

    Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

    No. Pos. Nation Player
    GK   POL Wiktor Gasztyk (at Ślęza Wrocław until 30 June 2021)
    DF   POL Pawel Starzynski (at AKS Mikołów until 30 June 2021)
    No. Pos. Nation Player
    DF   POL Szymon Gorecki (at Polonia Łaziska Górne until 30 June 2021)

    Managerial historyEdit


    Name From To
      Gustav Wieser Oct 1934 July 1935
    Gunther Ringer Aug 1936 Nov 1937
      Ferenc Fogl June 1938 Jan 1939
      Péter Szabó Jan 1939 July 1939
      František Dembický Jan 1948 Dec 1948
      Gerard Wodarz July 1949 Dec 1949
      Ryszard Koncewicz Jan 1950 June 1952
      Ewald Cebula July 1952 June 1954
    Adam Niemiec July 1954 Dec 1956
    Mikołaj Beljung Feb 1957 Oct 1957
      Czesław Suszczyk Oct 1957 Dec 1957
      Janos Steiner Jan 1958 Dec 1958
      Ewald Cebula Jan 1959 Dec 1959
      Janos Steiner Jan 1960 May 1960
      Ewald Cebula May 1960 June 1960
      Lajos Szolár June 1960 Dec 1960
      Gerard Wodarz Jan 1961 April 1961
      Gerard Cieślik April 1961 July 1961
      Sándor Tátrai July 1961 Oct 1963
      Franciszek Tim Oct 1963 Nov 1963
      Augustyn Dziwisz Dec 1963 Sept 1964
      Artur Woźniak Sept 1964 June 1966
      Teodor Wieczorek July 1966 April 1969
      Eugeniusz Pohl
      Hubert Pala
    May 1969 June 1969
    Jerzy Nikiel July 1969 Nov 1969
      Tadeusz Foryś Dec 1969 June 1971
      Hubert Pala June 1971 June 1971
      Michal Vičan July 1971 April 1976
      Rudolf Kapera April 1976 June 1976
      Frantisek Havranek July 1976 Oct 1977
      Teodor Wieczorek Oct 1977 June 1978
      Leszek Jezierski June 1978 Nov 1980
    Name From To
      Antoni Piechniczek Nov 1980 Jan 1981
    Józef Zwierzyna Jan 1981 Sept 1981
      Piotr Czaja Sept 1981 May 1982
      Orest Lenczyk 1 July 1982 1 Feb 1984
      Alojzy Łysko Feb 1984 Dec 1984
      Władysław Jan Żmuda 1 Jan 1985 1 May 1987
      Jacek Góralczyk April 1987 May 1987
    Jacek Machciński May 1987 July 1987
      Jerzy Wyrobek 1 July 1987 1 July 1990
      Zdzisław Podedworny July 1990 March 1991
      Edward Lorens 1 April 1991 1 May 1994
      Albin Wira 3 May 1994 4 May 1995
      Jerzy Wyrobek 5 May 1995 23 Sept 1996
      Orest Lenczyk 24 Sept 1996 23 March 1999
      Edward Lorens 23 March 1999 30 June 2000
      Jan Żurek 1 July 2000 21 Aug 2000
      Jan Rudnow Aug 2000 Dec 2000
      Bogusław Pietrzak 1 Dec 2000 11 April 2002
      Orest Lenczyk 11 April 2002 9 Oct 2002
      Piotr Mandrysz 10 Oct 2002 30 June 2003
      Jerzy Wyrobek 1 July 2003 5 May 2005
      Dariusz Fornalak 5 May 2005 22 Nov 2005
      Edward Lorens 22 Nov 2005 27 Nov 2005
      Marek Wleciałowski 28 Nov 2005 15 June 2007
      Dusan Radolsky 15 June 2007 10 Sept 2008
      Bogusław Pietrzak 10 Sept 2008 27 April 2009
      Waldemar Fornalik 27 April 2009 10 July 2012
      Tomasz Fornalik 12 July 2012 5 Sept 2012
      Jacek Zielinski 5 Sept 2012 16 Sept 2013
      Dariusz Fornalak (int.) 16 Sept 2013 18 Sept 2013
      Ján Kocian 18 Sept 2013 6 Oct 2014
      Waldemar Fornalik 7 Oct 2014 22 Apr 2017
      Krzysztof Warzycha 24 Apr 2017 10 Sep 2017
      Juan Ramón Rocha 10 Sep 2017 5 Apr 2018
      Dariusz Fornalak 5 Apr 2018 1 Nov 2018
      Marek Wleciałowski 1 Nov 2018 18 Apr 2019
      Karol Michalski 18 Apr 2019 18 Jun 2019
      Łukasz Bereta 18 Jun 2019 23 Jun 2021
      Jarosław Skrobacz 24 Jun 2021

    Ruch in EuropeEdit

    Season Competition Round Club Score
    1972–73 UEFA Cup 1R   Fenerbahçe SK 3–0, 0–1
    2R   Dynamo Dresden 0–1, 0–3
    1973–74 UEFA Cup 1R   Wuppertaler SV 4–1, 4–5
    2R   FC Carl Zeiss Jena 3–0, 0–1
    3R   Budapest Honvéd FC 0–2, 5–0
    1/4F   Feyenoord Rotterdam 1–1, 1–3
    1974–75 European Cup 1R   Hvidovre IF 0–0, 2–1
    2R   Fenerbahçe SK 2–1, 2–0
    1/4F   AS Saint-Étienne 3–2, 0–2
    1975–76 European Cup 1R   KuPS 5–0, 2–2
    2R   PSV Eindhoven 1–3, 0–4
    1979–80 European Cup 1R   Dynamo Berlin 1–4, 0–0
    1989–90 European Cup 1R   CSKA Sofia 1–1, 1–5
    1996–97 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Q   Llansantffraid 1–1, 5–0
    1R   S.L. Benfica 1–5, 0–0
    1998 Intertoto Cup 1R   FK Austria Wien 1–0, 2–2
    2R   Örgryte IS 1–2, 1–0
    3R   C.F. Estrela da Amadora 1–1, 1–1
    4R   Debreceni VSC 1–0, 3–0
    5R   Bologna F.C. 1909 0–1, 0–2
    2000–01 UEFA Cup Q   FK Žalgiris Vilnius 1–2, 6–0
    1R   Internazionale Milano F.C. 0–3, 1–4
    2010–11 UEFA Europa League 1Q   FC Shakhter Karagandy 2–1, 1–0
    2Q   Valletta F.C. 1–1, 0–0
    3Q   FK Austria Wien 1–3, 0–3
    2012–13 UEFA Europa League 2Q   Metalurg Skopje 3–1, 3–0
    3Q   Viktoria Plzeň 0–2, 0–5
    2014–15 UEFA Europa League 2Q   FC Vaduz 3–2, 0–0
    3Q   Esbjerg 0–0, 2–2
    PO   Metalist Kharkiv 0–0, 0–1 (a.e.t)

    Supporters and rivalriesEdit

    Derby against Górnik Zabrze (2008)

    Ruch's popularity exploded in the 1930s and remained strong up to this date, especially in Upper Silesia. A specific subculture of szalikowcy (the name derived from szalik - scarf) developed in the 1970s, as elsewhere in the country, but in the region only after it first appeared among the fans of Polonia Bytom.[15] There are also hooligans (Psycho Fans, formed in the mid 1990s) and ultras („Nucleo Ultra '03" from 2003, replaced by „Ultras Niebiescy", formed in 2008).

    Expressions of Upper Silesian identity are often displayed with golden-blue flagues, on banners (like controversial "Oberschlesien",[16][17] now banned, or „To my Naród Śląski"[18] - It's us - Silesian Nation) or in chants.

    Ruch's supporters maintain friendships with fans of Widzew Łódź (since 2005), Elana Toruń, Atlético Madrid.[19] The biggest animosity is held against followers Górnik Zabrze (The Great Silesian Derby), GKS Katowice, Polonia Bytom (the oldest Silesian derby[20][21]), Zagłębie Sosnowiec, Legia Warszawa, Lech Poznań.[15]

    Notable individual supporters of Ruch are, among others:

    Notable former playersEdit


    1. ^ a b Stadion Miejski (Chorzów) at
    2. ^ Andrzej Gowarzewski, 1995, p. 15
    3. ^ Jacek Kurek, Historia Wielkich Hajduk, Chorzów Batory-Wielkie Hajduki 2001, p. 11.
    4. ^ O powstaniu KS Ruch i boisku na Kalinie, Chorzowianin nr 22 (398) z 28.05.2008, p. 19-20. See also Jacek Kurek, Historia Wielkich Hajduk, Chorzów Batory-Wielkie Hajduki 2001, p. 105, 119; Encyklopedia piłkarska FUJI, kolekcja klubów, tom I: Ruch Chorzów, Andrzej Gowarzewski, Katowice 1995; p. 19.
    5. ^ Encyklopedia piłkarska FUJI, kolekcja klubów, tom I: Ruch Chorzów, Andrzej Gowarzewski, Katowice 1995; p. 12.
    6. ^ Analiza miejsc urodzenia piłkarzy na podstawie biogramów zamieszczonych w Encyklopedii piłkarskiej FUJI, kolekcja klubów, tom I: Ruch Chorzów, Andrzej Gowarzewski, Katowice 1995.
    7. ^ Encyklopedia piłkarska FUJI, kolekcja klubów, tom I: Ruch Chorzów, Andrzej Gowarzewski, Katowice 1995; p. 43.
    8. ^ Ruch Chorzów profile Albion Road, accessed: 15 April 2009
    9. ^ Murray, Scott (23 October 2007). "The Joy of Six: own goals".
    10. ^ O tytuł mistrza, p. 146
    11. ^ "RUCH CHORZÓW S.A.: otwarcie przyśpieszonego postępowania układowego". Retrieved 12 September 2021.
    12. ^ "RUCH CHORZÓW S.A.: Uprawomocnienie Postanowienia Sądu Rejonowego Katowice-Wschód w Katowicach w przedmiocie zatwierdzenia układu restrukturyzacyjnego". Retrieved 12 September 2021.
    13. ^ "Pierwsza drużyna" (in Polish). Ruch Chorzów. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
    14. ^ Encyklopedia piłkarska FUJI, kolekcja klubów, tom I: Ruch Chorzów, Andrzej Gowarzewski, Katowice 1995; s. 66
    15. ^ a b "Historia kibiców" (in Polish).
    16. ^ "Oberschlesien. Ta flaga powinna wisieć czy nie?" (in Polish). 14 September 2009. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
    17. ^ "Kontrowersje wokół flagi z napisem "Oberschlesien"" (in Polish). 11 September 2009. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
    18. ^ "Flaga To My Naród Śląski na meczu w Warszawie. PZPN odpowiada" (in Polish). Retrieved 26 November 2016.
    19. ^ "Przyjaciele [Friends]" (in Polish).
    20. ^ "Informacje z woj. śląskiego". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
    21. ^ "Polonia Bytom - Ruch Chorzów: Najstarsze derby Śląska zdecydują kto będzie wiceliderem Ekstraklasy - Zapowiedzi meczów". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
    22. ^ Dlaczego pseudokibice wyzywają się od „Żydów”?
    23. ^
    24. ^ Ruch Chorzów.
    25. ^ Mistrz Holoubek trzymał z Ruchem Chorzów –
    26. ^ Świr Roku to zapalony kibic Ruchu Chorzów.
    27. ^ a b Kibice Ruchu Wojciech Kilar i Jan Miodek o spadku?niebieskich?
    28. ^ Ta trudna sztuka piłki nożnej > ESEJE 2.0.
    29. ^ Fenomen Wielkich Derbów Śląska.
    30. ^ Powstaje film o kibicach Ruchu, bo to dobra rodzina.
    31. ^ Wprost 24 – Wencel gordyjski – Schizofrenia kibica


    • Gowarzewski Andrzej; Głyk Wioletta (2000). O tytuł mistrza Polski 1920–2000 (in Polish). GiA, Katowice. ISBN 83-88232-02-9.
    • Gowarzewski Andrzej; Waloszek Joachim (1995). Ruch Chorzów: 75 lat "Niebieskich" (in Polish). GiA, Katowice. ISBN 83-902751-3-9.
    • Bagier Tadeusz; Dutkowski Zbigniew; Kraszkiewicz Mirosław (1970). Pięćdziesiąt lat Klubu Sportowego "Ruch" Chorzów (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Artystyczno-Graficzne Chorzów.
    • Gorzelany Franciszek; Miklica Bogusław; et al. (1960). 40-lecie Klubu Sportowego "Ruch" Chorzów (in Polish). Wydawnictwo "Prasa" Katowice.
    • Collective work under Henryk Rechowicz editorial (1994). Z najnowszych dziejów kultury fizycznej i turystyki (in Polish). Wydawnictwo AWF Katowice.
    • Collective work (2000). 80 lat OZPN [Okręgowego Związku Piłki Nożnej] Katowice: 1920–2000 (in Polish). GiA, Katowice. ISBN 83-88232-03-7.
    • Kurek Jacek (2001). Historia Wielkich Hajduk (in Polish). Związek Górnośląski. Koło "Wielkie Hajduki", Rococo Chorzów-Batory. ISBN 83-86293-29-2.
    • Gowarzewski Andrzej (2001). Biało-czerwoni : piłkarska reprezentacja Polski 1921–2001 : ludzie mecze fakty daty (in Polish). GiA, Katowice. ISBN 83-88232-08-8.
    • Gowarzewski Andrzej; Waloszek Joachim (1996). 75 lat OZPN [Okręgowego Związku Piłki Nożnej] Katowice: 1920–1995, ludzie, historia, fakty (in Polish). GiA, Katowice. ISBN 83-902751-7-1.
    • Czapliński Marek (red.) (2002). Historia Śląska (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, Wrocław. ISBN 83-229-2213-2.

    External linksEdit