COVID-19 pandemic in Russia

The COVID-19 pandemic in Russia is part of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have spread to Russia on 31 January 2020, when two Chinese citizens in Tyumen (Siberia) and Chita (Russian Far East) tested positive for the virus, with both cases being contained. Early prevention measures included restricting the border with China and extensive testing. The infection spread from Italy on 2 March, leading to additional measures such as cancelling events, closing schools, theatres, and museums, as well as shutting the border and declaring a non-working period which, after two extensions, lasted until 11 May 2020. By the end of March 2020, the vast majority of federal subjects, including Moscow, had imposed lockdowns. By 17 April 2020, cases had been confirmed in all federal subjects. On 1 September 2020, the number of positive tests for SARS-CoV-2 reached 1 million.

COVID-19 pandemic in Russia
COVID-19 outbreak cases per capita in Russia.svg
Confirmed cases per million by federal subjects
as of 19 November 2020
COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Russia (Density).svg
Total confirmed cases by federal subjects
as of 19 November 2020
COVID-19 outbreak total deaths per capita in Russia.svg
Confirmed deaths per million by federal subjects
as of 19 December 2020
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationRussia
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
Index caseTyumen and Chita (global)
Moscow (local)
Arrival date31 January 2020
Confirmed cases3,655,839[1][2][a]
Recovered3,054,218[1][2][a]
Deaths
67,832 (Ministry of Health)[1][2]
190,000 (Rosstat)[3][4]
Fatality rate1.86%
Government website
стопкоронавирус.рф

Currently, as the largest nation, Russia has the highest number of confirmed cases in Europe and the fourth-highest in the world after the United States, India, and Brazil. As of 21 January 2021, according to figures from the national coronavirus crisis centre, Russia has 3,655,839 confirmed cases, 3,054,218 recoveries, 67,832 deaths, and over 98.0 million tests performed.[1] According to detailed data published by the Federal State Statistics Service, 114,268 people with COVID-19 died between April and November 2020.[5][6] According to the same data, over 240,000 excess deaths were reported in the same time period.[7][8]

TimelineEdit

COVID-19 cases in Russia  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases
Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-01-31 2(n.a.)
2(=)
2020-02-12 2(=)
2(=)
2020-03-02 3(+50%)
3(=)
2020-03-05 4(+33%)
2020-03-06 10(+150%)
2020-03-07 14(+40%)
2020-03-08 17(+21%)
2020-03-09 20(+18%)
20(=)
2020-03-11 28(+40%)
2020-03-12 34(+21%)
2020-03-13 45(+32%)
2020-03-14 59(+31%)
2020-03-15 63(+6.8%)
2020-03-16
93(+48%)
2020-03-17
114(+23%)
2020-03-18
147(+29%)
2020-03-19
199(+35%)
2020-03-20
253(+27%)
2020-03-21
306(+21%)
2020-03-22
367(+20%)
2020-03-23
438(+19%)
2020-03-24
495(+13%)
2020-03-25
658(+33%)
2020-03-26
840(+28%) 2(n.a.)
2020-03-27
1,036(+23%) 3(+50%)
2020-03-28
1,264(+22%) 4(+33%)
2020-03-29
1,534(+21%) 8(+100%)
2020-03-30
1,836(+20%) 9(+12%)
2020-03-31
2,337(+27%) 17(+89%)
2020-04-01
2,777(+19%) 24(+41%)
2020-04-02
3,548(+28%) 30(+25%)
2020-04-03
4,149(+17%) 34(+13%)
2020-04-04
4,731(+14%) 43(+26%)
2020-04-05
5,389(+14%) 45(+4.7%)
2020-04-06
6,343(+18%) 47(+4.4%)
2020-04-07
7,497(+18%) 58(+23%)
2020-04-08
8,672(+16%) 63(+8.6%)
2020-04-09
10,131(+17%) 76(+21%)
2020-04-10
11,917(+18%) 94(+24%)
2020-04-11
13,584(+14%) 106(+13%)
2020-04-12
15,770(+16%) 130(+23%)
2020-04-13
18,328(+16%) 148(+14%)
2020-04-14
21,102(+15%) 170(+15%)
2020-04-15
24,490(+16%) 198(+16%)
2020-04-16
27,938(+14%) 232(+17%)
2020-04-17
32,008(+15%) 273(+18%)
2020-04-18
36,793(+15%) 313(+15%)
2020-04-19
42,853(+16%) 361(+15%)
2020-04-20
47,121(+10%) 405(+12%)
2020-04-21
52,763(+12%) 456(+13%)
2020-04-22
57,999(+9.9%) 513(+12%)
2020-04-23
62,773(+8.2%) 555(+8.2%)
2020-04-24
68,622(+9.3%) 615(+11%)
2020-04-25
74,588(+8.7%) 681(+11%)
2020-04-26
80,949(+8.5%) 747(+9.7%)
2020-04-27
87,147(+7.7%) 794(+6.3%)
2020-04-28
93,558(+7.4%) 867(+9.2%)
2020-04-29
99,399(+6.2%) 972(+12%)
2020-04-30
106,498(+7.1%) 1,073(+10%)
2020-05-01
114,431(+7.4%) 1,169(+8.9%)
2020-05-02
124,054(+8.4%) 1,222(+4.5%)
2020-05-03
134,687(+8.6%) 1,280(+4.7%)
2020-05-04
145,268(+7.9%) 1,356(+5.9%)
2020-05-05
155,370(+7%) 1,451(+7%)
2020-05-06
165,929(+6.8%) 1,537(+5.9%)
2020-05-07
177,160(+6.8%) 1,625(+5.7%)
2020-05-08
187,859(+6%) 1,723(+6%)
2020-05-09
198,676(+5.8%) 1,827(+6%)
2020-05-10
209,688(+5.5%) 1,915(+4.8%)
2020-05-11
221,344(+5.6%) 2,009(+4.9%)
2020-05-12
232,243(+4.9%) 2,116(+5.3%)
2020-05-13
242,271(+4.3%) 2,212(+4.5%)
2020-05-14
252,245(+4.1%) 2,305(+4.2%)
2020-05-15
262,843(+4.2%) 2,418(+4.9%)
2020-05-16
272,043(+3.5%) 2,537(+4.9%)
2020-05-17
281,752(+3.6%) 2,631(+3.7%)
2020-05-18
290,678(+3.2%) 2,722(+3.5%)
2020-05-19
299,941(+3.2%) 2,837(+4.2%)
2020-05-20
308,705(+2.9%) 2,972(+4.8%)
2020-05-21
317,554(+2.9%) 3,099(+4.3%)
2020-05-22
326,448(+2.8%) 3,249(+4.8%)
2020-05-23
335,882(+2.9%) 3,388(+4.3%)
2020-05-24
344,481(+2.6%) 3,541(+4.5%)
2020-05-25
353,427(+2.6%) 3,633(+2.6%)
2020-05-26
362,342(+2.5%) 3,807(+4.8%)
2020-05-27
370,680(+2.3%) 3,968(+4.2%)
2020-05-28
379,051(+2.3%) 4,142(+4.4%)
2020-05-29
387,623(+2.3%) 4,374(+5.6%)
2020-05-30
396,575(+2.3%) 4,555(+4.1%)
2020-05-31
405,843(+2.3%) 4,693(+3%)
2020-06-01
414,878(+2.2%) 4,855(+3.5%)
2020-06-02
423,741(+2.1%) 5,037(+3.7%)
2020-06-03
432,277(+2%) 5,215(+3.5%)
2020-06-04
441,108(+2%) 5,384(+3.2%)
2020-06-05
449,834(+2%) 5,528(+2.7%)
2020-06-06
458,689(+2%) 5,725(+3.6%)
2020-06-07
467,673(+2%) 5,859(+2.3%)
2020-06-08
476,658(+1.9%) 5,971(+1.9%)
2020-06-09
485,253(+1.8%) 6,142(+2.9%)
2020-06-10
493,657(+1.7%) 6,358(+3.5%)
2020-06-11
502,436(+1.8%) 6,532(+2.7%)
2020-06-12
511,423(+1.8%) 6,715(+2.8%)
2020-06-13
520,129(+1.7%) 6,829(+1.7%)
2020-06-14
528,964(+1.7%) 6,948(+1.7%)
2020-06-15
537,210(+1.6%) 7,091(+2.1%)
2020-06-16
545,458(+1.5%) 7,284(+2.7%)
2020-06-17
553,301(+1.4%) 7,478(+2.7%)
2020-06-18
561,091(+1.4%) 7,660(+2.4%)
2020-06-19
569,063(+1.4%) 7,841(+2.4%)
2020-06-20
576,952(+1.4%) 8,002(+2.1%)
2020-06-21
584,680(+1.3%) 8,111(+1.4%)
2020-06-22
592,280(+1.3%) 8,206(+1.2%)
2020-06-23
599,705(+1.3%) 8,359(+1.9%)
2020-06-24
606,881(+1.2%) 8,513(+1.8%)
2020-06-25
613,994(+1.2%) 8,605(+1.1%)
2020-06-26
620,794(+1.1%) 8,781(+2%)
2020-06-27
627,646(+1.1%) 8,969(+2.1%)
2020-06-28
634,437(+1.1%) 9,073(+1.2%)
2020-06-29
641,156(+1.1%) 9,166(+1%)
2020-06-30
647,849(+1%) 9,320(+1.7%)
2020-07-01
654,405(+1%) 9,536(+2.3%)
2020-07-02
661,165(+1%) 9,683(+1.5%)
2020-07-03
667,883(+1%) 9,859(+1.8%)
2020-07-04
674,515(+0.99%) 10,027(+1.7%)
2020-07-05
681,251(+1%) 10,161(+1.3%)
2020-07-06
687,862(+0.97%) 10,296(+1.3%)
2020-07-07
694,230(+0.93%) 10,494(+1.9%)
2020-07-08
700,792(+0.95%) 10,667(+1.6%)
2020-07-09
707,301(+0.93%) 10,843(+1.6%)
2020-07-10
713,936(+0.94%) 11,017(+1.6%)
2020-07-11
720,547(+0.93%) 11,205(+1.7%)
2020-07-12
727,162(+0.92%) 11,335(+1.2%)
2020-07-13
733,699(+0.9%) 11,439(+0.92%)
2020-07-14
739,947(+0.85%) 11,614(+1.5%)
2020-07-15
746,369(+0.87%) 11,770(+1.3%)
2020-07-16
752,797(+0.86%) 11,937(+1.4%)
2020-07-17
759,203(+0.85%) 12,123(+1.6%)
2020-07-18
765,437(+0.82%) 12,247(+1%)
2020-07-19
771,546(+0.8%) 12,342(+0.78%)
2020-07-20
777,486(+0.77%) 12,427(+0.69%)
2020-07-21
783,328(+0.75%) 12,580(+1.2%)
2020-07-22
789,190(+0.75%) 12,745(+1.3%)
2020-07-23
795,038(+0.74%) 12,892(+1.2%)
2020-07-24
800,849(+0.73%) 13,046(+1.2%)
2020-07-25
806,720(+0.73%) 13,192(+1.1%)
2020-07-26
812,485(+0.71%) 13,269(+0.58%)
2020-07-27
818,120(+0.69%) 13,354(+0.64%)
2020-07-28
823,515(+0.66%) 13,504(+1.1%)
2020-07-29
828,990(+0.66%) 13,673(+1.3%)
2020-07-30
834,499(+0.66%) 13,802(+0.94%)
2020-07-31
839,981(+0.66%) 13,963(+1.2%)
2020-08-01
845,443(+0.65%) 14,058(+0.68%)
2020-08-02
850,870(+0.64%) 14,128(+0.5%)
2020-08-03
856,264(+0.63%) 14,207(+0.56%)
2020-08-04
861,423(+0.6%) 14,351(+1%)
2020-08-05
866,627(+0.6%) 14,490(+0.97%)
2020-08-06
871,894(+0.61%) 14,606(+0.8%)
2020-08-07
877,135(+0.6%) 14,725(+0.81%)
2020-08-08
882,347(+0.59%) 14,854(+0.88%)
2020-08-09
887,536(+0.59%) 14,931(+0.52%)
2020-08-10
892,654(+0.58%) 15,001(+0.47%)
2020-08-11
897,599(+0.55%) 15,131(+0.87%)
2020-08-12
902,701(+0.57%) 15,260(+0.85%)
2020-08-13
907,758(+0.56%) 15,384(+0.81%)
2020-08-14
912,823(+0.56%) 15,498(+0.74%)
2020-08-15
917,884(+0.55%) 15,617(+0.77%)
2020-08-16
922,853(+0.54%) 15,685(+0.44%)
2020-08-17
927,745(+0.53%) 15,740(+0.35%)
2020-08-18
932,493(+0.51%) 15,872(+0.84%)
2020-08-19
937,321(+0.52%) 15,989(+0.74%)
2020-08-20
942,106(+0.51%) 16,099(+0.69%)
2020-08-21
946,976(+0.52%) 16,189(+0.56%)
2020-08-22
951,897(+0.52%) 16,310(+0.75%)
2020-08-23
956,749(+0.51%) 16,383(+0.45%)
2020-08-24
961,493(+0.5%) 16,448(+0.4%)
2020-08-25
966,189(+0.49%) 16,568(+0.73%)
2020-08-26
970,865(+0.48%) 16,683(+0.69%)
2020-08-27
975,576(+0.49%) 16,804(+0.73%)
2020-08-28
980,405(+0.49%) 16,914(+0.65%)
2020-08-29
985,346(+0.5%) 17,025(+0.66%)
2020-08-30
990,326(+0.51%) 17,093(+0.4%)
2020-08-31
995,319(+0.5%) 17,176(+0.49%)
2020-09-01
1,000,048(+0.48%) 17,299(+0.72%)
2020-09-02
1,005,000(+0.5%) 17,414(+0.66%)
2020-09-03
1,009,995(+0.5%) 17,528(+0.65%)
2020-09-04
1,015,105(+0.51%) 17,649(+0.69%)
2020-09-05
1,020,310(+0.51%) 17,759(+0.62%)
2020-09-06
1,025,505(+0.51%) 17,820(+0.34%)
2020-09-07
1,030,690(+0.51%) 17,871(+0.29%)
2020-09-08
1,035,789(+0.49%) 17,993(+0.68%)
2020-09-09
1,041,007(+0.5%) 18,135(+0.79%)
2020-09-10
1,046,370(+0.52%) 18,263(+0.71%)
2020-09-11
1,051,874(+0.53%) 18,365(+0.56%)
2020-09-12
1,057,362(+0.52%) 18,484(+0.65%)
2020-09-13
1,062,811(+0.52%) 18,578(+0.51%)
2020-09-14
1,068,320(+0.52%) 18,635(+0.31%)
2020-09-15
1,073,849(+0.52%) 18,785(+0.8%)
2020-09-16
1,079,519(+0.53%) 18,917(+0.7%)
2020-09-17
1,085,281(+0.53%) 19,061(+0.76%)
2020-09-18
1,091,186(+0.54%) 19,195(+0.7%)
2020-09-19
1,097,251(+0.56%) 19,339(+0.75%)
2020-09-20
1,103,399(+0.56%) 19,418(+0.41%)
2020-09-21
1,109,595(+0.56%) 19,489(+0.37%)
2020-09-22
1,115,810(+0.56%) 19,649(+0.82%)
2020-09-23
1,122,241(+0.58%) 19,799(+0.76%)
2020-09-24
1,128,836(+0.59%) 19,948(+0.75%)
2020-09-25
1,136,048(+0.64%) 20,056(+0.54%)
2020-09-26
1,143,571(+0.66%) 20,225(+0.84%)
2020-09-27
1,151,438(+0.69%) 20,324(+0.49%)
2020-09-28
1,159,573(+0.71%) 20,385(+0.3%)
2020-09-29
1,167,805(+0.71%) 20,545(+0.78%)
2020-09-30
1,176,286(+0.73%) 20,722(+0.86%)
2020-10-01
1,185,231(+0.76%) 20,891(+0.82%)
2020-10-02
1,194,643(+0.79%) 21,077(+0.89%)
2020-10-03
1,204,502(+0.83%) 21,251(+0.83%)
2020-10-04
1,215,001(+0.87%) 21,358(+0.5%)
2020-10-05
1,225,889(+0.9%) 21,475(+0.55%)
2020-10-06
1,237,504(+0.95%) 21,663(+0.88%)
2020-10-07
1,248,619(+0.9%) 21,865(+0.93%)
2020-10-08
1,260,112(+0.92%) 22,056(+0.87%)
2020-10-09
1,272,238(+0.96%) 22,257(+0.91%)
2020-10-10
1,285,084(+1%) 22,454(+0.89%)
2020-10-11
1,298,718(+1.1%) 22,597(+0.64%)
2020-10-12
1,312,310(+1%) 22,722(+0.55%)
2020-10-13
1,326,178(+1.1%) 22,966(+1.1%)
2020-10-14
1,340,409(+1.1%) 23,205(+1%)
2020-10-15
1,354,163(+1%) 23,491(+1.2%)
2020-10-16
1,369,313(+1.1%) 23,723(+0.99%)
2020-10-17
1,384,235(+1.1%) 24,002(+1.2%)
2020-10-18
1,399,334(+1.1%) 24,187(+0.77%)
2020-10-19
1,415,316(+1.1%) 24,366(+0.74%)
2020-10-20
1,431,635(+1.2%) 24,635(+1.1%)
2020-10-21
1,447,335(+1.1%) 24,952(+1.3%)
2020-10-22
1,463,306(+1.1%) 25,242(+1.2%)
2020-10-23
1,480,646(+1.2%) 25,525(+1.1%)
2020-10-24
1,497,167(+1.1%) 25,821(+1.2%)
2020-10-25
1,513,877(+1.1%) 26,050(+0.89%)
2020-10-26
1,531,224(+1.1%) 26,269(+0.84%)
2020-10-27
1,547,774(+1.1%) 26,589(+1.2%)
2020-10-28
1,563,976(+1%) 26,935(+1.3%)
2020-10-29
1,581,693(+1.1%) 27,301(+1.4%)
2020-10-30
1,599,976(+1.2%) 27,656(+1.3%)
2020-10-31
1,618,116(+1.1%) 27,990(+1.2%)
2020-11-01
1,636,781(+1.2%) 28,235(+0.88%)
2020-11-02
1,655,038(+1.1%) 28,473(+0.84%)
2020-11-03
1,673,686(+1.1%) 28,828(+1.2%)
2020-11-04
1,693,454(+1.2%) 29,217(+1.3%)
2020-11-05
1,712,858(+1.1%) 29,509(+1%)
2020-11-06
1,733,440(+1.2%) 29,887(+1.3%)
2020-11-07
1,753,836(+1.2%) 30,251(+1.2%)
2020-11-08
1,774,334(+1.2%) 30,537(+0.95%)
2020-11-09
1,796,132(+1.2%) 30,793(+0.84%)
2020-11-10
1,817,109(+1.2%) 31,161(+1.2%)
2020-11-11
1,836,960(+1.1%) 31,593(+1.4%)
2020-11-12
1,858,568(+1.2%) 32,032(+1.4%)
2020-11-13
1,880,551(+1.2%) 32,443(+1.3%)
2020-11-14
1,903,253(+1.2%) 32,834(+1.2%)
2020-11-15
1,925,825(+1.2%) 33,186(+1.1%)
2020-11-16
1,948,603(+1.2%) 33,489(+0.91%)
2020-11-17
1,971,013(+1.2%) 33,931(+1.3%)
2020-11-18
1,991,998(+1.1%) 34,387(+1.3%)
2020-11-19
2,015,608(+1.2%) 34,850(+1.3%)
2020-11-20
2,039,926(+1.2%) 35,311(+1.3%)
2020-11-21
2,064,748(+1.2%) 35,778(+1.3%)
2020-11-22
2,089,329(+1.2%) 36,179(+1.1%)
2020-11-23
2,114,502(+1.2%) 36,540(+1%)
2020-11-24
2,138,828(+1.2%) 37,031(+1.3%)
2020-11-25
2,162,503(+1.1%) 37,538(+1.4%)
2020-11-26
2,187,990(+1.2%) 38,062(+1.4%)
2020-11-27
2,215,533(+1.3%) 38,558(+1.3%)
2020-11-28
2,242,633(+1.2%) 39,068(+1.3%)
2020-11-29
2,269,316(+1.2%) 39,527(+1.2%)
2020-11-30
2,295,654(+1.2%) 39,895(+0.93%)
2020-12-01
2,322,056(+1.2%) 40,464(+1.4%)
2020-12-02
2,347,401(+1.1%) 41,053(+1.5%)
2020-12-03
2,375,546(+1.2%) 41,607(+1.3%)
2020-12-04
2,402,949(+1.2%) 42,176(+1.4%)
2020-12-05
2,431,731(+1.2%) 42,684(+1.2%)
2020-12-06
2,460,770(+1.2%) 43,141(+1.1%)
2020-12-07
2,488,912(+1.1%) 43,597(+1.1%)
2020-12-08
2,515,009(+1%) 44,159(+1.3%)
2020-12-09
2,541,199(+1%) 44,718(+1.3%)
2020-12-10
2,569,126(+1.1%) 45,280(+1.3%)
2020-12-11
2,597,711(+1.1%) 45,893(+1.4%)
2020-12-12
2,625,848(+1.1%) 46,453(+1.2%)
2020-12-13
2,653,928(+1.1%) 46,941(+1.1%)
2020-12-14
2,681,256(+1%) 47,391(+0.96%)
2020-12-15
2,707,945(+1%) 47,968(+1.2%)
2020-12-16
2,734,454(+0.98%) 48,564(+1.2%)
2020-12-17
2,762,668(+1%) 49,151(+1.2%)
2020-12-18
2,791,220(+1%) 49,762(+1.2%)
2020-12-19
2,819,429(+1%) 50,347(+1.2%)
2020-12-20
2,848,377(+1%) 50,858(+1%)
2020-12-21
2,877,727(+1%) 51,351(+0.97%)
2020-12-22
2,906,503(+1%) 51,912(+1.1%)
2020-12-23
2,933,753(+0.94%) 52,461(+1.1%)
2020-12-24
2,963,688(+1%) 53,096(+1.2%)
2020-12-25
2,992,706(+0.98%) 53,659(+1.1%)
2020-12-26
3,021,964(+0.98%) 54,226(+1.1%)
2020-12-27
3,050,248(+0.94%) 54,778(+1%)
2020-12-28
3,078,035(+0.91%) 55,265(+0.89%)
2020-12-29
3,105,037(+0.88%) 55,827(+1%)
2020-12-30
3,131,550(+0.85%) 56,426(+1.1%)
2020-12-31
3,159,297(+0.89%) 57,019(+1.1%)
2021-01-01
3,186,336(+0.86%) 57,555(+0.94%)
2021-01-02
3,212,637(+0.83%) 58,002(+0.78%)
2021-01-03
3,236,787(+0.75%) 58,506(+0.87%)
2021-01-04
3,260,138(+0.72%) 58,988(+0.82%)
2021-01-05
3,284,384(+0.74%) 59,506(+0.88%)
2021-01-06
3,308,601(+0.74%) 59,951(+0.75%)
2021-01-07
3,332,142(+0.71%) 60,457(+0.84%)
2021-01-08
3,355,794(+0.71%) 60,911(+0.75%)
2021-01-09
3,379,103(+0.69%) 61,381(+0.77%)
2021-01-10
3,401,954(+0.68%) 61,837(+0.74%)
2021-01-11
3,425,269(+0.69%) 62,273(+0.71%)
2021-01-12
3,448,203(+0.67%) 62,804(+0.85%)
2021-01-13
3,471,053(+0.66%) 63,370(+0.9%)
2021-01-14
3,495,816(+0.71%) 63,940(+0.9%)
2021-01-15
3,520,531(+0.71%) 64,495(+0.87%)
2021-01-16
3,544,623(+0.68%) 65,085(+0.91%)
2021-01-17
3,568,209(+0.67%) 65,566(+0.74%)
2021-01-18
3,591,066(+0.64%) 66,037(+0.72%)
2021-01-19
3,612,800(+0.61%) 66,623(+0.89%)
2021-01-20
3,633,952(+0.59%) 67,220(+0.9%)
2021-01-21
3,655,839(+0.6%) 67,832(+0.91%)
Sources:

January–February 2020Edit

On 12 January, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan, Hubei, China, who had initially come to the attention of the WHO on 31 December 2019.[11][12] Compared to SARS of 2003, the case fatality ratio for COVID-19[13][14] has been much lower, but the incubation period and transmission have been significantly greater, resulting in a significant total death toll.[15][13]

On 31 January, the first two cases in the country were confirmed, one in Tyumen, Tyumen Oblast, and another one in Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai. Both were Chinese nationals.[16]

On 23 February, eight Russians from the cruise ship Diamond Princess were evacuated to Kazan, Tatarstan where they were hospitalised, including three confirmed cases.[17] These cases were listed as occurring on international conveyance and not included in official Russian statistics by Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing. These eight people, including the three patients who recovered, were discharged from hospital on 8 March.[18] Some of Russia's citizens abroad have been confirmed to be infected, on 28 February a Russian man tested positive in Azerbaijan after he had visited Iran. While some days later the Health ministry of the UAE announced that two Russians got the virus in the United Arab Emirates.[19]

March 2020Edit

 
President Putin visits coronavirus patients at Moscow hospital on 24 March

There were no other confirmed cases until 2 March when the first case in Moscow was confirmed.[20][21] The patient was a young man who fell ill on 21 February while on holiday in Italy, and returned to Russia on 23 February, staying at his house in Moscow Oblast.[20] He showed up with symptoms at a clinic on 27 February, and was then hospitalised in Moscow.[20] On 5 March, the first case in Saint Petersburg was confirmed. The patient was an Italian student who returned to Russia from Italy on 29 February, was hospitalised on 2 March.[22] On 6 March, six more cases were confirmed, with five of them being in Moscow and one of them being in Nizhny Novgorod. All of them were reported to be linked to Italy.[23]

On 19 March, the first death of a patient with confirmed COVID-19 was reported in Moscow. A 79-year-old woman was first hospitalised on 13 March and transferred to a private clinic the next day. Upon confirmation of COVID-19 she was transferred to an intensive care ward in Moscow Infectious Hospital No. 2. She also suffered from numerous underlying health conditions and other diseases.[24][25] However, pulmonary embolism was identified as the direct cause of her death,[26] she had no pathological changes in lungs,[27] and her death was not officially counted as caused by coronavirus.[28][29] The victim was identified in the media as Valentina Zubareva, professor at the Gubkin University, she had contracted the disease in Russia.[30] The first two confirmed deaths were recorded on 25 March in Moscow. The patients were 73 and 88 years old and had been tested positive for the coronavirus.[31]

On 25 March, President Putin announced that the 2020 Russian constitutional referendum would be postponed due to the epidemic.[32] He said that the next week starting with 30 March, would be non-working nationwide and urged Russians to stay at home.[33][34] Later, the non-working period was prolonged twice, lasting until 11 May.[35][36] On 27 March, international flights were grounded after the government ordered the civil aviation authority to suspend all regular and charter flights to and from the country.[37] On 29 March, Mayor of Moscow Sergey Sobyanin issued a stay-at-home order starting the next day.[38] On 30 March, similar orders or recommendations were announced in numerous other federal subjects, with many more announcing such restrictions over the next few days.[39] The same day, the border was shut, with all border crossings closed.[40]

April 2020Edit

 
Moscow Metro passengers in April 2020

On 11 April, Moscow's mayor, Sobyanin, signed a decree introducing a digital pass system to enforce the coronavirus lockdown, in which residents would require such a permit to travel around the city and Moscow Oblast using personal and public transport, with different types of passes including travelling to work, visiting hospitals and clinics, and private trips. Such permits would become mandatory on 15 April.[41]

On 29 April, Moscow Mayor Sergey Sobyanin said on social media that the city would start constructing temporary hospitals that would have a total of 10,000 hospital beds for coronavirus patients.[42] Russia also indefinitely extended its entry ban for foreigners, which was originally set until 1 May, with Prime Minister Mishustin saying that the ban will be lifted when the coronavirus situation improves.[43] On 30 April, Prime Minister Mishustin said that he tested positive for the virus.[44]

May 2020Edit

On 9 May, with the 2020 Moscow Victory Day Parade postponed, celebrations marking the 75th anniversary of the surrender of Nazi Germany were reduced. An air show took place in Moscow instead and President Putin laid flowers at the Eternal Flame outside the Kremlin. Authorities also urged citizens to stay at home instead.[45]

On 10 May, the World Health Organization's representative to Russia, Melita Vujnovic, said that day that Russia may have reached the plateau for the virus.[46] On 11 May, President Putin announced the end of the national non-working period on 12 May and he also announced additional support measures including bonuses for doctors, subsidies for companies and payments to families with children. He also said that regional leaders can choose to keep restrictions.[36] The same day, the reproduction rate of the virus in Moscow fell below 1 for the first time, from 1.02 the previous day to 0.96, and on 14 May, the rate across Russia fell below 1 for the first time, from 1.01 the previous day to 0.97.[47][48]

On 26 May, Putin announced that the postponed 2020 Victory Day Parade would be held on 24 June.[49] On 27 May, Sobyanin announced that some restrictions in Moscow would be eased on 1 June, with all non-food stores and some service sector businesses re-opening and residents would be able to go outside for walks and sport according to a schedule.[50] On 30 May, Health Minister Mikhail Murashko said that vaccine tests were under way and that clinical trials were planned to begin in the next two weeks.[51]

June 2020Edit

On 1 June, the postponed referendum was announced to be held on 1 July.[52] Reuters news agency also reported that Russia would roll out its first approved drug to treat COVID-19 in the next week.[53] On 2 June, Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin said that the government would launch a 5 trillion ruble ($73 billion) recovery plan in the next month to counteract the pandemic's economic impact.[54]

On 8 June, Moscow's mayor, Sobyanin, said that the city would lift coronavirus restrictions. Self-isolation rules and travel permits would be waived on 9 June, with no more walking schedules. Residents would be able to freely travel around the city and visit public places. Places like beauty salons, hairdressers and veterinarian clinics would re-open, with other places like restaurants re-opening over the course of June. Residents are still required to wear face masks and gloves and are advised to maintain their distance from others.[55][56] That day, Prime Minister Mishustin also announced the partial re-opening of the border for some travellers, saying that it would allow citizens to leave the country for work, studying, medical treatment or to take care of relatives. It would also allow foreign citizens to enter for medical treatment or those needing to care for relatives and family.[57]

On 22 June, Moscow's mayor, Sobyanin, announced further easing of restrictions on 23 June with cafes and restaurants reopening as well as fitness centres and swimming pools. Restrictions on libraries and kindergartens would be lifted.[58] On 23 June, President Putin announced changes to the tax system and further state benefits.[59] On 24 June, the Victory Day parade in Red Square took place while it was reported that 30 major cities in Russia had cancelled their parade.[60]

July 2020Edit

On 1 July, the main day for the vote on constitutional amendments took place. On 8 July, the governor of Moscow Oblast, Andrey Vorobyov, signed a decree easing some restrictions in the region including allowing restaurants, cafes, bars and other catering establishments to reopen from 25 July as well as a number of other places to reopen from 15 July.[61] On 9 July, Moscow's authorities announced further easing of some restrictions with cinemas allowed to reopen and concerts allowed to be held from 1 August provided that they meet certain requirements. Attractions would be able to reopen and restrictions on places like parks and cultural centres would be removed on 13 July. Universities and schools would also be able to return to normal and the use of face masks and gloves outdoors would no longer be required except in public transport, shops and crowded areas.[62][63]

On 10 July, Tatyana Golikova said that starting on 15 July, authorities will start to gradually lift restrictions on flights abroad and will begin negotiations to restart international flights.[64] On 12 July, it was reported that Sechenov University had completed testing of a vaccine developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology on volunteers and that scientists had confirmed its safety.[65] On 15 July, the 14-day quarantine requirement for arrivals in the country was abolished with arrivals now requiring medical documents in English or Russian showing a negative test. If an arrival does not have such documents, they will be placed into observation until they get a negative test result. Tatyana Golikova previously said that quarantines can be maintained for Russians returning from countries with high infection rates.[66] On 16 July, Reuters reported that 30 million doses of the experimental vaccine would be produced domestically in Russia and the potential for 170 million to be manufactured abroad, according to the head of RDIF, Kirill Dmitriev. He also said that a Phase III trial involving several thousand people is expected to start in August.[67]

On 24 July, Tatyana Golikova said that the country plans to resume some international flights on 1 August, with the list of destinations currently limited to Tanzania, Turkey and the United Kingdom. This would include airports in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Rostov-on-Don to and from the island of Zanzibar, London, Istanbul and Ankara. She said that more destinations in Turkey would be added from 10 August. She also said that a list of more countries was being worked on by authorities on a mutual basis.[68]

August 2020Edit

 
People wearing face masks in Tyumen in August 2020

On 1 August, the Abkhazia-Russia border was reopened.[69] The Minister of Health, Mikhail Murashko, said that mass vaccinations are planned to begin in October, first to health workers and teachers.[70] Flights between Switzerland and Russia were announced to resume on 15 August, with one flight each week to and from Geneva and Moscow.[71][72]

On 11 August, President Putin said in a meeting that the vaccine developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology was the first vaccine against the coronavirus to be registered. He said that one of his daughters was vaccinated.[73] The previous day, the Association of Clinical Research Organisations, a union of pharmaceutical companies in Russia, urged the head of the Ministry of Health to delay the registration due to incomplete testing.[74] The head of the RDIF stated that 20 countries had requested in total 1 billion doses of the vaccine, nicknamed Sputnik V.[75]

On 20 August, Deputy Prime Minister for Construction, Housing and Utilities and Regional Development Marat Khusnullin had announced that he was vaccinated with the vaccine developed by the Gamaleya Centre.[76] On 29 August, President Putin on state TV said that the next academic year would begin as normal on 1 September and called for compliance with health guidelines and safety requirements. He confirmed that there would be face-to-face teaching but noted a "flexible" approach to this.[77] On 31 August, the head of Rospotrebnadzor, Anna Popova, confirmed the beginning of the academic year at the next day on a full-time basis, saying the current epidemiological situation makes it possible to do so.[78] She also previously said that foreign students may be allowed to enter the country to study at universities, provided that they have a medical document confirming a negative test and received it no more than 3 days before their arrival.[79] The science and education minister, Valery Falkov, previously said that Russian universities were organising distance learning for foreign students who are unable to attend due to closed borders. Falkov had also previously said that most classes would begin on 1 September and be subject to sanitary measures. The deputy prime minister Tatiana Golikova also previously said that higher education institutions would be able to postpone the start of the academic year by a maximum of two months, with 92% of universities starting normally.[80]

September 2020Edit

On 1 September, Russia's confirmed number of cases surpassed 1 million, becoming the fourth country to reach that mark.[81] The director of the Gamaleya Centre said that a stage 3 test for its vaccine would begin in Moscow, consisting of 40,000 volunteers with clinics receiving the vaccine from 3–4 September.[82] On 2 September, it was reported that the trade and industry minister, Denis Manturov, was vaccinated against the virus using the vaccine developed by the Gamaleya Centre.[76] The leader of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, Vladimir Zhirinovsky, was reported to have been vaccinated after volunteering.[83] On 4 September, it was reported that vice mayors of Moscow, Anastasia Rakova and Vladimir Efimov, were vaccinated, where nearly all heads of departments were vaccinated after Sobyanin was vaccinated.[84] Sobyanin had also discussed his vaccination with President Putin in a videoconference.[85] Flights to Egypt, the Maldives and the United Arab Emirates were added to the list of countries where flights are planned to be resumed.[86] On 5 September, Defense Minister Sergei Shoygu reported his condition on state TV after being vaccinated.[87] On 8 September, the health ministry's press service said that the first batches of the vaccine developed by the Gamaleya Centre had entered civilian circulation.[88]

On 13 September, regional elections in Russia were held, with social distancing measures and sanitary requirements for polling stations. Voting was also extended to three days, taking place from 11 September to 13 September, with the main voting day on the last day, as well as other changes.[89] On 17 September, RBC reported that pharmacies in Russia would begin selling Coronavir and Areplivir for treatment of the virus.[90]

On 20 September, Prime Minister Mishustin signed a decree resuming flights with 4 countries. Flights with Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan would resume on 21 September while flights with South Korea would resume on 27 September. On 23 September, Rospotrebnadzor head, Anna Popova, signed a decree which requires Russian citizens who have returned from abroad by plane to stay home until they receive a negative test result.[91] Also that day, it was reported that a State Duma deputy from the Communist Party, Vakha Agaev, had died from the virus, becoming the first victim among State Duma members.[92] On 25 September, Moscow's mayor, Sobyanin, published an appeal to employers in the city to transfer as many employees as possible to working remotely. New recommendations were also introduced in the city, with residents over the age of 65 advised to not leave their home unless absolutely necessary.[93] On 27 September, Sobyanin announced that the heating season in the city would begin the next day, earlier than usual. He also said that recommendations for the elderly and those with chronic illnesses to stay home would come into force that day.[94] On 28 September, Rospotrebnadzor head, Anna Popova, said that there was no need for new strict restrictions due to a rise in cases. She said that the situation had changed compared to the beginning of the year as well as the understanding of the virus, and attributed the rise in cases to the seasonality of the virus.[95] On 29 September, the Chairman of the State Duma, Volodin, said that 18 deputies were in the hospital with the virus and that overall 60 deputies have been ill. The State Duma would also partially switch to working remotely.[96]

October 2020Edit

On 2 October, it was published that in total, more than 45,000 people had died to date with coronavirus in Russia. The fatality rate in Russia is 4,6% At the end of the August 2020.[97]

On 4 October there were confirmed 10,499 and it was the highest number since May 2020.[98]

On 11 October there were confirmed 13,634. [99]

On 15 October there were confirmed 15,150 and it was the highest number since the pandemic started. Also daily deaths have steadily been increasing. There are now 23,723 deaths in the country. [100]

November 2020Edit

On 6 November Russian statistics published that 55,671 people died with coronavirus before 30 September 2020. The official death toll was 20,891.[101]

On 8 November 2020, Russia reported 20,498 new coronavirus infections and 286 coronavirus-related deaths. This brings the number of infected cases to a total of 1,774,334 and the death toll to 30,537.[102]

December 2020Edit

On 28 December, the Federal State Statistics Service said that the amount of recorded deaths from all causes between January and November had risen by 229,700 compared to 2019. Tatyana Golikova, Deputy Prime Minister of Russia, said that more than 81% of these deaths could be attributed to COVID-19, meaning at least an estimated 186,000 Russians had died because of the virus.[103]

TreatmentEdit

OverviewEdit

As of 28 April, the Ministry of Health approved the 6th version of the temporary methodological recommendations: prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19). The focus is on early intervention prior to receiving test results for suspected cases in an outpatient setting. On 17 April, the second version of the officially not approved temporary guidelines was published - "Drug treatment of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) in outpatient practice during the COVID-19 epidemic" by the Ministry of Health. This is designed to provide recommendations of the combination of antiviral drugs that can be used for urgent outpatient treatment of patients with ARVI symptoms without waiting for the results of testing. These documents advise that it is clinically proven that an early start to treatment provides an easier and shorter course of the disease, while no scientific data yet support this statement. Recommendations for drug treatment of ARVI were published on the website of the Ministry of Health.[104]

ProcedureEdit

DiagnosisEdit

The definition of a suspicious case in the guidelines (translated from Russian) is as follows "any case of acute respiratory infection (body temperature above 37.5 °C and one or more of the following symptoms: cough - dry or with sputum, shortness of breath, feeling of stuffiness in the chest, blood saturation with oxygenpulse oximetry (SpO2) ≤ 95%, sore throat, runny nose and other catarrhal symptoms) in the absence of other known causes that explain the clinical picture"[citation needed]

The guidelines define a mild ARVI as follows:

  • body temperature below 38 °C;
  • respiratory rate less than 22 per min;
  • oxygen saturation (SpO2) more than 95%;
  • lack of shortness of breath;
  • lack of clinical and auscultatory picture of pneumonia.[105]

Drugs usedEdit

The guidelines clearly stated that no one drug is experimentally proven effective as antiviral agent against COVID-19. It recommend "several drugs that can be used both in monotherapy and in combination: INN: chloroquine, INN: hydroxychloroquine, INN: mefloquine, INN: lopinavir/ritonavir, INN: azithromycin. Among the drugs that are being tested in vitro and already are in clinical trials in patients with COVID-19 are the following: INN: umifenovir, INN: remdesivir, INN: favipiravir and others."[105]

Initial treatment prior to laboratory confirmation of diagnosis is the "use of reduced dosages INN: hydroxychloroquine and INN: mefloquine, which reduces their risk cardiotoxicity without a significant decrease in effectiveness." with a rider "Given the little experience with mefloquine with COVID-19, its use is recommended only when hydroxychloroquine is unavailable."[105]

According to the guidelines, after laboratory confirmation of diagnosis the treatment is as follows:[citation needed]

  1. recombinant interferon alfa: Drops or spray in each nasal passage 5-6 times a day (single dose - 3000 ME, daily dose- 15000-18000 ME) + hydroxychloroquine 600 mg on the first day (3times 200 mg), 400 mg on the second day (2 times 200 mg), then200 mg per day for 5 days;
  2. umifenovir: 200 mg 4 times a day + hydroxychloroquine 600 mg the first day (3 times 200 mg), 400 mg on the second day (2 times 200 mg), then 200 mg per day for 5 days;
  3. recombinant interferon alfa: Drops or spray in each nasal passage 5-6 times a day (single dose - 3000 ME, daily dose -15000-18000 ME) + mefloquine 500 mg on the first and second day (2 times 250 mg), then 250 mg per day for 5 days *;
  4. umifenovir : 200 mg 4 times a day + mefloquine 500 mg in the first and the second day (2 times 250 mg), then 250 mg per day for 5days *;
  5. recombinant interferon alfa: Drops or spray in each nasal passage 5-6 times a day (single dose - 3000 ME, daily dose -15000-18000 ME) + umifenovir, 200 mg 4 times a day - during 5 days**.[105]

Both recombinant interferon alfa and umifenovir are unique recommendations from Russian authors. They have no international recognition, because are not based on the appropriate research data.[citation needed]

* when hydroxychloroquine is unavailable; ** - if there are contraindications to the appointment hydroxychloroquine and mefloquine[105]

More detailed treatment plans for different severalties along with diagnosis and treatment pathways are in the appendices to the guidelines.[105]

The guidelines state that "Given the lack of objective evidence of effectiveness the use of the above drugs with COVID-19, the appointment of treatment must necessarily be accompanied by voluntary informed consent of the patient (or his legal representative)."[105]

On 8 July, Reuters reported that Russia approved the use of a new anti-viral drug of undisclosed structure, Coronavir, for mild to moderate COVID-19.[106]

In August, a new drug called leitragin, based on the drug Dalargin, was patented by the Russian Patent Office. The drug is awaiting clinical trials.[107]

Clinically trialled drugsEdit

On 30 May, the Health Ministry approved Avifavir as having been "highly effective" in the first phase of clinical trials. 330 patients are taking part in the final stage of clinical trials and the results are expected to be announced on 1 June. Avifavir was developed with the backing of the Russia Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) and is a generic form of favipiravir which has been used in Japan since 2014 for severe influenza.[108][109][110]

Noninvasive ventilationEdit

On 2 June, the Russian Academy of Sciences announced the results of a study of 76 patients that showed that 71% of patients with acute respiratory failure could be treated with non-invasive lung ventilation provided this was applied in the early stages. This is significant because the death rate is as high as 70% for those that are not treated early enough and have to have invasive lung ventilation with drugs for sedation.[111]

VaccinationEdit

On August 1, the Minister of Health of Russia Mikhail Murashko reported that clinical trials of the SARS-CoV-2 corona virus vaccine, developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, have been officially completed. He expressed the hope that the vaccine will be suitable for children, but according to Russian law, after the completion of the third phase of testing, the drug will be allowed to be tested on minors.

On August 11, Russia became the first country in the world to approve a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. President Vladimir Putin stated "I know the vaccine works quite effectively, helps to develop strong immunity, and has gone through all the necessary tests” he declared at a cabinet meeting. Putin's daughter has also taken the vaccine, as he states " “She feels well, and the concentration of antibodies is high, The main thing is to ensure unconditional safety and effectiveness of this vaccine in the future.” Russian health-care minister Mikhail Murashko said at a government briefing that "the vaccine would be gradually introduced to citizens, starting with health workers and teachers.The approval for the vaccine in public eyes is skewed, since the vaccine has not completely gone through phase three trials. A vaccine that would be ineffective could potentially worsen the pandemic as it is. Many worry that the vaccine would be potentially dangerous, but Russia has offered a website to reassure that their vaccine is reliable and safe to use. Russia claims that they would be able to produce about five hundred million vaccines per year called Sputnik V, named after the Soviet Space Program.[112]

Healthcare systemEdit

OverviewEdit

On 19 March 2020, the Russian Government reported the following data. More than 55 thousand beds for infectious cases were deployed, including more than 12 thousand intensive care units and 396 observatories. 7.5 thousand Melzer boxes were prepared. Medical organisations have more than 40 thousand devices for artificial lung ventilation, 124 devices for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The government of the Russian Federation has allocated resources for the additional purchase of more than 500 devices, including 17 ECMO devices. Today, 6,000 infectious diseases doctors and almost 2,000 pulmonologists, more than 18,000 nurses are ready to provide medical assistance.[113]

According to the OECD, Russia ranks third in the number of beds per capita. However, bed equipment varies from hospital to hospital. In terms of equipment – for example, CT and MRI devices – Russia is in 28th place with a dramatic gap from the leaders. Rosstat does not publish data on the number of places in intensive care units and equipment. In total, there are 1 million 172,000 beds in Russian hospitals, according to Rosstat data for 2018. These include intensive care units. An intensive care bed means a bed equipped with a set of equipment for resuscitation and intensive care, including ventilators. The Institute of Phthisiopulmonology and infectious diseases of the Ministry of Health estimated the number of intensive care beds at just 12,000, which is three times less than the Ministry of Health's standard. The proekt.media independent investigative website was able to find data on the number of intensive care beds in only 23 regions. Only Moscow, Kalmykia, Altai, and Komi reached a standard of 3%. Other regions are significantly below the standard.
Separate ventilators in hospitals should be more than intensive care beds. The number of ventilators in a region should be at least 1.5 times more than the number of intensive care beds. There are no official statistics on the number of ventilators. Federal authorities with the beginning of the epidemic conducted their own calculations: Deputy Prime Minister Tatyana Golikova said that Russia has 40,000 ventilators. This is 3.4% of the total number of beds in Russia, and more than 12 thousand devices are missing from the standards of the Ministry of health. This is a total deficit of 23%, but in some regions, it is much larger. The proekt.media website tried to find sources of information to evaluate that all the devices included in the statistics are in working order. 58% of ventilators are more than 9 years old. Components may require more frequent replacement. For example, the oxygen sensor of the American model common in Russia, Puritan Bennett, is subject to replacement every two years.[114]

Data collected by the news website Meduza indicates that Russia's supply of ventilators is quite extensive: Even the number available per capita in some geographically peripheral regions, not to mention Moscow, significantly exceeds ventilator supplies in Western countries.[115]

A Meduza investigation revealed that the areas with the highest proportions of elderly residents (Tula, Tambov, Ryazan, and Tver regions) are most vulnerable to the epidemic because of the few numbers of ventilators and, in particular, Tula and Tver governors didn't issue general stay-at-home orders.[116]

Government responsesEdit

The government of Russia has initially responded to the pandemic with preventive measures to curb the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019, which involved imposing quarantines, carrying raids on potential virus carriers, and using facial recognition to impose quarantine measures.[117] Measures to prevent a crisis in Russia include banning the export of medical masks, random checks on the Moscow Metro, and cancellation of large-scale events by schools. The Russian government has also taken measures to prevent foreign citizens from heavily affected countries from visiting Russia.[citation needed] Local governments have also responded to the pandemic by imposing their own preventive measures in their communities.

LockdownsEdit

 
Map of federal subjects that have announced the "self-isolation regime".
  Stay-at-home order
  Partial restrictions or recommendations
 
Playground closed for quarantine, 7 April 2020

On 28 March, Chechen authorities urged the population of the republic to stay at their places of permanent residence, and banned entry to Grozny for anyone except emergency services, food supplies, government officials, police, and journalists.[118] On the next day, Chechnya closed its borders, with a full lockdown coming into effect on 30 March.[119]

On 29 March, Moscow issued a stay-at-home order for all residents starting on 30 March. Muscovites were not allowed to leave their homes except in cases of emergency medical care and other threats to life and health, to travel to work for those who are obliged to, to make purchases in the nearest shop or pharmacy, to walk pets at a distance not exceeding 100 metres from the place of residence, as well as to take out the garbage. People were instructed to keep a distance of 1.5 metres from other people. Those recently unemployed will receive 19,500 rubles a month.[120][121] After that, a similar regime was introduced in Moscow Oblast at 20:00 MSK on 29 March.[122]

On 30 March, similar orders were announced in Adygea, the Komi Republic, Mari El, Tatarstan, Chuvashia, some districts of Yakutia, Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan,[123] Belgorod, Irkutsk, Kaliningrad, Kursk, Lipetsk, Murmansk, Nizhny Novgorod, Novgorod, Ryazan, Saratov, Sverdlovsk, Ulyanovsk and Vologda oblasts, the cities of Bryansk and Saint Petersburg.[124][125] Leningrad Oblast banned movement of people between districts and introduced a lockdown in the town of Murino.[126]

On 31 March, the "self-isolation regime" was announced in republics of Altai, Bashkortostan, Buryatia, Dagestan,[127] Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Kalmykia, Karachay-Cherkessia, Karelia,[128] Khakassia, Mordovia, Udmurtia and Tuva, Altai, Khabarovsk (for those over 65), Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm, Primorsky, Stavropol and Zabaykalsky krais, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma,[129] Kurgan, Magadan, Novosibirsk, Omsk,[130] Penza, Pskov (for those over 65), Rostov, Sakhalin, Samara, Smolensk,[131] Tambov, Tomsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Voronezh and Yaroslavl[132] oblasts, Khanty-Mansi[133] and Yamalo-Nenets autonomous okrugs, the Jewish Autonomous Oblast,[134] the city of Sevastopol.[135][136][137][125] Republics of Yakutia and Karelia limited the sale of alcohol.[138]

On 1 April, the "self-isolation regime" was announced in the disputed territory of Crimea and Sevastopol,[139] the republic of North Ossetia–Alania,[140] Kamchatka[141] and Khabarovsk[142] krais, Ivanovo[143] and Orenburg[144] oblasts. On 2 April, the measures were announced in Amur Oblast (for those over 65), Tyumen Oblast,[145] and Chukotka Autonomous Okrug.[146] On 3 April, the measures were announced in Oryol Oblast[147] and Tula Oblast (for those over 65).[148]

Foreign aidEdit

In early February, aid was sent to China.[149][150]

On 22 March, after a phone call with Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, Russian president Vladimir Putin arranged the Russian army to send medical help to Italy, which was the European country hardest hit by coronavirus.[151]

On 1 April, a Russian military plane was sent to the United States to deliver medical equipment.[152] The equipment was apparently sold to the US.[153]

Economic impactEdit

 
KFC restaurant in Pushkino, Moscow Oblast switched to a take-away regime.

February–March 2020Edit

On 20 February, Minister of Finance Anton Siluanov said Russia is losing around 1 billion rubles each day because of decreased trade with China.[154]

On 5 March, the head of the Russian Association of Tour Operators said Russia's tourism sector had already taken a 27 billion ruble hit from the impact of the coronavirus.[155]

As a result of the pandemic, factory output and transportation demand fell, bringing overall demand for oil down as well, and causing oil prices to fall. This triggered an OPEC summit in Vienna on 5 March. At the summit, OPEC agreed to cut oil production by an additional 1.5 million barrels per day through the second quarter of the year.[156] OPEC called on Russia and other non-OPEC members of OPEC+ to abide by the OPEC decision.[157] On 6 March, Russia rejected the demand, marking the end of the partnership, with oil prices falling 10% after the announcement.[158][159] On 8 March, Saudi Arabia initiated an oil price war with Russia, triggering a major fall in the price of oil around 30%.[160] The price war is one of the major causes of the currently ongoing global stock market crash. As the result of the oil price falling, the Russian ruble suffered a fall hitting a four-year low against the U.S. dollar.[161]

On 17 March, First Deputy Minister of Transport and Federal Air Transport Agency head Alexander Neradko said cancellation of international flights during the pandemic threatens to bankrupt multiple Russian airlines. Russian airlines lost an estimated 1.7 billion rubles due to the cancellation of flights to China in February. According to Neradko, airlines could lose another 100 billion rubles in revenues by the end of the year.[162]

On 23 March, Russia's federal list of "systemically important" companies was expanded to three times, featuring about 600 businesses. According to Vedomosti, the updated list includes new airlines (Rossiya, S7, Utair), airports (Moscow Domodedovo, Saint Petersburg Pulkovo), grocery chains (Vkusvill [ru], Auchan), fast food chains (McDonald's, Burger King), and retail shops (Sportmaster [ru], IKEA).[163]

On 24 March, Mayor of Moscow Sergey Sobyanin issued orders to support businesses which include postponing payments on organisations’ property and land taxes, deferring rental payments, reducing payments fixed in trading contracts and extending the deadlines for paying trade fees. On 25 March, President of Russia Vladimir Putin announced following measures for microenterprises, small- and medium-sized businesses: deferring tax payments (except Russia's value-added tax) for the next six months, cutting the size of social security contributions in half, deferring social security contributions, deferring loan repayments for the next six months, a six-month moratorium on fines, debt collection, and creditors’ applications for bankruptcy of debtor enterprises. Additionally, a new tax on income from large deposits will be introduced in 2021, and the tax on offshores will be increased.[164][165][166] On 27 March, the Association of Banks of Russia reported an increase of deposits closure.[167]

On 25 March, associations of companies of online shopping, retail, culinary, and nine other industries sent a letter to Prime Minister Mishustin, in which they warned of a possible collapse of their businesses and asked for numerous additional measures of support.[168] On 26 March, a petition signed by publishing houses and bookshops pleading for support was published.[169]

On 30 March, owners of hotels and restaurants asked the government for 1-year tax deferral and other fiscal measures.[170]

April–May 2020Edit

On 1 April, nearly 1.4 trillion rubles had been earmarked for fighting the virus and the pandemic's economic impact.[171]

Aeroflot′s low-cost carrier Pobeda Airlines announced it would stop flights on 1 April until 31 May.[172]

Sberbank and VTB Bank with backing from the Central Bank will start offering six-month, interest-free loans to businesses to help them pay employee salaries.[173]

The Eurasian Economic Union will ban export of the onions, garlics, turnips, rye, rice, buckwheat, proso millets, groats, whole-wheat flour, granules of cereal grain, pealed buckwheat grain, buckwheat ready meals, soybeans, sunflower seeds from 10 April to 30 June.[174]

On 14 April 2020, the International Monetary Fund projected Russia's real GDP growth rate to be −5.5% for 2020 in what it called "The Great Lockdown".[175] International ratings agency Moody's said in late April that it expected Russia's GDP to decline by 5.5% in 2020, with it growing by 2.2% in 2021.[176]

On 16 April, Minister of Economic Development Maxim Reshetnikov said that Russia is set to spend over 2 trillion rubles to counter the pandemic's effects.[171]

On 24 April, the Central Bank of Russia cut its key interest rate by 50 basis points to 5.5%.[171]

On 18 May, the Federal Air Transport Agency said that it allocated 7.89 billion rubles to Aeroflot as a partial compensation for losses due to the pandemic. It said it would consider applications from 6 more companies. Overall, the government had allocated 23.4 billion rubles to compensate for losses to airlines.[177]

June–July 2020Edit

On 2 June, Prime Minister Mishustin said that the government would launch a 5 trillion ruble ($73 billion) recovery plan in the next month to counteract against the pandemic's economic effects. The program would last until the end of 2021 with the target of bringing the unemployment rate back to under 5% and economic growth of 2.5% a year. It was reported that the plan would include greater daily spending from the federal budget and lost tax revenues, and that the recovery package could overall be worth 7.3 trillion rubles ($106 billion) once long-term infrastructure projects, which isn't counted against the regular annual budget, are included. Mishustin said that the program was divided into 3 stages consisting of "stabilisation" (until end of 2020), "recovery" (until mid 2021) and "growth" from Q4 of 2021. It also outlines structural changes to labour regulations, including a new hourly minimum wage to support part-time work, encourage employment and decrease the size of the shadow economy. It is also planned to increase real wage growth by 2.5% and reduce the poverty rate of 12.3% in 2019.[54]

On 23 June, President Putin, in a televised address, announced additional economic and social support measures as a result of the pandemic's impact. He announced the end of Russia's flat income tax rate of 13% that he introduced in 2001 by increasing the tax rate for the top earners who earn over 5 million rubles to 15%, starting from 1 January 2021. He said that the extra revenue of around 60 billion rubles would go towards helping children with severe or rare diseases. He also announced other measures including increased benefits to families where both parents have lost their job and a one-off payment to families in July of 10,000 rubles for each child they have aged under 16. 100 billion rubles would also handed out in loans for businesses to pay employees. He also said that IT companies would benefit from an ultra-low tax regime and profits tax for them would be cut from 20% to 3%.[178][179][59]

On 17 July, Reuters reported that the economy shrank by 9.6% year-on-year in the 2nd quarter, the most in 20 years, according to the economy minister. Real disposable incomes fell by 8% in year-on-year terms in April to June according to Rosstat. It also said that Russia's industrial output fell by 9.4% in June compared to a year ago.[180]

On 22 July, the economy minister, Maxim Reshetnikov, was quoted as saying that Russia's GDP declined by 4.2% in the first half of 2020. He said that this ministry was maintaining its 2020 forecast of a decrease of 4.8%, but that it would be revised in August.[181]

August–October 2020Edit

 
Mask mode in the Nizhny Novgorod metro. Proletarskaya metro station.

On 4 August, the head of the Federal Tourism Agency, Zarina Doguzova, said that total losses for the tourism industry amounted to about 1.5 trillion rubles, with losses from the closure of the borders amounting to around 500 billion rubles.[182]

On 20 August, the economy minister said that GDP fell 4.7% in July, compared to having fallen 6.4% in the previous month.[183]

On 11 August, Reuters reported that the economy contracted by 8.5% in the second quarter, after growing by 1.2% in Q1, however this was less than expected. Rosstat said that only the agriculture sector grew in Q2, while commodity, retail, transport and services sectors were hardest hit. According to the central bank, the economy is likely to shrink by 4.5-5.5% for the whole of 2020 before starting to grow again in 2021.[184]

Political impactEdit

EventsEdit

On 25 March, the 2020 constitutional referendum, which was originally scheduled for 22 April, was postponed by President Putin in a televised address to the nation.[185][186]

On 13 May 2020, the governors of Arkhangelsk Oblast and Nenets Autonomous Okrug announced their plan to merge following the collapse of oil prices stemming from the pandemic.[187] A referendum on the issue was planned to be held on 13 September 2020.[188] This could be the first merger of Russia's federal subjects since the unification of Chita Oblast and Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug in 2008.[189] After protests in Nenets Autonomous Okrug including from local United Russia representatives, on 28 May the referendum was postponed indefinitely.[190]

LegislationEdit

On 1 April, President Putin signed legislation imposing severe punishments for those convicted of spreading false information about the coronavirus and breaking quarantine rules.[191]

On 13 May, the State Duma submitted and passed amendments allowing electoral commissions to introduce postal or internet voting during elections and referendums. Previously, voting by mail could be allowed only in regions, but now it has been extended to the federal level. The amendment does not affect the 2020 constitutional referendum, the procedure of which is covered by a separate law. In addition to that, collecting voter signatures for registering a candidate or organising a referendum will be allowed through the Russian Public Services Portal [ru], however the number of such signatures can't exceed 50%. The procedure of filling signature sheets has been changed as well, now voters have to fill their names personally. The number of maximum invalid signatures has been lowered from 10% to 5%. The Communist Party, LDPR and A Just Russia opposed the amendment, saying that the draft was not consulted with them. The law has been passed with 250 votes in favour and 83 against.[192][193]

Politicians infectedEdit

Federal AssemblyEdit

On 25 April, two cases were confirmed in the State Duma, the lower chamber of the Federal Assembly, the Russian parliament. They included deputies from the Communist Party Leonid Kalashnikov and Dmitry Novikov.[194]

On 6 May, United Russia deputy, Svetlana Maksimova was diagnosed with COVID-19. She was hospitalised in Tver earlier.[195]

On 13 May, the Chairman of the State Duma Vyacheslav Volodin announced that five deputies had been infected in total. Three of them were hospitalised, one of which had been recovered. Oksana Pushkina from the United Russia party said that she is one of the two new confirmed cases.[196] On 18 May, the advisor of the chairman Anastasia Kashevarova said that six deputies had positive tests, two of them had recovered, two were hospitalised, another two were quarantined at home.[197]

On 20 May, the Chairwoman of the Federation Council, the upper chamber, Valentina Matviyenko said that five senators had recovered from COVID-19.[198]

On 23 September, it was reported that State Duma deputy from the Communist Party, Vakha Agaev, had died from the virus.[199]

On 29 September, the Chairman of the State Duma, Volodin, said that 18 deputies were in hospital with the virus and that overall 60 deputies have been ill. The State Duma would also partially switch to working remotely.[200]

GovernmentEdit

 
President Putin, Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin and Moscow Mayor Sergey Sobyanin visited the Coronavirus Monitoring Centre on 17 March

On 30 April, Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin announced that he had tested positive for the virus. President Putin as a result signed an executive order to appoint First Deputy Prime Minister Andrey Belousov as Acting Prime Minister while Mishustin recovers.[44] On 19 May, President Putin reappointed Mishustin as the Prime Minister.[201]

On 1 May, Minister of Construction, Housing and Utilities Vladimir Yakushev and his deputy Dmitry Volkov were hospitalised because of positive tests. Another deputy, Nikita Stasishin was appointed as the acting minister.[202]

On 6 May, Minister of Culture Olga Lyubimova was confirmed to have tested positive for the virus. Her First Deputy, Sergey Obryvalin was appointed as the acting minister.[203]

On 14 May, President Putin said that Education and Science Minister Valery Falkov had recovered from COVID-19.[204]

Presidential AdministrationEdit

On 12 May, Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov confirmed that he tested positive for the virus. He said that the last time he met President Putin in person was over a month ago.[205] Peskov was discharged on 25 May and returned to his duties.[206]

PollsEdit

In a poll carried out by the Levada Centre from 24 to 27 April 2020, 46% of respondents approved of the president's and federal government's measures in combating the virus, while 48% disapproved with 18% believing it was excessive and 30% believing it was not enough. In the same poll, 50% of respondents approved of their local government's measures, while 45% disapproved with 15% believing it was excessive and 30% believing it was not enough.[207][208]

In another poll by the Levada Centre carried out from 22 to 24 May, 66% said that they approved of the measures taken by the president and federal government, while 32% disapproved. In the same poll, 63% approved of their local government's measures while 33% disapproved.[209]

President Putin's approval rating and trust rating fell during the pandemic. Putin's approval rating fell from 69% in February 2020 to 63% in March and 59% in April and May in polls by the Levada Center — the lowest recorded by the pollster during his time in power.[210] In June and July, it was 60%.[211] In a poll carried out from 27 July to 2 August by the state-run pollster VTsIOM, Putin's approval rating was 60%.[212] In May, the Levada Centre recorded Putin's lowest trust rating: 25% said that they trusted Putin the most (out of a list of politicians) compared to 59% in November 2017 when the Levada Centre began the polls.[213] In July, his trust rating fell to 23%.[211] In August however, his approval rating increased to 66% and his trust rating jumped to 33%.[214][215]

Social impactEdit

Event cancellationsEdit

On 5 March, First Deputy Prime Minister Andrey Belousov announced the cancellation of the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum which was due to be held from 3 to 6 June 2020.[216]

On 11 March, Russian Defence Minister Sergey Shoygu cancelled the Moscow International Security Conference which had been scheduled for 22 to 23 April.[216]

On 17 March, TASS reported that all football, hockey and basketball games were suspended until 10 April.[217] This was later extended to 31 May.[218] On the same day, UEFA confirmed postponing Euro 2020 until summer 2021, one of the venues of which is Krestovsky Stadium in Saint Petersburg.[219]

Despite the fact that a conscription started on 1 April, conscripts won't be sent to duty stations until 20 May.[220]

On 16 April, President Putin postponed the 2020 Victory Day Parade.[221] On 26 May, President Putin announced that the 2020 Victory Day Parade would be held on 24 June, coinciding with the Moscow Victory Parade of 1945.[49]

On 20 July, organisers for the "Immortal Regiment" march postponed the event to 9 May 2021.[222]

Religious services and organisationsEdit

On 17 March, the leadership of the Russian Orthodox Church published Instructions to rectors of parishes and monasteries’ town churches, abbots and abbesses of the monasteries of the Russian Orthodox Church over the threat of spreading coronavirus infection (in English), which said it had been approved by the ROC's Holy Synod and instructed the ROC's clergy to use disposable cups, gloves, and facial tissue during sacraments and celebrations, disinfect church plates and premises regularly, and refrain from offering the hand for kissing.[223] A nearly identical Russian-language Instructions were addressed to the clergy of the Moscow diocese and said it had been approved by the Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'.[224] When in St. Petersburg attendance of places of worship was restricted for the public on 26 March, the Moscow Patriarchate's lawyer deemed it unlawful.[225]

On 29 March, the ROC's Patriarch Kirill delivered a sermon in the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour that urged people to refrain from visiting church, citing the life of St. Mary of Egypt.[226] On 3 April, Kirill issued an encyclical for the clergy and faithful of the "dioceses in the territory of the Russian Federation" urging the clergy to conduct church services without laypeople's presence.[227] As the city of Moscow decided to tighten lockdown measures starting from 13 April, and following a request from chief sanitary doctor of Moscow, the Patriarch's Vicar instructed that church services in the city diocese be held without public (laypeople).[228] A similar decision was taken in St. Petersburg.[229] As of 16 April 2020, according to RBK, 42 out of 85 federal subjects including Moscow, Moscow Oblast and Saint Petersburg, issued instructions to close places of worship for general public, which would extend into the Easter period, which in the Orthodox Church was to begin on 19 April.[230] Equivocation and occasionally contradictory instructions issued by the Moscow Patriarchate's top officials undermined the authority of the Church's leadership while restrictive measures caused opposition on the part of conservative circles of the ROC's congregation.[231][232] On Easter Sunday, the degree of admission restrictions, if any, to religious ceremonies varied significantly from region to region (federal subject), the ROC's branches outside the RF territory given free rein to find appropriate arrangement with local authorities.[233] While Patriarch Kirill presided over the Easter night service in Moscow's cathedral church with no laypeople in attendance, the ROC's most venerated St Trinity monastery in the Moscow region, which is under the Patriarch's direct spiritual authority, defied his directions by conducting Easter services as normal. This and similar incidents in other major monasteries led to massive spread of the COVID-19 infection in a number of the ROC's monasteries and seminaries in Russia as well as in Belarus and Ukraine.[232][234][235][236][237]

Various Muslim communities closed their mosques. In Moscow, the Cathedral Mosque, the Old Mosque, and the Memorial Mosque on Poklonnaya Hill closed on 18 March.[238] On 23 March, mosques in Crimea and Sevastopol were shut down.[239] On the next day, all the mosques in Krasnodar Krai and Adygea were closed as well.[240] Same measures were planned in Dagestan.[241]

On 18 March, Rabbi Berel Lazar closed the Bolshaya Bronnaya Synagogue, Maryina Roshcha Synagogue, and Zhukovka Jewish Centre.[242] Eleven members of the community were hospitalised, with four COVID-19 cases confirmed, the first one being a rabbi who felt sick after Purim celebration on 9 March.[243][244] On 24 March, Rabbi Berel Lazar and the Federation of Jewish Communities recommended that all synagogues to close down and the community centres and Jewish schools switch to distance education.[245]

VictimsEdit

BusinesspeopleEdit

  • 30 November – Boris Aleksandrov [ru], 73, founder and President of Rostagroexport Group, creator of the brand name B. Y. Aleksandrov[246]
  • 24 December – Vladimir Khristov [ru], 71, founder and owner of Public Joint Stock Company Susumanzoloto (Magadan), gold manufacturer with fortune of 0.5 bln. $[247]

ClericsEdit

For the clerics of the Russian Orthodox Church, only those serving in Russia are included

EntertainersEdit

MedicsEdit

On 25 April 2020, it was reported that doctors had published and were updating a public list of colleagues who had died during the pandemic which, as of 19 November, has 838 names.[283][284]

Military personnelEdit

PoliticiansEdit

ScientistsEdit

People in sportsEdit

StatisticsEdit

The official national statistics include data by region. As of May 2020, some local governments were separately reporting their own data that differed from the national government's count.[312]

Data by federal subjectEdit

COVID-19 pandemic in Russia by federal subjects (as of January 16, 2021)[1] ()
Federal subject Total Population
(2020)[313]
Per 1 million
Cases Recov. Deaths Cases Deaths
85 out of 85 3,544,623 2,936,991 65,085 146,748,590 24,154 443.5
  Moscow 887,636 734,728 12,401 12,678,079 70,013 978.1
  Saint Petersburg 294,161 184,063 8,788 5,398,064 54,494 1,628
  Moscow Oblast 176,026 135,174 3,249 7,690,863 22,888 422.4
  Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 77,255 69,499 1,894 3,202,946 24,120 591.3
  Sverdlovsk Oblast 64,807 57,235 1,788 4,310,681 15,034 414.8
  Rostov Oblast 57,921 47,918 2,323 4,197,821 13,798 553.4
  Voronezh Oblast 52,453 47,080 1,345 2,324,205 22,568 578.7
  Krasnoyarsk Krai 51,631 47,330 1,965 2,866,255 18,013 685.6