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The Universiade is an international multi-sport event, organized for university athletes by the International University Sports Federation (FISU). The name is a combination of the words "University" and "olympiad". The Universiade is often referred to in English as the World University Games or World Student Games; however, this latter term can also refer to competitions for sub-University grades students.[citation needed] The Universiade is the largest[vague] multi-sport event in the world apart from the Olympic Games.[1]. The most recent games were in 2017: the Winter Universiade was in Almaty, Kazakhstan, while the Summer Universiade was held in Taipei, Taiwan.The next games are scheduled 2019 Winter Universiade in Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation, between 2–12 March 2019 and the 2019 Summer Universiade in Naples,Italy between 3-14 July.

Universiade
FISU flag2.svg
Status active
Genre sporting event
Frequency biennial
Location(s) various
Inaugurated 1959 (1959) (summer)
1960 (1960) (winter)
Organised by FISU
In 2011.
In 1989.

Contents

PrecursorsEdit

The idea of a global international sports competition between student-athletes pre-dates the 1949 formation of the International University Sports Federation (FISU), which now hosts the Universiade. English peace campaigner Hodgson Pratt was an early advocate of such an event, proposing (and passing) a motion at the 1891 Universal Peace Congress in Rome to create a series of international student conferences in rotating host capital cities, with activities including art and sport. This did not come to pass, but a similar event was created in Germany in 1909 in the form of the Academic Olympia. Five editions were held from 1909 to 1913, all of which were hosted in Germany following the cancellation of an Italy-based event.[2]

 
Soviet student-athletes at the 3rd World Festival of Youth and Students

At the start of the 20th century, Jean Petitjean of France began attempting to organise a "University Olympic Games". After discussion with Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic Games, Petitjean was convinced not to use the word "Olympic" in the tournament's name.[2] Petitjean, and later the Confederation Internationale des Etudiants (CIE), was the first to build a series of international events, beginning with the 1923 International Universities Championships. This was followed by the renamed 1924 Summer Student World Championships a year later and two further editions were held in 1927 and 1928. Another name change resulted in the 1930 International University Games. The CIE's International University Games was held four more times in the 1930s before having its final edition in 1947.[3][4]

 
A student football match held at the 3rd World Festival of Youth and Students

A separate group organised an alternative university games in 1939 in Vienna, in post-Anschluss Germany.[3] The onset of World War II ceased all major international student sport activities and the aftermath also led to division among the movement, as the CIE was disbanded and rival organisations emerged. The Union Internationale des Étudiants (UIE) incorporated a university sports games into the World Festival of Youth and Students from 1947–1962, including one separate, unofficial games in 1954. This event principally catered for Eastern European countries.[5]

After the closure of the CIE and the creation of the first UIE-organised games, FISU came into being in 1949 and held its own first major student sport event the same year in the form of the 1949 Summer International University Sports Week. The Sports Week was held biennially until 1955. Like the CIE's games before it, the FISU events were initially Western-led sports competitions.[3]

Division between the largely Western European FISU and Eastern European UIE eventually began to dissipate among broadened participation at the 1957 World University Games. This event was not directly organised by either group, instead being organised by Jean Petitjean in France (which remained neutral to the split), but all respective nations from the groups took part. The FISU-organised Universiade became the direct successor to this competition, maintaining the biennial format into the inaugural 1959 Universiade. It was not until the 1957 World University Games that the Soviet Union began to compete in FISU events. That same year, what had previously been a European competition became a truly global one, with the inclusion of Brazil, Japan and the United States among the competing nations. The increased participation ultimately led to the establishment of the Universiade as the primary global student sport championship.[2][3]

EventsEdit

Precursor events
Year Event Organiser Host City Host Country
1923 International Universities Championships CIE Paris   France
1924 Summer Student World Championships CIE Warsaw   Poland
1927 Summer Student World Championships CIE Rome   Italy
1928 Summer Student World Championships CIE Paris   France
1930 International University Games CIE Darmstadt   West Germany
1933 International University Games CIE Turin   Italy
1935 International University Games CIE Budapest   Hungary
1937 International University Games CIE Paris   France
1939 International University Games CIE Monte Carlo   Monaco
1947 International University Games CIE Paris   France
1947 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Prague   Czechoslovakia
1949 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Budapest   Hungary
1949 Summer International University Sports Week FISU Merano   Italy
1951 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE East Berlin   East Germany
1951 Summer International University Sports Week FISU Luxembourg   Luxembourg
1953 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Bucharest   Romania
1953 Summer International University Sports Week FISU Dortmund   West Germany
1955 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Warsaw   Poland
1955 Summer International University Sports Week FISU San Sebastián   Spain
1957 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Moscow   Soviet Union
1957 World University Games CIE Paris   France
1959 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Vienna   Austria
1962 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Helsinki   Finland

List of Summer Universiade HostsEdit

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Games Year Host Country
(as recognized by FISU)
Host City Opened by Dates Nations Competitors Sports Events Top Nation
Total Men Women
1 1959   Italy Torino Giovanni Gronchi 26 August - 7 September 45 985 7 60   Italy
2 1961   Bulgaria Sofia Dimitar Ganev 25 August - 3 September 32 1270 9 68   Soviet Union
3 1963   Brazil Porto Alegre Paulo de Tarso Santos 30 August–8 September 27 917 9 70   Soviet Union
4 1965   Hungary Budapest István Dobi 20 – 30 August 32 1729 9 74   Hungary
5 1967   Japan Tokyo Hirohito 27 August - 4 September 30 937 10 83   United States
6 1970   Italy Torino Giuseppe Saragat 26 August - 6 September 40 2080 9 82   Soviet Union
7 1973   Soviet Union Moscow Leonid Brezhnev 15–25 August 72 2765 10 111   Soviet Union
8 1975   Italy Rome Giovanni Leone 18–21 August 38 450 1 38   Soviet Union
9 1977   Bulgaria Sofia Todor Zhivkov 17–28 August 78 2939 10 101   Soviet Union
10 1979   Mexico Mexico City José López Portillo 2–13 September 85 2974 10 97   Soviet Union
11 1981   Romania Bucharest Nicolae Ceauşescu July 19–30 86 2912 10 133   Soviet Union
12 1983   Canada Edmonton Charles, Prince of Wales July 1–12 73 2400 10 118   Soviet Union
13 1985   Japan Kobe Crown Prince Akihito August 24- September 4 106 3949 11 123   Soviet Union
14 1987   Yugoslavia Zagreb Lazar Mojsov 8–19 July 122 6423 12 139   United States
15 1989   West Germany Duisburg Helmut Kohl August 22–30 79 1785 4 66   Soviet Union
16 1991   United Kingdom Sheffield Anne, Princess Royal July 14–25 101 3346 11 119   United States
17 1993   United States Buffalo Bill Clinton July 8–18 118 3582 12 135   United States
18 1995   Japan Fukuoka Emperor Akihito August 23-September 3 118 3949 12 144   United States
19 1997   Italy Sicily Oscar Luigi Scalfaro August 20–31 122 3582 10 129   United States
20 1999   Spain Palma de Mallorca Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo July 3–13 114 4076 12 142   United States
21 2001   China Beijing Jiang Zemin August 22 - September 1 165 6757 12 170   China
22 2003   South Korea Daegu Roh Moo-hyun August 21–31 174 7180 13 189   China
23 2005   Turkey Izmir Ahmet Necdet Sezer August 11–22 133 7816 15 195   Russia
24 2007   Thailand Bangkok Maha Vajiralongkorn August 8–18 150 12000 15 236   China
25 2009   Serbia Belgrade Mirko Cvetković July 1–12 145 5379 15 203   Russia
26 2011   China Shenzhen Hu Jintao August 12–23 165 7999 24 306   China
27 2013   Russia Kazan Vladimir Putin July 6–17 162 10442 27 351   Russia
28 2015   South Korea Gwangju Park Geun-hye July 3–14 142 12885 21 274   South Korea
29 2017   Chinese Taipei1 Taipei Tsai Ing-wen August 19–30 144 21 272   Japan
30 2019   Italy Naples July 3–14 18 254
31 2021 17

1 The   Republic of China (Taiwan) is recognized by the name of Chinese Taipei by FISU and the majority of international organizations it participates in due to political considerations and Cross-Strait relations with the People's Republic of China.

Summer Universiade medal tableEdit

Summer UniversiadeEdit

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1   United States 490 425 387 1302
2   China 425 295 244 962
3   Russia 414 343 384 1141
4   Soviet Union 409 329 253 991
5   Japan 324 316 407 1047
6   South Korea 207 195 208 610
7   Italy 180 196 244 620
8   Ukraine 172 181 169 522
9   Romania 148 127 146 421
10   Germany 116 151 208 475

List of Winter Universiade HostsEdit

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Games Year Host Country Host City Opened by Dates Nations Competitors Sports Events Top Nation
Total Men Women
1 1960   France Chamonix Charles de Gaulle 28 February - 6 March 16 145 5 13   France
2 1962   Switzerland Villars Paul Chaudet 6–12 March 22 330 6 12   West Germany
3 1964   Czechoslovakia Špindlerův Mlýn Antonín Novotný 11–17 February 21 410 5 15   West Germany
4 1966   Italy Sestriere Giuseppe Saragat 5–13 February 29 434 6 19   Soviet Union
5 1968   Austria Innsbruck Franz Jonas 21–28 January 26 589 7 23   Soviet Union
6 1970   Finland Rovaniemi Urho Kekkonen 3–9 April 25 591 7 24   Soviet Union
7 1972   United States Lake Placid Richard Nixon 26 February-5 March 23 410 7 25   Soviet Union
8 1975   Italy Livigno Giovanni Leone 6–13 April 15 191 2 13   Soviet Union
9 1978   Czechoslovakia Špindlerův Mlýn Gustáv Husák 5–12 February 21 347   Soviet Union
10 1981   Spain Jaca Juan Carlos I 25 February-4 March 28 347   Soviet Union
11 1983   Bulgaria Sofia Todor Zhivkov 17–27 February 28 347   Soviet Union
12 1985   Italy Belluno Sandro Pertini 16–24 February 34   Soviet Union
13 1987   Czechoslovakia Štrbské Pleso Gustáv Husák 21–28 February 21 347   Czechoslovakia
14 1989   Bulgaria Sofia Todor Zhivkov 2–12 March 21 347   Soviet Union
15 1991   Japan Sapporo Crown Prince Naruhito 2–10 March 34   Japan
16 1993   Poland Zakopane Lech Wałęsa 6–14 February 41   Japan
17 1995   Spain Jaca Juan Carlos I 18–28 February 41   South Korea
18 1997   South Korea Muju, Jeonju Kim Young-sam 24 January-2 February 48   Japan
19 1999   Slovakia Poprad, Vysoké Tatry Rudolf Schuster 22–30 January 40   Russia
20 2001   Poland Zakopane Aleksander Kwaśniewski 7–17 February 41   Russia
21 2003   Italy Tarvisio Renzo Tondo 16–26 January 46   Russia
22 2005   Austria Innsbruck, Seefeld Heinz Fischer 12–22 January 50   Austria
23 2007   Italy Torino George Killian 17–27 January 48   South Korea
24 2009   People's Republic of China Harbin Liu Yandong 18–28 February 44   China
25 2011   Turkey Erzurum Abdullah Gül 27 January-6 February 52   Russia
26 2013   Italy Trentino Ugo Rossi 11–21 December 50   Russia
27 2015   Slovakia Štrbské Pleso and Osrblie Andrej Kiska 24 January–1 February 46   Russia
  Spain Granada Felipe VI 4–14 February
28 2017   Kazakhstan Almaty Nursultan Nazarbayev 29 January-8 February 57 2000   Russia
29 2019   Russia Krasnoyarsk 2–12 March
30 2021   Switzerland Lucerne 20-31 January
31 2023

Winter Universiade medal tableEdit

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1   Russia 166 149 147 462
2   South Korea 104 74 65 243
3   Soviet Union 95 85 62 242
4   Japan 83 94 90 267
5   China 72 61 74 205
6   Czechoslovakia 53 59 23 135
7   Italy 53 58 65 176
8   France 52 45 46 143
9   Poland 50 56 58 164
10   Austria 47 49 55 151

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Summer Universiade". www.fisu.net. Retrieved 21 September 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Bell, Daniel (2003). Encyclopedia of International Games. McFarland and Company, Inc. Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina. ISBN 0-7864-1026-4.
  3. ^ a b c d World Student Games (pre-Universiade). GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2010-12-10.
  4. ^ FISU History. FISU. Retrieved on 2014-12-09.
  5. ^ World Student Games (UIE). GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2014-12-09.

External linksEdit