Open main menu

The 2019 NFL season is the 100th season of the National Football League (NFL). The season began on September 5, 2019 with the NFL Kickoff Game, in which the Green Bay Packers defeated the Chicago Bears. The season will conclude with Super Bowl LIV, the league's championship game, scheduled for February 2, 2020, at Hard Rock Stadium in Miami, Florida.

2019 National Football League season
100 NFL seasons logo.svg
The NFL's centennial emblem, which will be used throughout 2019
Regular season
DurationSeptember 5, 2019 (2019-09-05) – December 29, 2019 (2019-12-29)
Start dateJanuary 4, 2020
AFC ChampionsNew England Patriots
NFC ChampionsSan Francisco 49ers
Super Bowl LIV
DateFebruary 2, 2020
SiteHard Rock Stadium, Miami Gardens, Florida
ChampionsNew England Patriots
Pro Bowl
DateJanuary 26, 2020
SiteCamping World Stadium, Orlando, Florida

Player movementEdit

The 2019 NFL League year and trading period began on March 13. On March 8, teams were allowed to exercise options for 2019 on players who have option clauses in their contracts submit qualifying offers to their pending restricted free agents and submit a Minimum Salary Tender to retain exclusive negotiating rights to their players with expiring 2018 contracts and who have fewer than three accrued seasons of free agent credit. Teams were required to be under the salary cap using the "Top 51" definition (in which the 51 highest paid-players on the team's payroll must have a combined salary cap.) On March 11 clubs were allowed to contact and begin contract negotiations with the agents of players who were set to become unrestricted free agents.

Free agencyEdit

Free agency began on March 13. Notable players to change teams include:



Other retirements


The 2019 NFL Draft was held from April 25–27 in Nashville, Tennessee.[21] The Arizona Cardinals selected Oklahoma quarterback Kyler Murray with the first overall selection.

Officiating changesEdit

Combined with the 2018 offseason retirements of Ed Hochuli, Terry McAulay, Gene Steratore, and Jeff Triplette, the league has been forced to replace seven of its 17 referee positions within a two-year period.[24]

In July 2019, the NFL announced that all of the league's officials would return to part-time status. For the previous two seasons, under a pilot program, a small number of NFL officials were classified as full-time employees of the NFL.[28]

Rule changesEdit

The following rule changes were approved for the 2019 season at the NFL owners' meeting on March 26:[29]

  • Make permanent the experimental kickoff rules from the 2018 season.
  • Abolish all blindside blocks anywhere on the field (personal foul, 15 yards).
  • Allow as a one-year experiment to make the following plays reviewable, subject to coaches' challenges outside of the final 2:00 of each half, and subject to booth review after the two-minute warning of each half or entire overtime:
    • Pass interference, whether called or not (modified in June 2019)
    • Scoring plays and turnovers negated by penalties.
    • Any extra point or two-point conversion attempt.
  • Change how double fouls are enforced after a change in possession; the last team to possess retains the ball at the spot of enforcement. If the enforcement spot is after a touchback, the ball is placed at the 20 yard line (after punt or turnover) or 25 yard line (free kick). If the spot of enforcement is in the end zone, the ball is placed at the one yard line.
  • Make scrimmage kick rules apply if a missed field goal is touched in the end zone before hitting the ground, and if the ball is touched by either team behind the line of scrimmage.
  • Allow teams to enforce a personal foul or unsportsmanlike conduct penalty committed during a touchdown on either the try or on the ensuing kickoff.
  • Individuals not in uniform who enter the field to celebrate a play will draw an unsportsmanlike conduct penalty (15 yards, and automatic first down if on the defensive team).
  • Players who make any flagrant "football" play, risk immediate disqualification. Previously, this was limted to players who make a flagrant "non-football" play

An additional rule change built upon a rule originally passed in 2018. The NFL limited helmets to a list of 34 league-approved models, up from the 23 originally approved in 2018. The grandfather clause allowing existing players to wear their previous non-approved helmets expired, and 32 players were required to change helmets (most prominently Tom Brady, whose Riddell VSR-4 was one of ten now-banned models still in use in 2018).[30]

In May 2019, the NFL banned Oklahoma drills, "bull in the ring," and other high-contact drills from team practices.[31]

In June 2019 the league clarified the March 2019 temporary rule change regarding review of pass interference plays as follows:[32]

  • The initial rule passed in March 2019 regarding review of pass interference remains intact.
  • A ruling will only be changed if there is clear and obvious evidence that pass interference did or did not occur (as is the standard for any other replay review).
  • All pass plays are subject to review for pass interference, including the "Hail Mary" play.

2019 deathsEdit

Members of the Pro Football Hall of FameEdit

Pat Bowlen
Bowlen was the owner of the Denver Broncos from 1984 until his death. His Broncos won three Super Bowls during his tenure (XXXII, XXXIII and 50). He was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2019 but died before the induction ceremonies. Bowlen died June 13, age 75, from complications of Alzheimer's disease. Under the terms of a succession plan, the team will be operated by a trust headed by longtime executive Joe Ellis until it can be determined which of Bowlen's five surviving children will inherit the team.[33]
Nick Buoniconti
Buoniconti, a 2001 Hall inductee, was an eight-time Pro-Bowl linebacker, and played seven seasons with the Boston Patriots from 1962–1968 and seven more with the Miami Dolphins from 1969–1974 and 1976. He won two Super Bowls with the Dolphins in 1972 and 1973. Buoniconti died on July 31 at the age of 78.
Forrest Gregg
Gregg, a guard, spent 14 years of his 15-season playing career with the Green Bay Packers, a member of the Packers' 1960s dynasty as well as the Dallas Cowboys' Super Bowl VI winning squad in his final season of play. Gregg was inducted into the Hall in his first year of eligibility as part of the Class of 1977. He also had a less illustrious coaching career in the NFL, college football and Canadian Football League in the late 1970s, 1980s and into the 1990s, most successfully leading the 1981 Cincinnati Bengals to an AFC championship and a loss in Super Bowl XVI. Gregg died on April 12 at the age of 85.
Jim Langer
The center, an inductee of the Hall's class of 1987, spent 11 seasons in the NFL, nine with the Miami Dolphins (with the team earning its perfect season during his rookie 1972 season) and two with the Minnesota Vikings. He died August 29, age 71.
Gino Marchetti
Marchetti was a defensive end who played 14 seasons in the NFL, 13 with the Baltimore Colts. Marchetti won two NFL championships, was selected to 11 Pro Bowls, and making nine First-team All-Pro teams with the Colts. He was inducted into the Hall with the class of 1972. Marchetti died on April 29 at the age of 92.
Bart Starr
Starr played quarterback for 16 seasons in the NFL from 1956 to 1971, all of them with the Green Bay Packers, and was undisputed starter for the last 12 of those seasons. He was the starting quarterback for the Packers for all five of the NFL Championships the team won in the 1960s and was Most Valuable Player for the first two World Championship Games. He also had a nine-season run as the Packers' head coach from 1975 to 1983, though this was less successful as he only twice had a winning season (one of those being shortened by a strike, which was also his only playoff appearance as a coach). Starr was inducted into the Hall as a member of the Class of 1977. He died May 26, age 85.



Training camps for the 2019 season are being held in late July through August. Teams started training camp no earlier than 15 days before the team's first scheduled preseason game.

The Pro Football Hall of Fame Game, in which the Denver Broncos defeated the Atlanta Falcons 14–10, was played on August 1, and was televised nationally by NBC. The game was held at Tom Benson Hall of Fame Stadium in Canton, Ohio, the same city where the league was founded 99 years prior. The Broncos were represented in the 2019 Hall of Fame class by owner Pat Bowlen and former cornerback Champ Bailey, while the Falcons were represented by longtime player Tony Gonzalez[34][35]

On August 17, the Dallas Cowboys and Los Angeles Rams played a preseason game at Aloha Stadium in Honolulu, Hawaii, the former home of the Pro Bowl.[36]

On August 22, the Oakland Raiders hosted the Green Bay Packers at IG Field in Winnipeg, home of the CFL’s Winnipeg Blue Bombers; it was the first NFL game on Canadian soil since the end of the Bills Toronto Series in 2013.[37] Mosaic Stadium in Regina, Saskatchewan was another potential site for the game, and the teams secured the cooperation of the city and local sports promoter On Ice Management, but the Saskatchewan Roughriders vetoed the proposal; the Roughriders feared they would be unable to reconfigure the field from NFL to CFL standards in time for the Roughriders' August 24 home game.[38] (The Winnipeg Blue Bombers play on the road that weekend and thus do not have a scheduling conflict.) Due to safety concerns caused by the reconfiguration of the goal posts, the NFL, at the last minute, shortened the playing field so that it was only 80 yards long (the first such known NFL usage of a field that short since 1932) and eliminated kickoffs, starting all possessions on the 15-yard line. The Raiders won, 22–21.[39] Thirty-three Packers players refused to play on the surface, including starting quarterback Aaron Rodgers.[40]

NFL centennial promotionsEdit

On October 18, 2018, the NFL announced that it would commemorate its 100th season throughout 2019, beginning at Super Bowl LIII. An NFL 100 emblem will be featured in promotions across all NFL properties during the season, worn on jerseys as a patch, placed on game balls, and painted on fields.[41][42]

The Chicago Bears (who, as the Decatur Staleys, were one of the 14 charter members of the league) will also celebrate their centennial season with commemorative events throughout 2019. On November 15, 2018, the team unveiled a customized version of the league-wide centennial emblem (which will be worn on jerseys in place of the NFL-branded version), and announced that the team would introduce a throwback jersey.[43]

The NFL aired a special two-minute commercial during Super Bowl LIII to launch the centennial campaign, which featured appearances by 40 current and former NFL players including: Rams RB Todd Gurley, then-Giants WR Odell Beckham Jr., Patriots QB Tom Brady, former Broncos and Colts QB Peyton Manning, Hall of Fame WRs Jerry Rice and Michael Irvin, and Hall of Fame QB Terry Bradshaw,[44] NFL commissioner Roger Goodell, NFL officials Ron Torbert and Sarah Thomas, viral teenage girl football star Samantha Gordon,[45] and video game streamer Tyler "Ninja" Blevins. The commercial won the annual Super Bowl Ad Meter survey held by USA Today, marking the first time that the NFL itself won.[46]

In honor of the site of the first NFL game, the league announced plans to donate a new artifical turf field to Triangle Park in Dayton, Ohio—home field of the former Dayton Triangles, with an intent for the Cincinnati Bengals to hold a day of training camp at the site. However, the project was rejected by the city, after concerns were shown that the construction could potentially disturb a Native American burial site, and an archaeological survey identified a "unique and sizable anomaly" in the area that was "potentially prehistoric." The NFL instead donated the turf to Kettering Field, which is also in Dayton.[47] The Bengals still held a training camp day in Dayton, doing so at Welcome Stadium instead.[48][49][50]

The league purposely scheduled a weekly game to honor landmark moments in NFL history:[51]

Week Opponents Significance Result
1 Packers vs. Bears League's longest running rivalry Packers 10 Bears 3
2 Browns vs. Jets First Monday Night Football contest Browns 23 Jets 3
3 Dolphins vs. Cowboys Super Bowl VI
4 Chargers vs. Dolphins Epic in Miami
5 Bills vs. Titans Music City Miracle
6 Giants vs. Patriots Super Bowls XLII (David Tyree's helmet catch spoils the perfect regular season) and XLVI
7 Raiders vs. Packers Super Bowl II
8 Packers vs. Chiefs Super Bowl I
9 Vikings vs. Chiefs Super Bowl IV
10 Falcons vs. Saints Rivalry game, Saints' return to New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina
11 Patriots vs. Eagles Super Bowls XXXIX and LII (Philly Special)
12 Raiders vs. Jets Heidi Game
13 49ers vs. Ravens Super Bowl XLVII (The Harbaugh Bowl)
14 Bengals vs. Browns Battle of Ohio (state where NFL was founded), both teams founded by Paul Brown
15 Colts vs. Saints Super Bowl XLIV
16 Raiders vs. Chargers Rivalry game, Holy Roller play

Regular seasonEdit

The 2019 regular season's 256 games will be played over a 17-week schedule that will begin on September 5, 2019. Each of the league's 32 teams will play a 16 game schedule, with one bye week. There will be games on Monday nights and on Thursdays, including the National Football League Kickoff game and games on Thanksgiving Day. The regular season will conclude with a full slate of 16 games, will be scheduled for December 29, all of which will be intra-division matchups, as it had been since 2010.

Scheduling formula

Under the NFL's current scheduling formula, each team plays the other three teams in its own division twice. In addition, a team plays against all four teams in one other division from each conference. The final two games on a team's schedule are against the two remaining teams in the same conference that finished in the same position in their respective divisions (e.g., the team that finished fourth in its division will play all three other teams in the conference that also finished fourth). The division parings for 2019 will be as follows:

AFC East vs AFC North
AFC West vs AFC South
NFC East vs NFC North
NFC West vs NFC South

AFC East vs NFC East
AFC North vs NFC West
AFC South vs NFC South
AFC West vs NFC North

The entire schedule was released on April 17, 2019. Highlights of the 2019 season include:

Saturday flexible schedulingEdit

When the entire season schedule was released on April 17, the league announced Saturday games in Week 16. The final times of these games will be announced no later than Week 8. Of the following five match-ups – 49ersRams, BillsPatriots, LionsBroncos, RaidersChargers, and TexansBuccaneers – three will be moved to Saturday, December 21 on the NFL Network, while the remaining two games will be played on Sunday, December 22 on either CBS or Fox.

Regular season standingsEdit



Division leaders
1 Kansas City Chiefs West 2 0 0 1.000 1–0 2–0 .250 .250 W2
2 Baltimore Ravens North 2 0 0 1.000 0–0 1–0 .125 .125 W2
3 New England Patriots East 2 0 0 1.000 1–0 2–0 .000 .000 W2
4 Indianapolis Colts South 1 1 0 .500 1–0 1–1 .500 .500 W1
Wild Cards
5 Buffalo Bills East 2 0 0 1.000 1–0 1–0 .000 .000 W2
6 Houston Texans South 1 1 0 .500 1–0 1–0 .250 .000 W1
In the hunt
7 Tennessee Titans South 1 1 0 .500 0–1 1–1 .500 .500 L1
8 Oakland Raiders West 1 1 0 .500 1–1 1–1 .500 .000 L1
9 Los Angeles Chargers West 1 1 0 .500 0–0 1–0 .625 .500 L1
10 Cleveland Browns North 1 1 0 .500 0–0 1–1 .250 .000 W1
11 Cincinnati Bengals North 0 2 0 .000 0–0 0–0 1.000 .000 L2
12 Pittsburgh Steelers North 0 2 0 .000 0–0 0–1 1.000 .000 L2
13 Miami Dolphins East 0 2 0 .000 0–1 0–2 1.000 .000 L2
14 New York Jets East 0 2 0 .000 0–1 0–2 .750 .000 L2
15 Jacksonville Jaguars South 0 2 0 .000 0–1 0–2 .750 .000 L2
16 Denver Broncos West 0 2 0 .000 0–1 0–1 .500 .000 L2
  1. ^ When breaking ties for three or more teams under the NFL's rules, they are first broken within divisions, then comparing only the highest ranked remaining team from each division.
Division leaders
1 Green Bay Packers North 2 0 0 1.000 2–0 2–0 .500 .500 W2
2 Los Angeles Rams West 2 0 0 1.000 0–0 2-0 .250 .250 W2
3 Dallas Cowboys East 2 0 0 1.000 2–0 2–0 .000 .000 W2
4 Tampa Bay Buccaneers South 1 1 0 .500 1–0 1–1 .500 .000 W1
Wild cards
5 San Francisco 49ers West 2 0 0 1.000 0–0 1-0 .250 .250 W2
6 Seattle Seahawks West 2 0 0 1.000 0–0 0–0 .000 .000 W2
In the hunt
7 Detroit Lions North 1 0 1 .750 0–0 0–0–1 .375 .500 W1
8 Minnesota Vikings North 1 1 0 .500 0–1 1–1 .750 .500 L1
9 Atlanta Falcons South 1 1 0 .500 0–0 1–1 .500 .500 W1
10 Philadelphia Eagles East 1 1 0 .500 1–0 1–1 .250 .000 L1
11 New Orleans Saints South 1 1 0 .500 0–0 0–1 .750 .500 L1
12 Chicago Bears North 1 1 0 .500 0–1 0–1 .500 .000 W1
13 Arizona Cardinals West 0 1 1 .250 0–0 0–0–1 .875 .000 L1
14 New York Giants East 0 2 0 .000 0–1 0–1 1.000 .000 L2
15 Carolina Panthers South 0 2 0 .000 0–1 0–2 .750 .000 L2
16 Washington Redskins East 0 2 0 .000 0–2 0–2 .750 .000 L2
  1. ^ When breaking ties for three or more teams under the NFL's rules, they are first broken within divisions, then comparing only the highest ranked remaining team from each division.


The 2019 Playoffs are scheduled to begin on the weekend of January 4–5, 2020, with the Wild Card Playoff Round. The four winners of these games will visit the top two seeds in each conference in the Divisional Round games, scheduled for January 11–12. The winners of those games will advance to the Conference Championships scheduled for January 19. The 2020 Pro Bowl will be held at Camping World Stadium in Orlando scheduled for January 26. Super Bowl LIV, scheduled for February 2, will be played at Hard Rock Stadium in Miami.

The start times for the Divisional Round games on Sunday, January 12, will be moved to 3:00 p.m. and 6:30 p.m. ET (as is already the case with the conference championship games), rather than the typical 1:00 p.m. and 4:30 p.m. windows used for this round in prior seasons.[58]

Notable eventsEdit

Andrew Luck's retirementEdit

In a surprising turn of events, news of Indianapolis Colts quarterback and 2012 first overall pick Andrew Luck retiring broke out during the Colts' third preseason game. His retirement quickly became one of the most surprising revelations of the year, and he was controversially booed off of the field. During his post-game press conference, Luck stated that his retirement was due to the recent mental and physical difficulties of playing football.[59] Luck had won the NFL Comeback Player of the Year Award in 2018.

Antonio Brown controversiesEdit

Wide receiver Antonio Brown of the Oakland Raiders had several controversies in the off-season.[60] Brown's was held back by his former team, the Pittsburgh Steelers during week 17 due to an argument with QB Ben Roethlisberger. He was subsequently traded to the Oakland Raiders. However, in 2019 Brown's helmet model was banned by the NFL due to inadequate protection, causing Brown to hold out of practices and file two grievances against the NFL, both of which he lost. Brown then accepted the new helmet model and returned to practice, but due to wearing inadequate footwear in a cryogenic chamber, Brown got frostbite on his feet, causing additional concern for his availability in Week 1.[61] Brown then released recorded audio of Raiders head coach Jon Gruden and requested the Raiders to release him. He was subsequently released and signed with the New England Patriots.

On September 10, unsubstantiated allegations that Brown had raped his former trainer, Britney Taylor, caused some[who?] to wonder if Brown would be put on the commisioner's excempt list, barring him from playing.[62] However, the NFL has not done so and Brown played in the Patriots' Week 2 game. On September 16, a second woman accused Brown of sexual misconduct.[63] That same day, Pittsburgh-based Dr. Victor Prisk, who worked with Brown during his time with the Steelers, alleged that Brown passed gas numerous times in the doctor's vicinity, including directly in his face.[63] Dr. Prisk also sued Brown for $11,500 in unpaid fees,[63]

Records, milestones, and notable statisticsEdit

Week 2


Players of the week/monthEdit

The following were named the top performers during the 2019 season:

Player of the Week/Month
Player of the Week/Month
Special Teams
Player of the Week/Month
1[66] Lamar Jackson QB
Dak Prescott QB
Cameron Wake OLB
Anthony Harris SS
Ty Long P
Wil Lutz K

Week FedEx Air
Player of the Week
FedEx Ground
Player of the Week
(Running backs)[67]
Rookie of the Week[68]
1 Lamar Jackson
Marlon Mack
Gardner Minshew QB

Head coaching and front office personnel changesEdit

Head coachesEdit


Team Departing coach Interim coach Incoming coach Reason for leaving Notes
Arizona Cardinals Steve Wilks Kliff Kingsbury Fired Wilks was fired on December 31, 2018, after one season in which he accrued a record of 3–13 (.188).[69] He later joined the Cleveland Browns as a defensive coordinator.[70]

Kingsbury, who had spent most of the previous six seasons as head coach of Texas Tech, was hired on January 8, 2019.[71]

Cincinnati Bengals Marvin Lewis Zac Taylor Mutual decision Lewis and the Bengals mutually agreed to part ways on December 31 after a 6–10 (.375) season. In 16 years as the Bengals' head coach, Lewis was 131–122–3 (.518), with 7 playoff appearances. Famously, the Bengals never won a playoff game under Lewis and had missed the playoffs in each of his last three seasons.[72] Lewis joined NFL Network as a commentator for Alliance of American Football games shortly after his departure.[73]

Taylor was officially named as head coach on February 5, 2019. This is his first experience as head coach after serving as the Los Angeles Rams' quarterbacks coach and at 35 years old, is now currently the 2nd youngest active coach in the NFL, after Sean McVay, whom coaches Taylor's former team, the Rams.[74]

Cleveland Browns Hue Jackson Gregg Williams Freddie Kitchens Fired Jackson was fired on October 29, 2018, accumulating a 3–36–1 (.088) record during his 2½-season tenure with the Browns. Jackson failed to win any away games during his tenure and lost every game in 2017.[75] He rejoined the Cincinnati Bengals as an assistant coach immediately after his firing. Defensive coordinator Gregg Williams finished out the 2018 season with a 5–3 (.625) record. Released by the Browns on January 9, 2019, Williams later joined the New York Jets as a defensive coordinator.[76]

Kitchens was promoted to head coach on January 12, 2019, after serving as the interim offensive coordinator following Jackson's firing. This is his first head coaching position.[77]

Denver Broncos Vance Joseph Vic Fangio Joseph was fired on December 31, 2018, after a 6–10 (.375) season. The Broncos were 11–21 (.344) in Joseph's two losing seasons as head coach, with no playoff appearances.[78] He joined the Arizona Cardinals as a defensive coordinator.[79]

Fangio, a first-time head coach with over 30 years experience as an assistant dating back to the USFL, most recently as defensive coordinator of the Chicago Bears, was hired on January 10, 2019.[80]

Green Bay Packers Mike McCarthy Joe Philbin Matt LaFleur McCarthy was fired on December 2, 2018, shortly after the Packers' loss to the Arizona Cardinals. McCarthy left with a record of 135–85–2 (.613) with nine playoff appearances and one Super Bowl championship. Philbin, the team's offensive coordinator, finished the season as interim coach with a record of 2–2 (.500).[81]

LaFleur was hired on January 8, 2019. Previously the offensive coordinator for the Tennessee Titans, this is his first head coaching position.[82]

Miami Dolphins Adam Gase Brian Flores Gase was fired on December 31, 2018, after a 7–9 (.438) season. The Dolphins were 23–25 (.479) in Gase's three years as head coach, with one playoff appearance in 2016.[83] He was later hired by the New York Jets as head coach.[84]

Flores, formerly the New England Patriots' long time assistant, recently as linebackers coach, was announced as head coach on February 5, 2019. After being with the Patriots organization since 2004, this is his first head coaching position.[85]

New York Jets Todd Bowles Adam Gase Bowles was fired on December 30, 2018, finishing the season with a record of 4–12 (.250) and a cumulative record of 24–40 (.375) with no playoff appearances in four seasons with Jets.[86] He joined the Tampa Bay Buccaneers as a defensive coordinator.[87]

Gase, who was previously the head coach of the Miami Dolphins, posting a 23–25 (.479) record in three seasons, was hired on January 11, 2019.[84]

Tampa Bay Buccaneers Dirk Koetter Bruce Arians Koetter was fired on December 30, 2018, after a 5–11 (.313) season. The Buccaneers were 19–29 (.396) in Koetter's three years as head coach, with no playoff appearances. Previously, Koetter was Buccaneers' offensive coordinator for one season in 2015.[88] He rejoined the Atlanta Falcons as an offensive coordinator.[89]

Arians was announced as the Buccaneers' new head coach on January 8, 2019. He was previously the head coach for the Arizona Cardinals for five seasons with 49–30–1 (.619) record from 2013 to 2017, leading them to an NFC Championship Game appearance in 2015.[90]

Front office personnelEdit


Team Position Departing office holder Interim replacement Incoming office holder Reason for leaving Notes
Baltimore Ravens GM Ozzie Newsome Eric DeCosta Retired The Ravens announced on February 2, 2018 that Newsome would retire after 16 years as the team's GM and that Eric DeCosta, most recently the Ravens' assistant GM, would succeed Newsome.[91] Newsome was the first African-American to occupy the GM position in the NFL.[92]
Oakland Raiders GM Reggie McKenzie Shaun Herock Mike Mayock Fired McKenzie was fired on December 10, 2018, after six-plus seasons as Raiders' GM.[93] Herock, team's director of college scouting, served as the Raiders’ interim GM until the team settled on a full-time replacement.

Mayock had previously been a television commentator for the past 26 seasons and has never held a front office position.[94]

New York Jets GM Mike Maccagnan Adam Gase Joe Douglas Maccagnan was fired on May 15, 2019 after four seasons; vice president of player personnel Brian Heimerdinger was also dismissed. Head coach Adam Gase was named interim GM. [95] Douglas was named the new GM on June 7, 2019. [96]
Houston Texans GM Brian Gaine Chris Olsen Gaine was unexpectedly fired on June 7, 2019 after only one season and returned to his previous position with the Buffalo Bills. [97][98]



This is the third and final season for the Los Angeles Chargers at ROKiT Field at Dignity Health Sports Park[99] and the fourth and final season for the Los Angeles Rams at United Airlines Field at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. Both the Chargers and the Rams will move to SoFi Stadium in Inglewood, California in 2020. This will also be the final season for the Oakland Raiders at RingCentral Coliseum before moving to Allegiant Stadium in Las Vegas.

A buyout window in the Buffalo Bills' lease on New Era Field opens after the 2019 season. The window allows the team to cancel its lease on the stadium for a $28 million fee and relocate. If the Bills choose not to exercise the buyout window, they will not be allowed to relocate until the lease expires after the 2022 season.[100]

Denver Broncos' naming rightsEdit

On September 4, the Denver Broncos' home field was rebranded as Empower Field at Mile High. The Broncos had been seeking a long-term naming rights partner for their home field since sporting goods retailer Sports Authority went bankrupt in 2016. Empower Retirement, a retirement plan provider that is based in Denver, had served as a team sponsor since 2015, with the Broncos agreeing to terms on a 21-year deal that will run through 2039, though financial terms were undisclosed. This marks the third naming rights change for the Broncos' home field, following "Invesco Field at Mile High" (2001–2010), "Sports Authority Field at Mile High" (2011–2017) and "Broncos Stadium at Mile High" — the latter of which was used on a temporary basis for the 2018 season.[101]

Raiders' relocationEdit

The Oakland Raiders' lease on Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum (renamed RingCentral Coliseum under a naming rights sale in May 2019)[102] expired after the 2018 season. The team is slated to move to Las Vegas, Nevada once Allegiant Stadium is completed; it is currently scheduled to open in 2020. The Coliseum management has expressed a reluctance to allow the Raiders to continue using the Coliseum after the lease expires unless the team pays more to cover the losses the Coliseum incurs by hosting Raiders games. In December 2018, the city of Oakland filed a lawsuit against the Raiders and the NFL seeking financial damages and unpaid debt, claiming the proposed relocation is illegal but not asking for an injunction forcing the team to stay. The Raiders have stated that if any legal action were filed against them, that they would not renew with the Coliseum and find another, undetermined, temporary home for 2019 until Allegiant Stadium is finished.[103] The Raiders then attempted to negotiate a lease with Oracle Park in San Francisco before the San Francisco 49ers allegedly vetoed the plan as an infringement on their territorial rights and the mayor of the city spoke in opposition to the Raiders playing there.[104]

With the 49ers refusing to waive territorial rights, the Raiders were forced to either renegotiate with the Coliseum[105] or find a temporary stadium outside the San Francisco Bay Area (something that the Raiders management was reluctant to do, though the team acknowledged and considered bids from San Antonio, Texas and Tucson, Arizona). The Raiders, despite reservations about providing funds to the lawsuit being filed against them, opted to negotiate a return to the Coliseum for 2019; a tentative agreement, pending Coliseum and league approval, was announced February 25.[106] The lease agreement was approved by the Oakland Coliseum Authority, the Oakland city council, and Alameda County supervisors by March 21.[107]

The Coliseum is the last multi-purpose stadium to be the home of both an NFL and Major League Baseball team (the Oakland Athletics). The Raiders' September 15 game against the Kansas City Chiefs is expected to be the last NFL game played on a dirt infield.[108]


Uniform changesEdit

  • Carolina Panthers: The Panthers switched to Nike’s newest uniform template and updated their pants, removing the team logo from it and streamlining the piping stripe.
  • Cleveland Browns: On September 4, the Browns announced that they would be switching to their former Color Rush uniforms as their primary home set this season, and will wear these uniforms for six home games.
  • Houston Texans: On April 22, the Texans announced that they would add their primary logo on the back of their jerseys, making this their first uniform update in franchise history.[109] The addition of the logo on the jersey's back makes them the third team in the NFL to do so, after the Arizona Cardinals and Buffalo Bills.
  • Los Angeles Chargers: On April 16, the Chargers announced that they were making their powder blue alternate jerseys the new primary uniforms.[110] In addition to this announcement, they also swapped out their navy blue facemask for gold.
  • New York Jets: On April 4, the Jets unveiled a new uniform.[111] The new uniforms introduce black as an accent color and resemble a modernized version of the uniform layout the Jets used from 1978 to 1997, including a return to green helmets and "TV numbers" on the shoulders.[112]

Throwback uniformsEdit

  • Chicago Bears: To celebrate their 100th season, the Bears will wear throwback jerseys based on their 1936 uniforms for two home games.[113]


  • Thirty-one teams will wear a version of the NFL centennial emblem, with the NFL shield beneath the "100", on the yoke of their jerseys in place of the regular NFL shield. The Chicago Bears will instead wear their own centennial team patch, a customized version of the league-wide centennial emblem with the Bear's colors and logo, on the left side of the jersey.[114]
  • The Carolina Panthers and the Jacksonville Jaguars will wear patches to commemorate the 25th season for each franchise.[115]
  • The Oakland Raiders will wear a patch to commemorate their 60th season.[116]


This is the sixth year under the current broadcast contracts with ESPN, CBS, Fox and NBC. This includes "cross-flexing" (switching) Sunday afternoon games between CBS and Fox before or during the season (regardless of the conference of the visiting team). NBC airs Sunday Night Football, the annual Kickoff Game, and the primetime Thanksgiving game. ESPN airs Monday Night Football and the Pro Bowl with the latter being simulcasted on ABC. Fox airs Thursday Night Football alongside with NFL Network, with Amazon Video and continuing to simulcast those games online in the second and final year of the two sites' current contract. Fox will also broadcast Super Bowl LIV.

ESPN aired coverage for all three days of the 2019 NFL Draft on ABC, replacing Fox's broadcast television simulcast of NFL Network in 2018. ABC's coverage catered towards a mainstream audience and was hosted by the panel of ESPN's College GameDay, while ESPN and NFL Network continued to carry more conventional coverage of the draft.[117]

Under a one-year test, local stations in markets with NFL teams are allowed to air another NFL game opposite the game involving that city's home team, something that had previously been forbidden (this rule had already been waived for the Washington, D.C. market when the Baltimore Ravens are playing at the same time as the Washington Redskins on the opposite network – Washington, D.C. is a secondary market for the Ravens, for the Los Angeles market after the Rams' and Chargers' moves to LA and league-wide for Week 17 since 2014). This means that all media markets in the U.S. who have CBS and Fox affiliates will have access to three Sunday afternoon games every week regardless of whether the local team is playing at home.[118][119]

The league has an option to cancel its contract with DirecTV after the 2019 season. DirecTV has had exclusive rights to the league's out-of-market sports package, NFL Sunday Ticket, since the package was introduced in 1994.[120]

Personnel changesEdit

On February 28, 2019, Jason Witten announced he would be leaving his color commentator position on Monday Night Football after one season; he returned to the Dallas Cowboys, where he had played tight end for fifteen seasons before joining ESPN in 2018.[121] Witten was not replaced.[122]

Former referee Jeff Triplette also left Monday Night Football as rules analyst. He was replaced with John Parry, who retired the same day his ESPN position was announced; Parry is the third rules analyst ESPN has hired in two years, following Triplette and Gerald Austin.[25]

Steve Tasker departed CBS after 21 seasons with the network, 20 as a color commentator and one as a sideline reporter, after CBS declined to renew Tasker's contract. Tasker anticipates moving to radio and calling games for Westwood One for the 2019 season.[123]

Most watched regular season gamesEdit

Rank Date Matchup Network Viewers (millions) TV rating[124] Window Significance
1 September 8, 4:25 ET New York Giants 17 Dallas Cowboys 35 Fox 23.9 13.5 Late DH[a] Cowboys–Giants Rivalry
2 September 15, 4:25 ET New Orleans Saints 9 Los Angeles Rams 27 23.3 13.2 Late DH[b] 2018 NFC Championship Rematch
3 September 8, 8:20 ET Pittsburgh Steelers 3 New England Patriots 33 NBC 22.2 12.6 SNF
4 September 5, 8:20 ET Green Bay Packers 10 Chicago Bears 3 22.0 12.8 Kickoff Bears–Packers Rivalry

*Note — Late DH matchups listed in table are the matchups that were shown to the largest percentage of the market.

  1. ^ NYG/DAL was shown in 85% of the markets during the late doubleheader time slot of Fox coverage.
  2. ^ NO/LAR was shown in 81% of the markets during the late doubleheader time slot of Fox coverage.


  1. ^ Ross, Franz (March 24, 2019). Rob Gronkowski announces retirement from NFL. WIVB-TV. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  2. ^ Bergman, Jeremy (March 30, 2019). "All-Pro punter Shane Lechler retiring after 18 seasons". Retrieved March 30, 2019.
  3. ^ Hensley, Jamison (2019-03-18). "Ngata retires from NFL atop Mount Kilimanjaro". ESPN. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  4. ^ Teope, Herbie (2018-12-31). "Titans LB Brian Orakpo retiring after 10 seasons in NFL". Retrieved 2018-12-31.
  5. ^ Newton, David (2019-02-01). "Panther's Julius Peppers announces his retirement". ESPN. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  6. ^ Lynch, Kaley (2018-12-28). "Kyle Williams to retire after Sunday's game against Miami". WIVB-TV. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  7. ^ Maya, Derek (May 9, 2019). "Derek Anderson tells Bills he's retiring after 14 seasons". Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  8. ^ Hobson, Geoff (2019-07-15). "Family No. 1 Concern As Boling Retires". Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  9. ^ Callari, Jenna (July 18, 2019). "Bills safety Rafael Bush retires". WKBW-TV. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
  10. ^ Carroll, Charlotte (2018-09-16). "Bills CB Vontae Davis Retires After Leaving at Halftime vs. Chargers". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  11. ^ Staff writers (2019-08-01). "Browns K Phil Dawson announces his retirement". Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  12. ^ Schefter, Adam; Henderson, Brady (2019-04-29). "Ex-Raiders K Janikowski retiring after 19 seasons". ESPN. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  13. ^ Staff writers; Anderson, Josina (2019-05-26). "Game Over: 'Pacman' Jones retires from NFL". ESPN. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  14. ^ Teope, Herbie (2019-05-01). "Andy Levitre announces retirement after 10 seasons". Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  15. ^ Bergman, Jeremy (2019-03-24). "Ex-Eagles WR Jeremy Maclin retiring after 10 years". Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  16. ^ Wojton, Nick (2019-05-13). "Former Bills QB, 1st round pick, E.J. Manuel retires". USA Today. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  17. ^ Vikings PR (2019-04-24). "Brian Robison Signs One-Day Contract with Vikings, Announces Retirement from the NFL". Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  18. ^ Shook, Nick (2019-02-06). "Guard Matt Slauson retires after 10 seasons in NFL". Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  19. ^ Strickland, Bryan (2019-04-23). "Jonathan Stewart signs one-day contract to retire a Panther". Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  20. ^ Reiss, Mike (2019-05-21). "OT Veldheer tells Patriots that he's retiring". ESPN. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  21. ^ Knoblauch, Austin (May 23, 2018). "Nashville Tennessee Titans To Host 2019 Draft". Retrieved May 23, 2018.
  22. ^ a b Filipe, Cameron (2019-01-24). "Referee Pete Morelli will retire after 22 seasons". Football Zebras. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  23. ^ a b Filipe, Cameron (2019-02-28). "Adrian Hill and Scott Novak promoted to referee position". Football Zebras. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  24. ^ a b Breech, John (January 18, 2019). "NFL keeps losing refs with Pete Morelli and 'Tuck Rule' referee Walt Coleman set to retire". USA Today.
  25. ^ a b Filipe, Cameron (April 1, 2019). "John Parry to become new ESPN rules analyst". Football Zebras.
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^ Patra, Kevin (July 12, 2019). "NFL suspends full-time officiating program for season". Retrieved July 12, 2019.
  29. ^ "Approved 2019 Playing Rules". March 26, 2019. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
  30. ^ Breech, John (2019-04-12). "Tom Brady among 32 players who just had their helmets officially banned by the NFL". CBS Sports. Retrieved 2019-04-18.
  31. ^ Florio, Mike (May 22, 2019). "NFL bans certain old-school training-camp drills". Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  32. ^ "Competition Committee Finalizes Replay Rule for 2019 season". June 20, 2019. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  33. ^ Pat Bowlen dies from the Denver Post
  34. ^ Maya, Adam (2019-07-31). "Broncos, Falcons to face off in 2019 Hall of Fame Game". Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  35. ^ HOF staff (2019). "HOF Tight Ends". Pro Football Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  36. ^ Staff writers (2018-11-11). "Los Angeles Rams to play '19 preseason game in Hawaii". Retrieved 2018-12-31.
  37. ^ Schneidman, Matt (2019-03-27). "Raiders roundup: Possible preseason game in Canada, Jordy Nelson retires". The Mercury News. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  38. ^ Staff writers (2019-03-29). "Attempt to host NFL preseason game in Regina stopped short of the goal line". CBC News. Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  39. ^ "Raiders beat Packers in Winnipeg on reconfigured 80-yard field". Sportsnet. Canadian Press. August 23, 2019. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  40. ^ Gordon, Grant (August 22, 2019). "Raiders, Packers play preseason game on 80-yard field". Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  41. ^ "NFL prepares to celebrate 100th season in '19". Retrieved 2018-11-16.
  42. ^ "NFL unveils 100th season logo". ProFootballTalk. 2018-10-19. Retrieved 2018-11-16.
  43. ^ Kane, Colleen. "Bears to celebrate 100th season with fan festival and new book featuring rare interview with Virginia McCaskey". Retrieved 2018-11-16.
  44. ^ "Can you name all the stars in the NFL 100 commercial?".
  45. ^ "The girl in that 'NFL 100' commercial? She's a star football player".
  46. ^ "This is every NFL player in 'The 100-Year Game': Ad Meter's winning Super Bowl commercial". USA Today. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
  47. ^ Frolik, Cornelius. "NFL to build new turf field at Dayton's Kettering Field park". Dayton Daily News. Retrieved 2019-08-26.
  48. ^ "City of Dayton calls off plans for turf field at Triangle Park". Cox Media Group. May 15, 2019. Retrieved May 15, 2019.
  49. ^ "History and football: Bengals have practice in Dayton to celebrate 100 years of football". Retrieved 2019-07-28.
  50. ^ "A.J. Green suffers apparent ankle injury as Bengals open camp". Retrieved 2019-07-28.
  51. ^ "League reveals slate for NFL100 Game of the Week". Retrieved 2019-08-26.
  52. ^ Capaccio, Sal (March 25, 2019). "Packers at Bears to kick off NFL season on Thursday Night". WGR. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
  53. ^ Teope, Herbie. "NFL reveals home teams for '19 international games". NFL. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  54. ^ Gordon, Grant. "NFL announces matchups for international games". NFL. NFL Enterprises LLC. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  55. ^ BBC
  56. ^ Patra, Kevon. "NFL to play four games in London during '19 season". NFL. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  57. ^ DiGiovanna, Mike. "Chargers-Chiefs scheduled for Mexico City during 2019 regular season". Retrieved 2019-03-19.
  58. ^ "NFL changes start times for divisional round playoff games". May 22, 2019. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^
  62. ^
  63. ^ a b c Template:Cute web
  64. ^ "Cowboys vs. Redskins - Game Recap - September 15, 2019". Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  65. ^ DeArdo, Bryan (September 15, 2019). "JuJu Smith-Schuster breaks one of Randy Moss' NFL records in Steelers' Week 2 loss to Seahawks". CBS Sports. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  66. ^ "Lamar Jackson, Dak Prescott among Players of the Week". Retrieved 11 September 2019.
  67. ^ a b "FedEx Players Air and Ground". Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  68. ^ "Pepsi Rookie of the WEEK". Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  69. ^ "Steve Wilks Out As Cardinals Coach". Arizona Cardinals. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  70. ^ "Browns add Todd Monken and Steve Wilks as coordinators". Retrieved January 14, 2019.
  71. ^ "Kliff Kingsbury named new Cardinals head coach". Arizona Cardinals. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
  72. ^ "Marvin Lewis out as coach of Bengals after long run". Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  73. ^
  74. ^ "Zac Taylor Named 10th Bengals Head Coach".
  75. ^ Schefter, Adam (October 29, 2018). "Hue Jackson out as coach of the Cleveland Browns". Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  76. ^ "Jets Name Gregg Williams Their Defensive Coordinator". New York Jets. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
  77. ^ "Freddie Kitchens named Browns head coach". Cleveland Browns. January 12, 2019. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  78. ^ "Denver Broncos fire head coach Vance Joseph". Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  79. ^ "Cardinals Grab Vance Joseph as Defensive Coordinator". Arizona Cardinals. January 11, 2019.
  80. ^ "Broncos agree to terms with Vic Fangio to become head coach". Denver Broncos. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  81. ^ "Packers fire coach Mike McCarthy after 13 seasons". Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  82. ^ "Matt LaFleur named Green Bay's 15th head coach". Green Bay Packers. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  83. ^ "Miami Dolphins fire head coach Adam Gase". Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  84. ^ a b Allen, Eric; Lange, Randy. "Adam Gase Is Jets' Choice for Head Coach". New York Jets. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  85. ^ Wolfe, Cameron (February 4, 2019). "Dolphins make Patriots assistant Brian Flores their next head coach". ESPN.
  86. ^ "Jets Chairman & CEO Christopher Johnson Informs Todd Bowles He Will Not Return in 2019". New York Jets. Retrieved December 30, 2018.
  87. ^ "Bruce Arians' First Hire: Defensive Coordinator Todd Bowles". Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  88. ^ "Buccaneers Head Coach Dirk Koetter Relieved of Duties". Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Retrieved December 30, 2018.
  89. ^ "Falcons name former Bucs coach Dirk Koetter offensive coordinator". Atlanta Falcons. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  90. ^ "Bruce Arians Named Buccaneers New Head Coach". Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  91. ^ Patra, Kevin (February 2, 2018). "Ravens GM Ozzie Newsome to step down after 2018". Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  92. ^ "History: African-Americans in Pro Football". Pro Football Hall of Fame. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
  93. ^ Teope, Herbie. "Raiders fire general manager Reggie McKenzie". Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  94. ^ Knoblauch, Austin. "Raiders hire Mike Mayock as general manager". Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  95. ^
  96. ^
  97. ^
  98. ^
  99. ^ "ROKiT Named Official Wireless Partner of the Los Angeles Chargers". Los Angeles Chargers. August 16, 2018. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  100. ^ Precious, Tom (21 December 2012). "Bills agree to lease deal with $130 million in stadium upgrades". Buffalo News. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  101. ^ "Broncos agree to terms with Empower Retirement on 21-year deal to name stadium 'Empower Field at Mile High'". Denver Broncos. September 4, 2019. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  102. ^ Matier, Phil (May 13, 2019). "Still value in Oakland Coliseum — Ring Central buys naming rights for $1 million a year". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  103. ^ Beaton, Andrew (December 11, 2018). "Oakland Files Lawsuit Against Raiders, NFL". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  104. ^ "Raiders not expected to play in San Francisco in 2019". February 5, 2019.
  105. ^ "Report: Raiders Negotiating to Play at Oakland Coliseum in 2019". Sports Illustrated. February 9, 2019.
  106. ^
  107. ^ "Raiders' Coliseum lease receives final approval from city". NFL. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  108. ^ "Chiefs-Raiders on Sunday will be last NFL game on a baseball infield". ProFootballTalk. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  109. ^ "The logo represents our team. The logo represents our spirit. It's on our helmet. Now it's on our back. #WeAreTexans". Twitter. @HoustonTexans. April 22, 2019. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  110. ^ "you're welcome". Twitter. @Chargers. April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  111. ^ Stypulkoski, Matt (March 4, 2019). "Jets announce release date for new uniforms – and fans are already nervous they'll screw them up". Advance Publications. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
  112. ^ Bergman, Jeremy (April 4, 2019). "New York Jets unveil new uniforms, green helmets". NFL Enterprises, LLC. Retrieved April 5, 2019. For the first time in over 20 years, the New York Jets will take the field with a new look, to go with their new head coach and high-priced free agents. The Jets unveiled on Thursday evening their new uniforms, helmets and branding for the 2019 season and beyond. Their team colors are "Gotham Green, Spotlight White and Stealth Black."
  113. ^ Gordon, Grant (June 7, 2019). "Bears unveil new classic jersey for 100th season". NFL.
  114. ^ Stankevitz, JJ (November 15, 2018). "Bears announce plans for centennial season celebrations". NBC Sports Chicago.
  115. ^ "Jacksonville Jaguars unveil new logo to celebrate 25th season". WJAX-TV. April 18, 2019.
  116. ^ "Raiders unveil new logo to commemorate 60th season". NFL. July 1, 2019.
  117. ^ "ABC To Broadcast All Three Days Of NFL Draft In '19". Sports Business Daily. Retrieved 2018-11-27.
  118. ^ "Divisional playoff games get later Sunday starts". May 22, 2019. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  119. ^ "NFL's TV changes will benefit Giants and Jets fans". May 22, 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  120. ^ Florio, Mike (March 6, 2019). "NFL could soon pull plug on DirecTV deal". Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  121. ^ Archer, Todd. "Witten to return to Cowboys, leaving MNF booth". Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  122. ^ Reedy, Joe (May 1, 2019). "Tessitore, McFarland return to ESPN 'Monday Night' booth". Associated Press. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  123. ^ Pergament, Alan (May 21, 2019). "Steve Tasker's days at CBS Sports are over". The Buffalo News. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  124. ^ "NFL TV ratings page, 2019 edition". Retrieved 5 September 2019.