Monte Carlo (/ /, Italian: [ˈmonte ˈkarlo]; French: Monte-Carlo [mɔ̃te kaʁlo], or colloquially Monte-Carl [mɔ̃te kaʁl]; Monégasque: Munte Carlu; lit. '"Mount Charles"') is officially an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco, specifically the ward of Monte Carlo/Spélugues, where the Monte Carlo Casino is located. Informally, the name also refers to a larger district, the Monte Carlo Quarter (corresponding to the former municipality of Monte Carlo), which besides Monte Carlo/Spélugues also includes the wards of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins, and Saint Michel. The permanent population of the ward of Monte Carlo is about 3,500, while that of the quarter is about 15,000. Monaco has four traditional quarters. From west to east they are: Fontvieille (the newest), Monaco-Ville (the oldest), La Condamine, and Monte Carlo.
Munte Carlu (Ligurian)
Monte Carlo in Monaco (ward shown)
|• Urban||0.61 km2 (.234 sq mi)|
|• Quarter and ward of Monaco||15,200 (in the quarter)|
3,500 (in the ward)
Monte Carlo is situated on a prominent escarpment at the base of the Maritime Alps along the French Riviera. Near the quarter's western end is the world-famous Place du Casino, the gambling center which has made Monte Carlo "an international byword for the extravagant display and reckless dispersal of wealth". It is also the location of the Hôtel de Paris, Café de Paris and Salle Garnier (the casino theatre which is the home of the Opéra de Monte-Carlo). The quarter's eastern part includes the community of Larvotto with Monaco's only public beach, as well as its new convention center (the Grimaldi Forum), and the Monte-Carlo Bay Hotel & Resort. At the quarter's eastern border, one crosses into the French town of Beausoleil (sometimes referred to as Monte-Carlo-Supérieur), and 8 kilometres (5 mi) to its east is the western border of Italy.
By the 1850s Monaco's reigning family was almost bankrupt; this was a result of the loss of two towns, Menton and Roquebrune, which had provided most of the principality's revenues with their lemon, orange and olive crops. At the time, a number of small towns in Europe were growing prosperous from the establishment of casinos, notably in German towns such as Baden-Baden and Homburg.
In 1856, Charles III of Monaco granted a concession to Napoleon Langlois and Albert Aubert, to establish a sea-bathing facility for the treatment of various diseases, and to build a German-style casino.
The initial casino opened in La Condamine in 1862, but was unsuccessful. It relocated several times, before reaching its present location in the "Les Spélugues" (The Caves) area of Monte Carlo. Success came slowly, largely because Monaco was inaccessible from much of Europe. The railway, installed in 1868, brought with it an influx of people, and Monte Carlo grew in wealth.
The municipality of Monte Carlo was created in 1911, when the Constitution divided the principality of Monaco into three municipalities. Monte Carlo encompassed the existing neighborhoods of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins, and Saint Michel. The municipalities merged in 1917, after accusations that the government used them to "divide and conquer". Since then, they are wards (quartiers). Today, Monaco is divided into 10 wards, with an eleventh planned (but currently postponed) to encompass land reclaimed from the sea (see the "Administrative divisions" section of Monaco for additional details).
The quarter of Monte Carlo was served by tramways from 1900 to 1953. It linked all parts of Monaco (see transportation in Monaco). In 2003 a new cruise ship pier was completed in the harbour at Monte Carlo.
Monte Carlo has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa), which is influenced by oceanic climate and humid subtropical climate. As a result, it has warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters.
|Climate data for Monte Carlo, Monaco|
|Average high °C (°F)||12.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||8.7
|Average low °C (°F)||4.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||82.7
|Average precipitation days||6.8||6.4||6.1||6.3||5.2||4.1||1.9||3.1||4.0||5.8||7.0||6.0||62.7|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||148.8||152.6||201.5||228.0||269.7||297.0||341.0||306.9||240.0||204.6||156.0||142.6||2,668.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||53||55||54||58||58||66||73||71||67||60||52||51||60|
|Source 1: Hong Kong Observatory|
|Source 2: Weather Atlas (possible sunshine) |
|Climate data for Monaco|
|Average high °C (°F)||12.3
|Average low °C (°F)||8.1
|Average precipitation days||5.9||5.2||6.7||6.0||5.6||2.8||1.3||2.5||4.5||7.5||7.7||6.8||62.5|
|Source: Monaco website|
|Climate data for Monte Carlo|
|Average sea temperature °C (°F)||13.4
|Mean daily daylight hours||9.0||10.0||12.0||13.0||15.0||15.0||15.0||14.0||12.0||11.0||10.0||9.0||12.1|
|Average Ultraviolet index||1||2||4||5||7||8||8||7||5||3||2||1||4.4|
|Source: Weather Atlas |
Sport and leisureEdit
Monte Carlo is host to most of the Circuit de Monaco, on which the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix takes place. It also hosts world championship boxing bouts, the European Poker Tour Grand Final and the World Backgammon Championship as well as the Monaco International Auto Show (Fr: Salon International de l'Automobile de Monaco), fashion shows and other events. Although the Monte Carlo Masters tennis tournament is billed as taking place in the community, its actual location is in the adjacent French commune of Roquebrune-Cap-Martin. The Monte Carlo Rally is one of the longest running and most respected car rallies; from 1973 to 2008 and again from 2012, it marks the start of World Rally Championship season, having also served as the curtain-raiser for the Intercontinental Rally Challenge between 2009 and 2011. The rally, however, takes place outside the Monte Carlo quarter and is run mostly on French roads.
Monte Carlo has been visited by royalty as well as the public and movie stars for decades. Monte Carlo is one of Europe's leading tourist resorts, although many of the key tourist destinations are in other parts of Monaco, including such attractions as Monaco Cathedral, the Napoleon Museum, the Oceanographic Museum and aquarium, and the Prince's Palace, all of which are in Monaco-Ville.
The Opéra de Monte-Carlo or Salle Garnier was built to designs of the architect Charles Garnier, who also designed the Paris opera house now known as the Palais Garnier. Although much smaller, the Salle Garnier is very similar in style with decorations in red and gold, and frescoes and sculptures all around the auditorium. It was inaugurated on 25 January 1879 with a performance by Sarah Bernhardt dressed as a nymph. The first opera performed there was Robert Planquette's Le Chevalier Gaston on 8 February 1879, and that was followed by three more in the first season.
With the influence of the first director, Jules Cohen (who was instrumental in bringing Adelina Patti) and the fortunate combination of Raoul Gunsbourg, the new director from 1883, and Princess Alice, the opera-loving, American wife of Albert I, the opera company became internationally known. Gunsbourg remained for sixty years.
By the early years of the twentieth century, the Salle Garnier saw great performers, such as Nellie Melba and Enrico Caruso in La Bohème and Rigoletto (in 1902), and Feodor Chaliapin in the premiere of Jules Massenet's Don Quichotte (1910). This production formed part of a long association between the company and Massenet and his operas, two of which were presented there posthumously.
Apart from Massenet, composers whose works had their first performances at Monte Carlo included: Saint-Saëns (Hélène, 1904); Mascagni (Amica, 1905); and Puccini (La rondine, 1917). Since its inauguration, the theatre has hosted 45 world premieres of operas. René Blum was retained to found the Ballet de l'Opéra. The "Golden Age" of the Salle Garnier is gone, as small companies with small houses are not able to mount productions that cost astronomical sums. Nonetheless, the present day company still presents a season containing five or six operas.
Hôtel de ParisEdit
The Hôtel de Paris, established in 1864 by Charles III of Monaco, is located on the west side of the Place du Casino in the heart of Monte Carlo. It belongs to the Société des bains de mer de Monaco (SBM), and is part of the elite Palace Grand Hotels in Monaco with the Hotel Hermitage, the Monte-Carlo Beach Hotel on Monte-Carlo Bay Hotel & Resort, the Metropole Hotel and Fairmont hotel.
The hotel has 106 rooms divided into four groups based on type of view, decoration and luxury. The Exclusive City View offers 20 rooms, the Superior Courtyard has 29 large rooms, the Exclusive Sea View 59 and the Exclusive Casino has six.
Additionally, there are 74 suites and junior suites which are grouped similarly, offering more luxury than the rooms. There are single and double suites as well as courtyard junior suites and Sea/Casino Junior suites. There is also one Presidential suite.
In October 2014, a renovation project began, to create a garden courtyard, add a new spa, fitness and pool area, exceptional suites, and a “rooftop villa” with a private garden and pool.
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Monte Carlo has been the setting of many films, books, television shows, and video games.
- Foolish Wives (1922), although it was filmed in California.
- To Catch a Thief (1954), an Alfred Hitchcock film with Monte Carlo and its famous casino as the setting and starring Cary Grant and Grace Kelly, the future Princess Grace of Monaco.
- Grand Prix (1966), starring James Garner, Eva M. Saint, and Yves Montand.
- Herbie Goes to Monte Carlo (1977) starring Dean Jones & Don Knotts.
- The James Bond films Never Say Never Again (1983), and GoldenEye (1995) feature the Monte Carlo Casino.
- Once Upon a Crime (1992) The plot revolves around a series of couples in Monte Carlo, Monaco.
- I Spy (2002)
- The motor race Monaco World Prix 1 was featured in Iron Man 2 (2010).
- Monte Carlo (2011)
- The DreamWorks Animation film, Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted (2012), features the Monte Carlo Casino .
- Monte Carlo is featured in Edith Wharton's novel The House of Mirth (1905) as a backdrop for the leisure activities of New York's upper class in the early 20th century.
- The first few chapters of the Gothic novel Rebecca (1938) are set in Monte Carlo.
- The Prince and Princess of Monte Carlo are characters in the Savoy opera The Grand Duke (1896) by Gilbert and Sullivan.
- Monte Carlo is an Edwardian musical comedy in two acts with a book by Sidney Carlton, music by Howard Talbot and lyrics by Harry Greenbank first performed in 1896.
- La Dame de Monte Carlo is a monologue for soprano and orchestra composed by Francis Poulenc in 1961 based on a poem from Jean Cocteau’s Théâtre de poche.
- "Monte Carlo Nights" is a song by Grover Washington Jr composed in 2001.
- "Goin' Down To Monte Carlo" is a song by Van Morrison composed in 2012.
- The Austrian musician Money Boy dedicated his song, "Monte Carlo" (2017), to Monte Carlo.
- In the British private detective series, Randall and Hopkirk (Deceased), the eleventh episode, "The Ghost who Saved the Bank at Monte Carlo" (1969), is set in Monte Carlo.
- The Bold and the Beautiful series (1987-) featured a number of episodes filmed on location in the city in 2016 and 2017. It is the location for the annual Spencer Summit.
- The Gran Turismo series (1997-2017) often features Monte Carlo.
- The indie game Monaco: What's Yours is Mine (2013)
- Various Formula 1 Video games features the historic Circuit de Monaco
Monte Carlo's twin cities are:
This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- "Monaco" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th edition (Chicago, 1991), vol. 8, p. 243.
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- "English Community". Saint-Charles Church. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
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- "Monte Carlo, Monaco - Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
- "Monaco - Climate". Monaco website. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
- "1er Salon International de l'Automobile de Monaco - 2017". 1er salon international de l'automobile de Monaco (in French). Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- "Luxury hotel rooms and luxurious suites in the Hotel de Paris". En.hoteldeparismontecarlo.com. Archived from the original on 16 February 2007. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- "Palace Hotel de Paris in Monte-Carlo". En.hoteldeparismontecarlo.com. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- "Monte-Carlo Société des Bains de Mer, Hotels, restaurants, casinos in Monaco". www.montecarlosbm.com.
- "monte carlo song - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
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- "Novak Djokovic - Overview". atptour.com.
- "ExclusiveGP". ExclusiveGP. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- Grupa Wirtualna Polska. "Formuła 1". sportowefakty.wp.pl.
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- "Davis Cup – The World Cup of Tennis".
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- World Entertainment News Network. "Ringo Moves To Monte Carlo To Avoid Tax Laws". Contactmusic.com.
- "Bernard Tomic - Overview". atptour.com.
- "Alexander Zverev - Overview". atptour.com.
- "Mischa Zverev - Overview". atptour.com.
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