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Amazon Alexa, known simply as Alexa, is a virtual assistant developed by Amazon, first used in the Amazon Echo and the Amazon Echo Dot smart speakers developed by Amazon Lab126. It is capable of voice interaction, music playback, making to-do lists, setting alarms, streaming podcasts, playing audiobooks, and providing weather, traffic, sports, and other real-time information, such as news. Alexa can also control several smart devices using itself as a home automation system. Users are able to extend the Alexa capabilities by installing "skills" (additional functionality developed by third-party vendors, in other settings more commonly called apps such as weather programs and audio features).
|Initial release||November 2014|
|Operating system||Fire OS 5.0 or later, iOS 8.0 or later|
Android 4.4 or later
|Type||Intelligent personal assistant, cloud-based voice service|
Most devices with Alexa allow users to activate the device using a wake-word (such as Alexa); other devices (such as the Amazon mobile app on iOS or Android) require the user to push a button to activate Alexa's listening mode. Currently, interaction and communication with Alexa are only available in English, German, French, Italian, Spanish, and Japanese. In Canada, Alexa is available in English and in French (with the Québec accent).
As of September 2017[update], Amazon had more than 5,000 employees working on Alexa and related products. In January 2019, Amazon's devices team announced that they had sold over 100 million Alexa-enabled devices.
In November 2014, Amazon announced Alexa alongside the Echo. Alexa was inspired by the computer voice and conversational system on board the Starship Enterprise in science fiction TV series and movies, beginning with Star Trek: The Original Series and Star Trek: The Next Generation. In 1964, a year prior to the original Star Trek TV series, an animated television series called Jonny Quest had a desktop computer called UNIC (pronounced // YOO-niss like the name Eunice) that communicated in digital readout and voice response.
Amazon developers chose the name Alexa because it has a hard consonant with the X, which helps it be recognized with higher precision. They have said the name is reminiscent of the Library of Alexandria, which is also used by Amazon Alexa Internet for the same reason. In June 2015, Amazon announced Alexa Fund, a program that would invest in companies making voice control skills and technologies. The US$100 million in funds has invested in companies including ecobee, Orange Chef, Scout Alarm, Garageio, Toymail, MARA, and Mojio. In 2016, the Alexa Prize was announced to advance the technology.
In January 2017, the first Alexa Conference took place in Nashville, Tennessee, an independent gathering of the worldwide community of Alexa developers and enthusiasts. The follow-up has been announced, to be keynoted by original Amazon Alexa / Connected Home product head Ahmed Bouzid.
At the Amazon Web Services Re:Invent conference in Las Vegas, Amazon announced Alexa for Business and the ability for app developers to have paid add-ons to their skills.
In November 2018, Amazon opened its first Alexa-themed pop-up shop inside of Toronto's Eaton Centre, showcasing the use of home automation products with Amazon's smart speakers. Amazon also sells Alexa devices at Amazon Books and Whole Foods Market locations, in addition to mall-based pop-ups throughout the United States.
A companion app is available from the Apple App Store, Google Play, and Amazon Appstore. The app can be used by owners of Alexa-enabled devices to install skills, control music, manage alarms, and view shopping lists. It also allows users to review the recognized text on the app screen and to send feedback to Amazon concerning whether the recognition was good or bad. A web interface is also available to set up compatible devices (e.g., Amazon Echo, Amazon Dot, Amazon Echo Show).
Alexa offers weather reports provided by AccuWeather and news provided by TuneIn from a variety of sources including local radio stations, NPR, and ESPN. Additionally, Alexa-supported devices stream music from the owner's Amazon Music accounts and have built-in support for Pandora and Spotify accounts. Alexa can play music from streaming services such as Apple Music and Google Play Music from a phone or tablet. Alexa can manage voice-controlled alarms, timers, and shopping and to-do lists, and can access Wikipedia articles. Alexa devices respond to questions about items in the user's Google Calendar. Alexa's question answering ability is partly powered by the Wolfram Language. When questions are asked, Alexa converts sound waves into text which allows it to gather information from various sources. Behind the scenes, the data gathered is then parsed by Wolfram's technology to generate suitable and accurate answers. Similarly to generating accurate answers to questions, it is possible to design Alexa functions by what the anticipated main line of conversation, the "happy path," of most common interactions.As of November 2016[update], the Alexa Appstore had over 5,000 functions ("skills") available for users to download, up from 1,000 functions in June 2016. As of a partnership with fellow technology company, Microsoft's AI Cortana became available to use on Alexa enabled devices as of August 2018[update], Amazon rolled out a new "Brief Mode," wherein Alexa would begin responding with a beep sound rather than saying, "Okay," to confirm receipt of a command. On December 20, 2018, Amazon announced a new integration with the Wolfram Alpha answer engine, which provides enhanced accuracy for users asking questions of Alexa related to math, science, astronomy, engineering, geography, history, and more.
In the home automation space, Alexa can interact with devices from several manufacturers including Belkin, ecobee, Geeni, IFTTT, Insteon, LIFX, LightwaveRF, Nest, Philips Hue, SmartThings, Wink, and Yonomi. The Home Automation feature was launched on April 8, 2015. Developers are able to create their own smart home skills using the Alexa Skills Kit.
Take-out food can be ordered using Alexa; as of May 2017[update] food ordering using Alexa is supported by Domino's Pizza, Grubhub, Pizza Hut, Seamless, and Wingstop. Also, users of Alexa in the UK can order meals via Just Eat. In early 2017, Starbucks announced a private beta for placing pick-up orders using Alexa. In addition, users can order meals using Amazon Prime Now via Alexa in 20 major US cities. With the introduction of Amazon Key in November 2017, Alexa also works together with the smart lock and the Alexa Cloud Cam included in the service to allow Amazon couriers to unlock customers' front doors and deliver packages inside.
According to an August 2018 article by The Information, only 2 percent of Alexa owners have used the device to make a purchase during the first seven months of 2018 and of those who made an initial purchase, 90 percent did not make a second purchase.
Alexa supports a multitude of subscription-based and free streaming services on Amazon devices. These streaming services include: Prime Music, Amazon Music, Amazon Music Unlimited, Apple Music, TuneIn, iHeartRadio, Audible, Pandora, and Spotify Premium. However, some of these music services are not available on other Alexa-enabled products that are manufactured by companies external of its services. This unavailability also includes Amazon's own Fire TV devices or tablets.
Alexa is able to stream media and music directly. To do this, Alexa's device should be linked to the Amazon account, which enables access to one's Amazon Music library, in addition to any audiobooks available in one's Audible library. Amazon Prime members have an additional ability to access stations, playlists, and over two million songs free of charge. Amazon Music Unlimited subscribers also have access to a list of millions of songs.
Amazon Music for PC allows one to play personal music from Google Play, iTunes, and others on an Alexa device. This can be done by uploading one's collection to My Music on Amazon from a computer. Up to 250 songs can be uploaded free of charge. Once this is done, Alexa can play this music and control playback through voice command options.
Alexa allows the user to hear updates on supported sports teams. A way to do this is by adding the sports team to the list created under Alexa's Sports Update app section. 
The user is able to hear updates on up to 15 supported teams:
- MLS - Major League Soccer
- EPL - English Premier League
- NBA - National Basketball Association
- NCAA men's basketball - National Collegiate Athletic Association
- UEFA Champions League - Union of European Football Association
- FA Cup - Football Association Challenge Cup
- MLB - Major League Baseball
- NHL - National Hockey League
- NCAA FBS football - National Collegiate Athletic Association: Football Bowl Subdivision
- NFL - National Football League
- German Bundesliga 2nd Division
- WNBA - Women's National Basketball Association
- German Bundesliga 1st Division
Messaging and callsEdit
There are a number of ways messages can be sent from Alexa's application. Alexa can deliver messages to a recipient's Alexa application, as well as to all supported Echo devices associated with their Amazon account. Alexa can send typed messages only from Alexa's app. If one sends a message from an associated Echo device, it transmits as a voice message. Alexa cannot send attachments such as videos and photos.
For households with more than one member, one's Alexa contacts are pooled across all of the devices that are registered to its associated account. However, within Alexa's app one is only able to start conversations with its Alexa contacts. When accessed and supported by an Alexa app or Echo device, Alexa messaging is available to anyone in one's household. These messages can be heard by anyone with access in the household. This messaging feature does not yet contain a password protection or associated PIN. Anyone who has access to one's cell phone number is able to use this feature to contact them through their supported Alexa app or Echo device. The feature to block alerts for messages and calls is available temporarily by utilizing the Do Not Disturb feature.
Alexa for Business is a paid subscription service allowing companies to use Alexa to join conference calls, schedule meeting rooms, and custom skills designed by 3rd-party vendors. At launch, notable skills are available from SAP, Microsoft, and Salesforce.
Alexa Skills KitEdit
Amazon allows developers to build and publish skills for Alexa using the Alexa Skills Kit known as Alexa Skills. These third-party developed skills, once published, are available across Alexa-enabled devices. Users can enable these skills using the Alexa app.
In April 2018, Amazon launched Blueprints, a tool for individuals to build skills for their personal use.
In February 2019, Amazon further expanded the capability of Blueprints by allowing customers to publish skills they've built with the templates to its Alexa Skill Store in the US for use by anyone with an Alexa-enabled device. 
Alexa Voice ServiceEdit
Amazon allows device manufacturers to integrate Alexa voice capabilities into their own connected products by using the Alexa Voice Service (AVS), a cloud-based service that provides APIs to interface with Alexa. Products built using AVS have access to Alexa's growing list of capabilities including all of the Alexa Skills. AVS provides cloud-based automatic speech recognition (ASR) and natural language understanding (NLU). There are no fees for companies looking to integrate Alexa into their products by using AVS.
On November 30, 2016 Amazon announced that they will make the speech recognition and natural language processing technology behind Alexa available for developers under the name of Amazon Lex. This new service would allow developers to create their own chatbots that can interact in a conversational manner, similar to Alexa. Along with the connection to various Amazon services, the initial version will provide connectivity to Facebook Messenger, with Slack and Twilio integration to follow.
Reception and issuesEdit
There are concerns about the access Amazon has to private conversations in the home and other non-verbal indications that can identify who is present in the home with non-stop audio pick-up from Alexa-enabled devices. Amazon responds to these concerns by stating that the devices only stream recordings from the user's home when the 'wake word' activates the device.
Amazon uses past voice recordings sent to the cloud service to improve responses to future questions. Users can delete voice recordings that are associated with their account.
Alexa uses an address stored in the companion app when it needs a location. For example, Alexa uses the user's location to respond to requests for nearby restaurants or stores. Similarly, Alexa uses the user's location for mapping-related requests.
Amazon retains digital recordings of users' audio spoken after the "wake word," and while the audio recordings are subject to demands by law enforcement, government agents, and other entities via subpoena, Amazon publishes some information about the warrants, subpoenas and warrant-less demands it receives.
In early 2018, security researchers managed to turn an Echo into a spy device by creating a malicious Alexa Skill that could record unsuspecting users and send the transcription of their conversations to an attacker.
In November 2018, Amazon sent 1700 recordings of an American couple to an unrelated European man. The incident proves that Alexa records people without their knowledge. Although the man who received the recordings reported the anomaly to Amazon, the company did not notify the victim until German magazine c't also contacted them and published a story about the incident. The recipient of the recordings contacted the publication after weeks went by following his report with no response from Amazon (although the company did delete the recordings from its server). When Amazon did finally contact the man whose recordings had been sent to a stranger, they claimed to have discovered the error themselves and offered him a free Prime membership and new Alexa devices by way of apology.
Amazon blamed the incident on "human error" and called it an "isolated single case." However, in May 2018 an Alexa device in Portland, Oregon, recorded a family's conversation and sent it to one of their contacts without their knowledge. The company dismissed the incident as an "extremely rare occurrence" and claimed the device "interpreted background conversation" as a sequence of commands to turn on, record, send the recording, and select a specific recipient.
A New Hampshire judge ruled in November 2018 that authorities could examine recordings from an Amazon Echo device recovered from the home of murder victim Christine Sullivan for use as evidence against defendant Timothy Verrill. Investigators believe that the device, which belonged to the victim's boyfriend, could have captured audio of the murder and its aftermath.
During the Chris Watts interrogation/interview video at timestamp 16:15:15, Watts was told by the interrogator, "We know that there's an Alexa in your house, and you know those are trained to record distress," indicating Alexa may send recordings to Amazon if certain frequencies and decibels (that can only be heard during intense arguments or screams) are detected.
|November 6, 2014 (limited)
June 28, 2015 (full)
|September 28, 2016||United Kingdom|
|October 26, 2016||Germany|
|October 4, 2017||India|
|November 15, 2017||Japan|
|December 5, 2017||Canada|
|December 8, 2017||Belgium|
|January 25, 2018||Ireland|
|February 1, 2018||Australia|
|February 6, 2018||France|
|October 30, 2018||Italy|
|November 12, 2018||Mexico|
- Amazon Echo
- Amazon Echo Plus
- Amazon Echo Dot
- Amazon Echo Look
- Amazon Echo Show
- Amazon Echo Spot
- Amazon Tap
- Sonos One smart speaker
- Lenovo Smart Assistant
- Harman Kardon Allure smart speaker
- Harman Kardon Astra smart speaker
- Kitsound Voice One smart speaker 
- Eufy Genie (by Anker)
- Invoxia Triby
- LG SmartThinQ Hub
- Onkyo VC-FLX1 smart speaker
- Spark by Clazio touchscreen smart speaker
- Fabriq smart speaker
- Fabriq Chorus smart speaker
- Jam Voice portable speaker
- Vobot clock
- Yeelight Voice Assistant (outside China)
- Polk Audio Command Bar soundbar
- Brilliant Control touchscreen home hub
- Bose Home Speaker 500 (coming in October 2018)
- Bose Soundbar 500 (coming in October 2018)
- Bose Soundbar 700 (coming in October 2018)
- Marshall Stanmore II Voice smart speaker (coming in October 2018)
- Marshall Acton II smart speaker (coming in November 2018)
- Huawei AI Cube smart speaker (coming December 2018)
- Riva Concert (coming soon)
- Riva Stadium (coming soon)
- Libratone Zip 2 (coming soon)
- Libratone Zip 2 Mini (coming soon)
- Soundcore (by Anker) Flare S+ (coming soon)
- Klipsch smart soundbars (released in 2019)
- Energy Sistem Smart Speaker 3 Talk (released in 2018)
- Energy Sistem Smart Speaker 5 Home (released in 2018)
- Energy Sistem Smart Speaker 7 Tower (released in 2018)
TVs and media boxesEdit
- Amazon Fire TV (2nd generation, limited features)
- Amazon Fire TV Stick
- Amazon Fire TV Cube
- Element 43-Inch 4K Ultra HD Smart LED TV
- Sony Smart TVs
Phones and tabletsEdit
- Amazon Fire and Fire HD tablets - 4th, 5th, or 6th generation devices (limited features)
- Fire 7, HD 8 & 10 - 7th generation
- Huawei Mate 9
- HTC U11
- TCL Xess tablet
- Moto X4
- Moto Smart Speaker
- Essential Phone (halo grey color only)
Laptops and desktopsEdit
- Asus ZenBook and VivoBook laptops (2018)
- HP Pavilion Wave desktop
- Lenovo ThinkPad X1 laptops (2018)
- Acer Aspire, Spin, Switch and Swift notebooks
- Acer Aspire all-in-one desktops
- ASUS Lyra Voice Tri-Band Mesh Wi-Fi Router (Alexa Built-in + Bluetooth Speaker + Spotify Connect)
- Amazon Dash Wand (2017 version)
- GE Sol LED Lamp
- LG InstaView smart refrigerator
- Nucleus Anywhere Intercom
- Omate Yumi Robot
- ecobee4 smart thermostat
- ecobee Switch+ light switch
- iDevices Instinct light switch
- First Alert Onelink Safe & Sound smoke alarm and carbon monoxide detector (2018 version)
- Kohler Co. Verdera Voice Lighted Mirror
- Netgear Orbi Voice Wi-Fi router
Wearables and earphonesEdit
- OV by ONvocal headphones
- Lynx robot
- Pebble Core (cancelled due to Fitbit acquisition, product did not reach retail)
- Orion Labs Onyx smart walkie-talkie
- iMCO CoWatch
- Martian mVoice Smartwatches
- Omate Rise Smartwatch
- Bragi Dash and Dash Pro earbuds
- Ford vehicles (select models)
- BMW vehicles (all 2018 models)
- Mini vehicles (all 2018 models)
- Toyota vehicles (select 2018 models)
- Lexus vehicles (select 2018 models)
- Volkswagen vehicles (2018 models)
- Garmin Speak
- Muse by Speak Music
- Roav Viva by Anker
In September 2016, a university student competition called the Alexa Prize was announced for November of that year. The prize is equipped with a total of $2.5 million and teams and their universities can win cash and research grants. The process started with team selection in 2016. The 2017 inaugural competition focuses on the challenge of building a socialbot. The University of Washington student team was awarded first place for the 2017 prize. A second year of the competition has been announced.
Given Amazon's strong belief in voice technologies, Amazon announced a US$100 million venture capital fund on June 25, 2015. By specifically targeting developers, device-makers and innovative companies of all sizes, Amazon aims at making digital voice assistants more powerful for its users. Eligible projects for financial funding base on either creating new Alexa capabilities by using the Alexa Skills Kit (ASK) or Alexa Voice Service (AVS).
The final selection of companies originates from the customer perspective and works backwards, specific elements that are considered for potential investments are: level of customer centricity, degree of innovation, motivation of leadership, fit to Alexa product/service line, amount of other funding raised.
Besides financial support, Amazon provides business and technology expertise, help for bringing products to the market, aid for hard- and software development as well as enhanced marketing support on proprietary Amazon platforms.
The list of funded business includes (in alphabetical order): DefinedCrows, Dragon Innovation, ecobee, Embodied Inc., Garageio, Invoxia, kitt.ai, June, Luma, Mara, Mojio (twice), Musaic, Nucleus, Orange Chef, Owlet Baby Care, Petnet, Rachio, Ring, Scout, Sutro, Thalmic Labs, Toymail Co., TrackR, and Vesper.
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