1985 Summer Universiade
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|Host city||Kobe, Japan|
|Opening ceremony||August 24|
|Closing ceremony||September 4|
|Officially opened by||Crown Prince Akihito|
|Main venue||Kobe Universiade Memorial Stadium|
The mascot of the Kobe Universiade, "Unitan", designed by Osamu Tezuka, is a red-crested white crane, symbolic of Japan and a good omen. The name was chosen from some 8,000 suggestions received from throughout the country. The name is derived from a combination of 'uni' from 'Universiade' and 'tan' from the Japanese name for red-crested crane, namely 'tancho-tsuru'.
The sex chromatin test was used at these games to decide on participants' gender; Spanish hurdler Maria José Martínez-Patiño was declared a man and thus ruled ineligible for the women's events. In agreement with officials who suggested she fake an injury so she could withdraw without publicity, she complied. She later fought, successfully, to have that diagnosis reversed.
|1||Soviet Union (URS)||42||23||18||83|
|2||United States (USA)||24||21||23||68|
|8||North Korea (PRK)||3||2||3||8|
|South Korea (KOR)||3||1||4||8|
|13||West Germany (FRG)||2||5||9||16|
|17||Great Britain (GBR)||1||2||3||6|
|New Zealand (NZL)||0||1||0||1|
|28||Ivory Coast (CIV)||0||0||1||1|
|Totals (29 nations)||120||122||125||367|
- Ruth Padawer (June 28, 2016). "The Humiliating Practice of Sex-Testing Female Athletes". The New York Times.
- Ljungqvist, A. (2008-04-15). "Gender Verification". In Barbara L. Drinkwater (ed.). The Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine: An IOC Medical Commission Publication, Women in Sport. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 183–93. ISBN 9780470756850. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- Schultz, Jaime (2014). Qualifying Times: Points of Change in U.S. Women's Sport. U of Illinois P. pp. 111–12. ISBN 9780252095962.
- Cole, Cheryl L. (2000). "One Chromosome Too Many?". In Kay Schaffer (ed.). The Olympics at the Millennium: Power, Politics, and the Games. Sidonie Smith. Rutgers UP. pp. 128–46. ISBN 9780813528205. Retrieved 2 March 2015.