FISU World University Games

(Redirected from Universiade)

The FISU World University Games, formerly the Universiade, is an international multi-sport event, organized for university athletes by the International University Sports Federation (FISU). The former name is a portmanteau of the words "University" and "Olympiad".

FISU World University Games
Statusactive
Genresporting event
Frequencybiennial
Location(s)various
Inaugurated1959 (1959) (summer)
1960 (1960) (winter)
Organised byFISU

The Universiade is referred to in English as the World University Games or World Student Games; however, this latter term can also refer to competitions for sub-University grades students. In July 2020 as part of a new branding system by the FISU, it was stated that the Universiade was to be officially branded as the FISU World University Games.[1]

The most recent summer event was the 2021 Summer World University Games held in Chengdu, China from 28 July – 8 August 2023, after being postponed three times due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[2] It effectively replaced the 2023 Summer World University Games, that was set to be held in Yekaterinburg, Russia. It was cancelled after the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[3][4] The most recent winter event was the 2023 Winter World University Games held in Lake Placid, United States from 11 to 21 January 2023, after the 2021 edition scheduled to be held in Lucerne, Switzerland was also cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[5][6][7]

Precursors

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A student football match held at the 3rd World Festival of Youth and Students
 
During the 1989 Summer Universiade
 
During the 2011 Summer Universiade

The idea of a global international sports competition between student-athletes pre-dates the 1949 formation of the International University Sports Federation (FISU), which now hosts the Universiade, and even the first World University Games held in 1923. English peace campaigner Hodgson Pratt was an early advocate of such an event, proposing (and passing) a motion at the 1891 Universal Peace Congress in Rome to create a series of international student conferences in rotating host capital cities, with activities including art and sport. This did not come to pass, but a similar event was created in Germany in 1909 in the form of the Academic Olympia. Five editions were held from 1909 to 1913, all of which were hosted in Germany following the cancellation of an Italy-based event.[8]

 
Opening ceremony of the 2017 Summer Universiade

At the start of the 20th century, Jean Petitjean of France began attempting to organise a "University Olympic Games". After discussion with Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic Games, Petitjean was convinced not to use the word "Olympic" in the tournament's name.[8] Petitjean, and later the Confederation Internationale des Etudiants (CIE), was the first to build a series of international events, beginning with the 1923 International Universities Championships. This was followed by the renamed 1924 Summer Student World Championships a year later and two further editions were held in 1927 and 1928. Another name change resulted in the 1930 International University Games. The CIE's International University Games was held four more times in the 1930s before having its final edition in 1947.[9][10]

A separate group organised an alternative university games in 1939 in Vienna, in post-Anschluss Germany.[9] The onset of World War II ceased all major international student sport activities and the aftermath also led to division among the movement, as the CIE was disbanded and rival organisations emerged. The Union Internationale des Étudiants (UIE) incorporated a university sports games into the World Festival of Youth and Students from 1947 to 1962, including one separate, unofficial games in 1954. This event principally catered for Eastern European countries.[11]

After the closure of the CIE and the creation of the first UIE-organised games, FISU came into being in 1949 and held its own first major student sport event the same year in the form of the 1949 Summer International University Sports Week. The Sports Week was held biennially until 1955. Like the CIE's games before it, the FISU events were initially Western-led sports competitions.[9]

Division between the largely Western European FISU and Eastern European UIE eventually began to dissipate among broadened participation at the 1957 World University Games. This event was not directly organised by either group, instead being organised by Jean Petitjean in France (which remained neutral to the split), but all respective nations from the groups took part. The FISU-organised Universiade became the direct successor to this competition, maintaining the biennial format into the inaugural 1959 Universiade. It was not until the 1957 World University Games that the Soviet Union began to compete in FISU events. That same year, what had previously been a European competition became a truly global one, with the inclusion of Brazil, Japan and the United States among the competing nations. The increased participation ultimately led to the establishment of the Universiade as the primary global student sport championship.[8][9]

Precursor events

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Not recognized by FISU as Universiade or World University Games:

Precursor events
# Year Event Body Host city Host country
1 1923 International Universities Championships CIE Paris   France
2 1924 Summer Student World Championships CIE Warsaw   Poland
3 1927 Summer Student World Championships CIE Rome   Italy
4 1928 Summer Student World Championships CIE Paris   France
5 1930 International University Games CIE Darmstadt   Germany
6 1933 International University Games CIE Turin   Italy
7 1935 International University Games CIE Budapest   Hungary
8 1937 International University Games CIE Paris   France
9 1939 International University Games CIE Monte Carlo   Monaco
10 1939 International University Games NSDStB Vienna   Germany
11 1947 International University Games CIE Paris   France
12 1947 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Prague   Czechoslovakia
13 1949 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Budapest   Hungary
14 1949 Summer International University Sports Week FISU Merano   Italy
15 1951 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE East Berlin   East Germany
16 1951 Summer International University Sports Week FISU Luxembourg   Luxembourg
17 1953 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Bucharest   Romania
18 1953 Summer International University Sports Week FISU Dortmund   West Germany
19 1955 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Warsaw   Poland
20 1955 Summer International University Sports Week FISU San Sebastián   Spain
21 1957 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Moscow   Soviet Union
22 1957 World University Games PUC Paris   France
23 1959 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Vienna   Austria
24 1962 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Helsinki   Finland

Editions

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Summer Games

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Locations of host cities of the Summer World University Games (excluding those in Europe)
Locations of host cities of the Summer World University Games (in Europe)
Overview of summer Universiade events
Games Year Host country Host city Opened by Dates Nations Competitors Sports Events Top nation
1 1959   Italy Turin Giovanni Gronchi 26 August – 7 September 43 985 7 60   Italy
2 1961   Bulgaria Sofia Dimitar Ganev 25 August – 3 September 32 1,270 9 68   Soviet Union
3 1963   Brazil Porto Alegre Paulo de Tarso Santos 30 August – 8 September 27 917 9 70   Hungary
4 1965   Hungary Budapest István Dobi 20–30 August 32 1,729 9 74   Hungary
5 1967   Japan Tokyo Hirohito 27 August – 4 September 37 937 10 83   United States
6 1970   Italy Turin[a] Giuseppe Saragat 26 August – 6 September 58 2,080 9 82   Soviet Union
7 1973   Soviet Union Moscow Leonid Brezhnev 15–25 August 61 2,765 10 111   Soviet Union
8 1975   Italy Rome[b] Giovanni Leone 18–21 August 38 450 1 38   Soviet Union
9 1977   Bulgaria Sofia Todor Zhivkov 17–28 August 78 2,939 10 101   Soviet Union
10 1979   Mexico Mexico City José López Portillo 2–13 September 94 2,974 10 97   Soviet Union
11 1981   Romania Bucharest Nicolae Ceaușescu 19–30 July 82 2,912 10 133   Soviet Union
12 1983   Canada Edmonton Prince Charles 1–12 July 73 2,400 10 118   Soviet Union
13 1985   Japan Kobe Akihito 24 August – 4 September 106 3,949 11 123   Soviet Union
14 1987   Yugoslavia Zagreb Lazar Mojsov 8–19 July 121 6,423 12 139   United States
15 1989   West Germany Duisburg[c] Helmut Kohl 22–30 August 79 1,785 4 66   Soviet Union
16 1991   United Kingdom Sheffield Anne, Princess Royal 14–25 July 101 3,346 11 119   United States
17 1993   United States Buffalo Primo Nebiolo 8–18 July 117 3,582 12 135   United States
18 1995   Japan Fukuoka Naruhito 23 August – 3 September 162 3,949 12 144   United States
19 1997   Italy Sicily Oscar Luigi Scalfaro 20–31 August 124 3,582 10 129   United States
20 1999   Spain Palma de Mallorca Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo 3–13 July 125 4,076 12 142   United States
21 2001   China Beijing Jiang Zemin 22 August – 1 September 165 6,757 12 170   China
22 2003   South Korea Daegu Roh Moo-hyun 21–31 August 173 7,180 13 189   China
23 2005   Turkey İzmir Ahmet Necdet Sezer 11–22 August 131 7,816 14 195   Russia
24 2007   Thailand Bangkok Vajiralongkorn 8–18 August 151 6,093 15 236   China
25 2009   Serbia Belgrade Mirko Cvetković 1–12 July 122 5,379 15 203   Russia
26 2011   China Shenzhen Hu Jintao 12–23 August 151 7,999 24 302   China
27 2013   Russia Kazan Vladimir Putin 6–17 July 159 7,966 27 351   Russia
28 2015   South Korea Gwangju Park Geun-hye 3–14 July 140 7,432 21 274   South Korea
29 2017   Chinese Taipei[d] Taipei Tsai Ing-wen 19–30 August 134 7,377 22 272   Japan
30 2019   Italy Naples[e] Sergio Mattarella 3–14 July 109 5,971 18 220   Japan
31 2021   China Chengdu Xi Jinping 28 July – 8 August 2023[f] 116 5,056 18 268   China
2023   Russia Yekaterinburg Cancelled due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine
32 2025   Germany Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region 16–27 July 20 225
33 2027   South Korea Chungcheong Province 1-12 August 17
34 2029   United States Research Triangle[12] 11-22 July 17
  1. ^ Originally scheduled for Lisbon, Portugal in 1969.
  2. ^ Originally scheduled for Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
  3. ^ Originally scheduled for São Paulo, Brazil.
  4. ^ The   Republic of China (Taiwan) is recognised as Chinese Taipei by the FISU and the majority of international organisations it participates in due to political considerations and Cross-Strait relations with the People's Republic of China.
  5. ^ Originally scheduled for Brasília, Brazil.
  6. ^ Originally scheduled to be held on 15–27 August 2021 and 25 June – 7 July 2022, but was postponed twice due to the COVID-19 pandemic. With the eventual cancellation of the 2023 Games in Yekaterinburg due to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, this edition replaced the 2023 event.

Winter Games

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Locations of host cities of the Winter World University Games (excluding those in Europe)
Locations of host cities of the Winter World University Games (in Europe)
Winter World University Games editions
Games Year Host country Host city Opened by Dates Nations Competitors Sports Events Top nation
1 1960   France Chamonix Charles de Gaulle 28 February – 6 March 16 151 5 13   France
2 1962   Switzerland Villars Paul Chaudet 6–12 March 22 273 6 12   West Germany
3 1964   Czechoslovakia Špindlerův Mlýn Antonín Novotný 11–17 February 21 285 5 15   West Germany
4 1966   Italy Sestriere Giuseppe Saragat 5–13 February 29 434 6 19   Soviet Union
5 1968   Austria Innsbruck Franz Jonas 21–28 January 26 424 7 23   Soviet Union
6 1970   Finland Rovaniemi Urho Kekkonen 3–9 April 25 421 7 24   Soviet Union
7 1972   United States Lake Placid Richard Nixon 26 February – 5 March 23 351 7 25   Soviet Union
8 1975   Italy Livigno Giovanni Leone 6–13 April 15 143 2 13   Soviet Union
9 1978   Czechoslovakia Špindlerův Mlýn Gustáv Husák 5–12 February 21 260 7 16   Soviet Union
10 1981   Spain Jaca Juan Carlos I 25 February – 4 March 28 394 7 19   Soviet Union
11 1983   Bulgaria Sofia Todor Zhivkov 17–27 February 28 535 7 21   Soviet Union
12 1985   Italy Belluno Sandro Pertini 16–24 February 34 538 7 30   Soviet Union
13 1987   Czechoslovakia Štrbské Pleso Gustáv Husák 21–28 February 21 596 6 25   Czechoslovakia
14 1989   Bulgaria Sofia Todor Zhivkov 2–12 March 21 681 8 40   Soviet Union
15 1991   Japan Sapporo Naruhito 2–10 March 34 668 8 40   Japan
16 1993   Poland Zakopane Lech Wałęsa 6–14 February 41 668 8 36   Japan
17 1995   Spain Jaca Juan Carlos I 18–28 February 41 765 9 35   South Korea
18 1997   South Korea Muju-Jeonju Kim Young-sam 24 January – 2 February 48 877 9 51   Japan
19 1999   Slovakia Poprad-Vysoké Tatry Rudolf Schuster 22–30 January 40 926 8 52   Russia
20 2001   Poland Zakopane Aleksander Kwaśniewski 7–17 February 41 1,007 9 52   Russia
21 2003   Italy Tarvisio Renzo Tondo 16–26 January 46 1,266 10 59   Russia
22 2005   Austria Innsbruck-Seefeld Heinz Fischer 12–22 January 50 1,449 11 68   Austria
23 2007   Italy Turin George Killian 17–27 January 48 1,638 11 72   South Korea
24 2009   China Harbin Liu Yandong 18–28 February 44 1,545 12 81   China
25 2011   Turkey Erzurum Abdullah Gül 27 January – 6 February 52 1,593 11 66   Russia
26 2013   Italy Trentino Ugo Rossi 11–21 December [a] 50 1,698 12 79   Russia
27 2015   Slovakia Štrbské PlesoOsrblie [b] Andrej Kiska 24 January – 1 February 43 1,546 11 68   Russia
  Spain Granada Felipe VI 4–14 February
28 2017   Kazakhstan Almaty Nursultan Nazarbayev 29 January – 8 February 57 1,604 12 85   Russia
29 2019   Russia Krasnoyarsk Vladimir Putin 2–12 March 58 3,000 11 76   Russia
30 2021   Switzerland Lucerne Cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic
31 2023   United States Lake Placid[13] Kathy Hochul 12–22 January 47 1,443 12 85   Japan
32 2025   Italy Turin 13–23 January 11 72
33 2027 TBA
34 2029 TBA
  1. ^ Originally scheduled for Maribor, Slovenia.
  2. ^ Due to environmental problems in Granada, the Nordic skiing events were transferred to Slovakia.

Sports

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Summer Games

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Unlike other sporting events, the World University Games are recognized for the flexibility in their program, as since the second edition held in 1961, it has been up to the Organizing Committee and the National University Sports Federation of the host country to choose sports or optional competitions. according to the reality of the host country. However, there is a list of mandatory sports that are defined by the International University Sports Federation that is reviewed at the end of each edition as the games also serves as World University Championship in those sports. At the first edition held in Turin in 1959, only 8 sports were in the sporting program (athletics, basketball, fencing, gymnastics, swimming, tennis, volleyball and water polo). The first sport to be considered optional was diving, which was added to the second edition held in Sofia, Bulgaria in 1961. In addition, optional events were added in basketball and volleyball, when women's tournaments were played. In Porto Alegre 1963 the woman's basketball was dropped from the sporting program. In 1967, the third World University Judo Championship was held in Tokyo, and it was integrated into the fifth edition of the Summer Universiade as an extra sport, thus gaining the status of an optional sport and thus inaugurating a new type of sport at the event, which is that of the optional sport. Therefore, the sport with this status is not part of the fixed program and may be in this edition, but not necessarily in the next one.

Compulsory sports

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Team sports
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  1. Basketball at the Summer Universiade
  2. Volleyball at the Summer Universiade
  3. Water polo at the Summer Universiade
Individual sports
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  1. Athletics at the Summer Universiade
  2. Swimming at the Summer Universiade
  3. Diving at the Summer Universiade
  4. Gymnastics at the Summer Universiade (artistic and rhythmic) Gymnastics (Artistic) was an optional sport in 1961, turned compulsory in 1963. Rhythmic was an optional sport in 1991,1995 and 1997. Turned compulsory in 2001.
  5. Fencing at the Summer Universiade
  6. Tennis at the Summer Universiade
  7. Table tennis at the Summer Universiade – Compulsory since 2007. Optional sport in 2001.
  8. Judo at the Summer Universiade – Compulsory since 2007. Optional sport in 1967, 1985, 1995, 1999, 2001 and 2003.
  9. Taekwondo at the Summer Universiade – Compulsory since 2015. Optional sport in 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011.
  10. Archery at the Summer Universiade – Compulsory since 2019. Optional sport in 2003, 2005, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2017.
  11. Badminton at the Summer Universiade – Compulsory since 2021. Optional sport in 2007, 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2017.

Optional sports

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Team sports
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  1. Baseball at the Summer Universiade – 6 times (1993, 1995, 2015, 2017,scheduled for 2027 and 2029)
  2. Beach volleyball at the Summer Universiade – 3 times (2011, 2013, scheduled for 2025)
  3. Field hockey at the Summer Universiade – 2 times (1991, 2013)
  4. Rugby sevens at the Summer Universiade – 3 times (2013, 2019 scheduled for 2029)
  5. Basketball at the Summer Universiade (3x3 basketball) – scheduled for 2025
  6. Handball at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2015)
  7. Softball at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2007 scheduled for 2029)
Individual sports
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  1. Rowing at the Summer Universiade – 7 times (1987, 1989, 1993, 2013, 2015, 2021 and scheduled for 2025)
  2. Shooting at the Summer Universiade – 6 times (2007, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2019 and 2021)
  3. Wrestling at the Summer Universiade – 5 times (1973, 1977, 1981, 2005, 2013)
  4. Golf at the Summer Universiade – 4 times (2007, 2011, 2015, 2017)
  5. Sailing at the Summer Universiade – 4 times (1999, 2005, 2011, 2019)
  6. Open water swimming at the Summer Universiade – 4 times (2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 and scheduled for 2025)
  7. Weightlifting at the Summer Universiade – 3 times (2011, 2013, 2017)
  8. Canoeing at the Summer Universiade – 2 times (1987, 2013)
  9. Chess at the Summer Universiade – 2 times (2011, 2013)
  10. Cycling at the Summer Universiade – 2 times (1983, 2011)
  11. Wushu at the Summer Universiade – 2 times (2017, 2021)
  12. Aerobics gymnastics at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2011)
  13. Belt wrestling at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2013)
  14. Billiards at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2017)
  15. Boxing at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2013)
  16. Roller sports at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2017)
  17. Sambo at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2013)
  18. Synchronized swimming at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2013)
Removed sports
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  1. Football at the Summer Universiade – Obsolescent since 2019,after the creation of FISU World Cup Optional sport in 1979, compulsory from 1985 to 2019.

Winter Games

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Since 1960 until 1989, limited and fixed sports were held. Since 1991 Winter Universiade the host is allowed to choose some sports that are approved by FISU as optional sports.

Compulsory sports

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Team sports
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  1. Curling at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 2007. Optional sport in 2003.
  2. Ice hockey at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 1966. Optional sport in 1962.
Individual sports
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  1. Alpine skiing at the Winter Universiade
  2. Biathlon at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 1997. Optional sport in 1983, 1989, 1993, 1997 and 1999.
  3. Cross-country skiing at the Winter Universiade
  4. Figure skating at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 1981. Optional sport in 1960, 1962, 1964, 1966 and 1968.
  5. Freestyle skiing at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 2023. Optional sport in 2005, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 and 2019.
  6. Snowboarding at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 1999. Optional sport in 1995 and 1997.
  7. Ski-orienteering at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 2027. Optional sport in 2019,special status in 2025 and compulsory starting in 2027
  8. Short track speed skating at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 1997. Optional sport in 1985, 1989, 1991, 1993 and 1995.

Optional sports

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Team sports
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  1. Bandy at the Winter Universiade – 1 time (2019)
Individual sports
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  1. Nordic combined at the Winter Universiade – 27 times (1960–1970, 1978, 1981–2023). Compulsory sport from 1960 to 1970, and from 1981 to 2007; optional in 1972, 1978, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 and 2023.
  2. Ski jumping at the Winter Universiade – 25 times (1960–1972, 1978, 1981–2017). Compulsory sport from 1960 to 1970, and between 1981 and 2007; optional in 1972, 1978, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 and 2023.
  3. Ski mountaineering at the Winter Universiade – 1 time scheduled for 2025.
  4. Skeleton at the Winter Universiade – 1 time (2005)
Special sport status
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  1. Speed skating at the Winter Universiade – 11 times (1968–2023). Sport with special status (1968, 1970, 1972, 1991, 1997, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2013, 2017, 2023).

Medals

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Summer Games

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RankNUSFGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1  China (CHN)5483462931187
2  United States (USA)4934464171356
3  Russia (RUS)4303644191213
4  Soviet Union (URS)*409337251997
5  Japan (JPN)3703644781212
6  South Korea (KOR)260221284765
7  Italy (ITA)212225284721
8  Ukraine (UKR)182185179546
9  Romania (ROU)148132149429
10  Hungary (HUN)120105121346
Totals (10 entries)3172272528758772

Winter Games

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RankNUSFGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1  Russia (RUS)207188180575
2  South Korea (KOR)1218678285
3  Japan (JPN)112119106337
4  Soviet Union (URS)*1039267262
5  China (CHN)746676216
6  Italy (ITA)576271190
7  France (FRA)575755169
8  Poland (POL)566561182
9  Czechoslovakia (TCH)*544025119
10  Austria (AUT)515253156
Totals (10 entries)8928277722491

See also

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References

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  1. ^ Pavitt, Michael (28 July 2020). "FISU finalises naming system for events". insidethegames.biz. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  2. ^ "Chengdu 2021 FISU World University Games postponed to 2022". www.fisu.net. 31 March 2021. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  3. ^ "FISU suspends Yekaterinburg hosting rights for 2023 World University Games". 29 April 2022.
  4. ^ "FISU World University Summer Games (Universiade)".
  5. ^ "Lucerne 2021 Winter Universiade postponed, will not take place in January 2021". FISU. 31 August 2020.
  6. ^ Morgan, Liam (6 November 2020). "Lucerne 2021 Winter Universiade rescheduled for December". insidethegames.biz. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  7. ^ "Omicron forces student winter games to cancel". SwissInfo. 29 November 2021.
  8. ^ a b c Bell, Daniel (2003). Encyclopedia of International Games. McFarland and Company, Inc. Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina. ISBN 0-7864-1026-4.
  9. ^ a b c d World Student Games (pre-Universiade). GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2010-12-10.
  10. ^ FISU History Archived 19 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine. FISU. Retrieved on 2014-12-09.
  11. ^ World Student Games (UIE). GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2014-12-09.
  12. ^ Shaw, Justin (10 January 2023). "North Carolina Wins Bid for 2029 FISU World University Games". SportsTravel. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  13. ^ "Lake Placid set to host 2023 Winter Universiade after MoU signed with FISU". Inside the Games. 6 March 2018.
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