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The 1985 Summer Universiade, also known as the XIII Summer Universiade, took place in Kobe, Japan.

XIII Summer Universiade
Host cityKobe, Japan
Nations participating106
Athletes participating2,783
Events11 sports
Opening ceremonyAugust 24
Closing ceremonySeptember 4
Officially opened byCrown Prince Akihito
Main venueKobe Universiade Memorial Stadium

MascotEdit

The mascot of the Kobe Universiade, "Unitan", designed by Osamu Tezuka, is a red-crested white crane, symbolic of Japan and a good omen. The name was chosen from some 8,000 suggestions received from throughout the country. The name is derived from a combination of 'uni' from 'Universiade' and 'tan' from the Japanese name for red-crested crane, namely 'tancho-tsuru'.

Gender testEdit

The sex chromatin test was used at these games to decide on participants' gender; Spanish hurdler Maria José Martínez-Patiño was declared a man and thus ruled ineligible for the women's events.[1][2][3] In agreement with officials who suggested she fake an injury so she could withdraw without publicity, she complied. She later fought, successfully, to have that diagnosis reversed.[4]

SportsEdit

Medal tableEdit

  *   Host nation (Japan)

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1  Soviet Union (URS)42222084
2  United States (USA)23222469
3  Cuba (CUB)88521
4  China (CHN)77620
5  Romania (ROU)67619
6  Japan (JPN)*63716
7  Italy (ITA)46515
8  Bulgaria (BUL)46414
9  Netherlands (NED)3148
10  North Korea (PRK)3137
  Poland (POL)3137
12  West Germany (FRG)24814
13  Australia (AUS)2327
14  South Korea (KOR)2158
15  Nigeria (NGR)2125
16  Hungary (HUN)1449
17  Great Britain (GBR)1236
18  Brazil (BRA)1225
19  Mexico (MEX)1102
20  Czechoslovakia (TCH)1012
  Jamaica (JAM)1012
22  Canada (CAN)06612
23  France (FRA)0538
24  Yugoslavia (YUG)0123
25  New Zealand (NZL)0101
  Portugal (POR)0101
  Uruguay (URU)0101
28  Ivory Coast (CIV)0011
  Morocco (MAR)0011
Totals (29 nations)123117128368


ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ruth Padawer (June 28, 2016). "The Humiliating Practice of Sex-Testing Female Athletes". The New York Times.
  2. ^ Ljungqvist, A. (2008-04-15). "Gender Verification". In Barbara L. Drinkwater (ed.). The Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine: An IOC Medical Commission Publication, Women in Sport. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 183–93. ISBN 9780470756850. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  3. ^ Schultz, Jaime (2014). Qualifying Times: Points of Change in U.S. Women's Sport. U of Illinois P. pp. 111–12. ISBN 9780252095962.
  4. ^ Cole, Cheryl L. (2000). "One Chromosome Too Many?". In Kay Schaffer (ed.). The Olympics at the Millennium: Power, Politics, and the Games. Sidonie Smith. Rutgers UP. pp. 128–46. ISBN 9780813528205. Retrieved 2 March 2015.