Open main menu

Robert Oliver Reed (13 February 1938 – 2 May 1999) was an English actor known for his upper-middle class, macho image and "hellraiser" lifestyle. Notable films include The Trap (1966), playing Bill Sikes in the Best Picture Oscar winner Oliver! (1968), Women in Love (1969), Hannibal Brooks (1969), The Devils (1971), portraying Athos in The Three Musketeers (1973), Tommy (1975), Lion of the Desert (1981), Castaway (1986), The Adventures of Baron Munchausen (1988), Funny Bones (1995) and Gladiator (2000).

Oliver Reed
Oliver Reed 1968 (cropped).jpg
Reed in 1968
Born
Robert Oliver Reed

(1938-02-13)13 February 1938
Died2 May 1999(1999-05-02) (aged 61)
Valletta, Malta
Burial placeChurchtown, County Cork, Ireland
EducationEwell Castle School
OccupationActor
Years active1958–1999
Spouse(s)
Kate Byrne
(m. 1959; div. 1969)

Josephine Burge
(m. 1985; his death 1999)
Children2

For playing Antonius Proximo, the old, gruff gladiator trainer in Ridley Scott's Gladiator (2000) in what was his final film, Reed was posthumously nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role. At the peak of his career, in 1971, British exhibitors voted Reed 5th most popular star at the box office.[1] An alcoholic, Reed's issues with drink were well publicised, from appearances on chat shows to a high-profile friendship with drinking partner, the Who drummer Keith Moon, with the two meeting while working on Tommy.

Early lifeEdit

Reed was born at 9 Durrington Park Road,[2] Wimbledon, to Peter Reed, a sports journalist and Marcia (née Napier-Andrews).[3]

He was the nephew of film director Sir Carol Reed, and grandson of the actor-manager Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree and his mistress, Beatrice May Pinney (who later assumed the name 'Reed'),[4] she being "the only person who understood, listened to, encouraged and kissed Oliver".[5] Reed claimed to have been a descendant (through an illegitimate step) of Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia.[6] Reed attended 14 schools,[7] including Ewell Castle School in Surrey. Oliver's brother Simon Reed, a sports journalist, works for British Eurosport.[8][9]

"My father thought I was just lazy," Reed later said. "He thought I was a dunce."[10]

Reed worked as a boxer, a bouncer, a cabdriver and a hospital porter. He then did his compulsory army service in the Royal Army Medical Corps.[11] "The army helped," he said later. "I recognized that most other people were actors as well. I was in the peacetime army and they were all telling us youngsters about the war."[10]

CareerEdit

Early yearsEdit

When he got out of the army Reed commenced his acting career as an extra in films. He appeared uncredited in a Norman Wisdom film, The Square Peg (1958). Uncredited television appearances included episodes of The Invisible Man (1958), The Four Just Men (1959) and The Third Man. He appeared in the documentary Hello London (1958).

Reed's first break was playing Richard of Gloucester in a 6-part BBC TV series The Golden Spur (1959). It did not seem to help his career immediately: he was uncredited in the films The Captain's Table (1959), Upstairs and Downstairs (1959), directed by Ralph Thomas, Life Is a Circus (1960), The Angry Silence (1960), The League of Gentlemen (1960) and Beat Girl (1960). He played a bouncer in The Two Faces of Dr. Jekyll (1960) for Hammer Films with whom he would become associated; the director was Terence Fisher.

Reed was then in another Wisdom film, The Bulldog Breed (1960), playing the leader of a gang of Teddy Boys roughing up Wisdom in a cinema

Reed got his first significant role in Hammer Films' Sword of Sherwood Forest (1960), again directed by Fisher. He went back to small roles for His and Hers (1961), a Terry Thomas comedy, No Love for Johnnie (1961) for Thomas, and The Rebel (1961) with Tony Hancock.

Leading manEdit

Reed's first starring role came when Hammer cast him as the central character in Terence Fisher’s The Curse of the Werewolf (1961). Hammer liked Reed and gave him good supporting roles in the swashbuckler The Pirates of Blood River (1962), directed by John Gilling; Captain Clegg (1962), a smugglers tale with Peter Cushing; These Are the Damned (1963), a science fiction film, as a teddy boy, directed by Joseph Losey; Paranoiac (1963), a psycho thriller for director Freddie Francis; and The Scarlet Blade (1963); a swashbuckler set during the Civil War directed by Gilling, with Reed as a Roundhead.

During this time he appeared in some ITV Playhouse productions, "Murder in Shorthand" (1962) and "The Second Chef " (1962), and guest starred on episodes of The Saint.

He also had the lead in a non-Hammer horror, The Party's Over (made 1963, released 1965), directed by Guy Hamilton.

Michael Winner and Ken RussellEdit

In 1964 he starred in the first of six films directed by Michael Winner, The System, (known as The Girl-Getters in the U.S.).

The film was seen by Ken Russell who then cast Reed in the title role of The Debussy Film (1965), a TV biopic of Claude Debussy.[12] Reed said this was crucial to his career because "That was the first time I met Ken Russell and it was the first part I had after I'd had my face cut in a fight and no one would employ me. Everybody thought I was a cripple."[10] It was also the first time he broke away from villainous roles. "Until that time they thought I was a neolithic dustbin," said Reed.[13] Reed later said "Hammer films had given me my start and Michael Winner my bread then Ken Russell came on the screen and gave me my art."[14]

He narrated Russell's TV movie Always on Sunday (1965).

Reed returned to Hammer for The Brigand of Kandahar (1965), playing a villainous Indian in an imperial action film for Gilling. He later called it the worst film he ever made for Hammer.[15]

He guest starred on episodes of It's Cold Outside and Court Martial, the latter directed by Seth Holt. He had a regular role on the TV series R3 (1965).

Reed was the lead in a Canadian-British co-production, The Trap (1966), co-starring with Rita Tushingham.

Reed's career stepped up another level when he starred in the popular comedy film The Jokers (1966), his second film with Winner, alongside Michael Crawford.

After playing a villain in a horror movie, The Shuttered Room (1967) he did a third with Winner, I'll Never Forget What's'isname (1967), co-starring with Orson Welles.

Reed was reunited with Russell for another TV movie, Dante's Inferno (1968), playing Dante Gabriel Rossetti.[16]

Oliver! and stardomEdit

Reed became a star playing Bill Sikes in Oliver! (1968), alongside Ron Moody, Shani Wallis, Mark Lester, Jack Wild and Harry Secombe, in his uncle Carol Reed's screen version of the successful stage musical. It was a huge hit and Reed's performance much acclaimed.

He was in the black comedy The Assassination Bureau (1969) with Diana Rigg and Telly Savalas, directed by Basil Dearden;[17] and a war film for Winner, Hannibal Brooks (1969).[18]

More successful than either was his fourth film with Russell, a film version of Women in Love (1969), in which he wrestled naked with Alan Bates in front of a log fire.[19] In 1969 Interstate Theatres awarded him their International Star of the Year Award.[20]

Take a Girl Like You (1970) was a sex comedy with Hayley Mills based on a novel by Kingsley Amis;[21] The Lady in the Car with Glasses and a Gun (1970) was a thriller directed by Anatole Litvak.[22] The following year, Reed appeared in the controversial film The Devils (1971), directed by Russell with Vanessa Redgrave.[23]

An anecdote holds that Reed could have been chosen to play James Bond. In 1969, Bond franchise producers Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman were looking for a replacement for Sean Connery and Reed (who had recently played a resourceful killer in The Assassination Bureau) was mentioned as a possible choice for the role, with Timothy Dalton and Roger Moore as the other choices.[24] Whatever the reason, Reed was never to play Bond. After Reed's death, the Guardian Unlimited called the casting decision, "One of the great missed opportunities of post-war British movie history."[25]

He made a series of action-orientated projects: The Hunting Party (1971), a Western shot in Spain with Gene Hackman; Sitting Target (1972), a tough gangster film; and Z.P.G. (1972), a science fiction film with Geraldine Chaplin.

In March 1971 he said he would make a film, The Offering, which he would co-write and produce, but it was not made.[26] He did The Triple Echo (1972) directed by Michael Apted, and featured Reed alongside Glenda Jackson.

Reed also appeared in a number of Italian films: Dirty Weekend (1973), with Marcello Mastroianni; One Russian Summer (1973) with Claudia Cardinale; and Revolver (1973).

He had great success playing Athos in The Three Musketeers (1973) and The Four Musketeers (1974) for director Richard Lester from a script by George MacDonald Fraser.

Reed had an uncredited bit-part in Russell's Mahler (1974), was the lead in Blue Blood (1973) and And Then There Were None (1974), produced by Harry Alan Towers.

His next project with Ken Russell was Tommy where he plays Tommy's cruel stepfather, based on The Who's 1969 concept album Tommy and starring its lead singer Roger Daltrey. Royal Flash (1975) reunited him with Richard Lester and George MacDonald Fraser, playing Otto von Bismarck. He had a cameo in Russell's Lisztomania (1975).

Reed appeared in The New Spartans (1975) then acted alongside Karen Black, Bette Davis, and Burgess Meredith in the Dan Curtis horror film Burnt Offerings (1976).

He was in The Sell Out (1976) and The Great Scout & Cathouse Thursday (1976) with Lee Marvin. After Assault in Paradise (1977) he returned to swashbuckling in Crossed Swords (UK title The Prince and the Pauper) (1977), as Miles Hendon alongside Raquel Welch and a grown up Mark Lester, who had worked with Reed in Oliver!, from a script co-written by Fraser.

Reed did Tomorrow Never Comes (1978) for Peter Colinson and The Big Sleep (1978) with Winner. He and Jackson were reunited in The Class of Miss MacMichael (1978), then he made a film in Canada, The Mad Trapper, that was unfinished.

Reed returned to the horror genre as Dr. Hal Raglan in David Cronenberg's 1979 film The Brood and ended the decade with A Touch of the Sun (1979), a comedy with Peter Cushing.

1980sEdit

From the 1980s onwards Reed's films had less success. He did a comedy for Charles B. Griffith, Dr. Heckyl and Mr. Hype (1980) and played Gen. Rodolfo Graziani in Lion of the Desert (1981), which co-starred Anthony Quinn and chronicled the resistance to Italy's occupation of Libya. On 20 January 2016 ISIS used a clip of Lion of the Desert as part of a propaganda video threatening Italy with terrorist attacks.[27]

Reed was a villain in Disney's Condorman (1981) and did the horror film Venom (1981). He was a villain in The Sting II (1983) and appeared in Sex, Lies and Renaissance (1983).

He also starred as Lt-Col Gerard Leachman in the Iraqi historical film Al-Mas' Ala Al-Kubra (a.k.a. Clash of Loyalties) (1983), which dealt with Leachman's exploits during the 1920 revolution in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).

Reed was in Spasms (1983), Two of a Kind (1983), Masquerade (1984), Christopher Columbus (1985), Black Arrow (1985) and Captive (1986).

He says he was contemplating quitting acting when Nicolas Roeg cast him in Castaway (1986) as the middle aged Gerald Kingsland, who advertises for a "wife" (played by Amanda Donohoe) to live on a desert island with him for a year.[10]

He was the subject of This Is Your Life in 1986 when he was surprised by Eamonn Andrews.[28]

Reed was in The Misfit Brigade (1987), Gor (1987), Master of Dragonard Hill (1987), Dragonard (1987), Skeleton Coast (1988), Blind Justice (1988), Captive Rage (1988), and Rage to Kill (1988). Most of these were exploitation films produced by the impresario Harry Alan Towers filmed in South Africa at the time of apartheid and released straight to video in the United States and UK.

He was in Terry Gilliam's The Adventures of Baron Munchausen (1988) (as the god Vulcan); The Lady and the Highwayman (1989) with Hugh Grant; The House of Usher (1989); The Return of the Musketeers (1990) with Lester and Fraser; Treasure Island (1990) with Charlton Heston; A Ghost in Monte Carlo (1990); Hired to Kill (1990); Panama Sugar (1990); The Revenger (1990); The Pit and the Pendulum (1991); Prisoner of Honor (1991) for Russell; and Severed Ties (1993).

Later yearsEdit

Reed was in Return to Lonesome Dove (1993); Funny Bones (1995); Russian Roulette - Moscow 95 (1995); Luise knackt den Jackpot (1995); Die Tunnelgangster von Berlin [de] (1996); The Bruce (1996); Jeremiah (1998); The Incredible Adventures of Marco Polo on His Journeys to the Ends of the Earth (1998); and Parting Shots (1998).

His final role was the elderly slave dealer Proximo in Gladiator (2000), in which he played alongside Richard Harris,[29] an actor whom Reed admired greatly both on and off the screen.[30] The film was released after his death with some footage filmed with a double,[31] digitally mixed with outtake footage.[32] The film was dedicated to him.[33] In addition to his posthumous BAFTA recognition, he shared the film's nomination for the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture with the rest of the principal players.

MusicEdit

In addition to acting, Reed released several singles in the popular music vein, though with limited success. These included "Wild One"/"Lonely for a Girl" (1961), "Sometimes"/"Ecstasy" (1962), "Baby It's Cold Outside" (duet with Joyce Blair and "Wild Thing" (1992) (duet with snooker ace Alex Higgins). Oliver also later narrated a track called "Walpurgis Nacht" by heavy metal band Death SS.[34]

Personal lifeEdit

In 1959, Reed married Kate Byrne.[35] The couple had one son, Mark, before their divorce in 1969. While filming his part of Bill Sikes in Oliver!, he met Jacquie Daryl, a classically trained dancer who was also in the film.[36] They became lovers and subsequently had a daughter, Sarah. In 1985, he married Josephine Burge, to whom he was still married at the time of his death. She was 16 years old when they met, he was 42.[37] In his last years, Reed and Burge lived in Churchtown, County Cork, Ireland.

ActivitiesEdit

 
Broome Hall, Surrey, Reed's home from the late 1960s to 1980s

In 1964 Reed was in a Leicester Square club and got into a dispute at the bar with a couple of men that ended with Reed walking away with a dismissive remark. They waited until he went to the toilet, followed him in and attacked him with broken bottles. He received 63 stitches in one side of his face, was left with permanent scarring, and initially thought his film career was over. According to his brother, subsequent to the attack when arguing the burly Reed would bring his hands up in a gesture that was defensive, but many men found very intimidating. In 1993 Reed was unsuccessfully sued by his former stuntman, stand-in and friend Reg Prince, for an alleged spinal injury incurred by the latter while on location for the filming of Castaway.[38]

He claimed to have turned down major roles in two Hollywood movies, including The Sting (although he did appear in the 1983 sequel The Sting II). When the UK government raised taxes on personal income, Reed initially declined to join the exodus of major British film stars to Hollywood and other more tax-friendly locales. In the late 1970s Reed relocated to Guernsey as a tax exile. He had sold his large house, Broome Hall, between the villages of Coldharbour and Ockley, some years earlier and initially lodged at the Duke of Normandie Hotel in Saint Peter Port.[39]

In 2013, the writer Robert Sellers published What Fresh Lunacy Is This? – The Authorised Biography of Oliver Reed.[40]

AlcoholismEdit

 
Appearing with Kate Millett on the After Dark programme "Do Men Have To Be Violent?".

Reed was known for his alcoholism and binge drinking.[41] Numerous anecdotes exist, such as Reed and 36 drinking friends drinking in one evening: 60 gallons of beer, 32 bottles of scotch, 17 bottles of gin, four crates of wine, and a bottle of Babycham. He subsequently revised the story, claiming he drank 106 pints of beer on a two-day binge before marrying Josephine Burge; "The event that was reported actually took place during an arm-wrestling competition in Guernsey about 15 years ago, it was highly exaggerated." Steve McQueen told the story that in 1973 he flew to the UK to discuss a film project with Reed and suggested the two men visit a London nightclub.[42] They ended up on a marathon pub crawl during which Reed got so drunk he vomited on McQueen.[42]

Reed became a close friend and drinking partner of the Who's drummer Keith Moon in 1974 while working together on the film version of Tommy.[43] With their reckless lifestyles Reed and Moon had much in common, and both cited the hard-drinking actor Robert Newton as a role model.[44] Sir Christopher Lee, a friend and colleague of Reed, commented on his alcoholism in 2014: "when he started, after [drink] number eight, he became a complete monster. It was awful to see."[45]

Reed was often irritated that his appearances on TV talk shows concentrated on his drinking feats rather than his latest films and acting career. On 26 September 1975, in front of a speechless Johnny Carson on The Tonight Show, the bellicose Reed had a glass of whisky poured over his head on-camera by an enraged Shelley Winters (Winters had been upset by Reed's derogatory comments toward women).[46] David Letterman cut to a commercial when Reed became belligerent after being asked too many questions about his drinking on 5 August 1987 after pointing out that Letterman's researcher had already been told that Reed did not want to talk about drinking during his appearance on Late Night with David Letterman.

Reed was held partly responsible for the demise of BBC1's Sin on Saturday after some typically forthright comments on the subject of lust, the sin featured on the first programme. The show had many other problems, and a fellow-guest revealed that Reed recognised this when he arrived and virtually had to be dragged in front of the cameras. Near the end of his life, he was brought onto some TV shows specifically for his drinking; for example The Word put bottles of liquor in his dressing room so he could be secretly filmed getting drunk[citation needed]. He left the set of the Channel 4 television discussion programme After Dark after arriving drunk and attempting to kiss feminist writer Kate Millett, uttering the phrase, "Give us a kiss, big tits".[citation needed]

However, Cliff Goodwin's biography of Reed, Evil Spirits, offered the theory that Reed was not always as drunk on chat shows as he appeared to be, but rather was acting the part of an uncontrollably sodden former star to liven things up, at the producers' behests. In October 1981, Reed was arrested in Vermont, where he was tried and acquitted of disturbing the peace while drunk. However, he pleaded no contest to two assault charges and was fined $1,200.[47] In December 1987, Reed, who was overweight and already suffered from gout,[48] became seriously ill with kidney problems as a result of his alcoholism and had to abstain from drinking for over a year on the advice of his doctor.

In his final years, when he lived in Ireland, Reed was a regular in the one-roomed O'Brien's Bar in Churchtown, County Cork, close to the 13th-century cemetery in the heart of the village where he would be buried.[49][50]

DeathEdit

Oliver Reed died from a heart attack during a break from filming Gladiator in Valletta, Malta, on the afternoon of 2 May 1999.[51] According to witnesses, he drank eight pints of German lager, a dozen shots of rum, half a bottle of whiskey and a few shots of Hennessy cognac,[52] in a drinking match against a group of sailors on shore leave from the H.M.S. Cumberland at a local pub called "The Pub". His bar bill totaled a little over 270 Maltese lira (almost 450 GBP; about 594.72 USD). After beating five much younger Royal Navy sailors at arm-wrestling, Reed suddenly collapsed, dying en route to a hospital in an ambulance.[53] He was 61 years old.

The actor Omid Djalili, who was also in Malta at the time of Reed's death filming Gladiator, said during an interview in 2016: "He hadn't had a drink for months before filming started ... Everyone said he went the way he wanted... sober, but that's not true. It was very tragic. He was in an Irish bar and was pressured into a drinking competition. He should have just left, but he didn't."[54]

A funeral for Reed was held in Churchtown, County Cork,[55] in Ireland where he had resided during the last years of his life. His body was interred in Churchtown's Bruhenny Graveyard.[56] On his gravestone reads the epitaph, "He made the air move".[57]

AftermathEdit

As a result of his death, Reed's remaining scenes in Gladiator had to be completed using computer-generated imagery (CGI) techniques.[58] Despite this, he was posthumously nominated for a BAFTA Award for Best Supporting Actor.[59] Russell Crowe said in 2010: "I never got on with Ollie. He has visited me in dreams and asked me to talk kindly of him. So I should... but we never had a pleasant conversation."[60]

FilmographyEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Waymark, Peter (30 December 1971). "Richard Burton top draw in British cinemas," The Times, London, p. 2.
  2. ^ Goodwin, Cliff (2000). Evil Spirits: The Life of Oliver Reed. London: Virgin Publishing Ltd. p. 170. ISBN 9780753546185.
  3. ^ Reed, Oliver (1979). Reed All About Me: The Autobiography of Oliver Reed. W. H. Allen. p. 7. OCLC 6249650.
  4. ^ http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/12th-may-1979/19/mummer-and-daddy
  5. ^ Milligan, Spike (22 April 2013). "LIFE AS the son of a hellraiser". Irish Independent. INM Website. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  6. ^ "Books". OliverReed.net. Archived from the original on 8 September 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  7. ^ King, Norman (3 May 1999). "Oliver Reed obituary". The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  8. ^ Hastings, Chris (18 February 2001). "Oliver Reed's widow upset by Oscar snub". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  9. ^ "Simon Reed". Eurosport Tennis. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  10. ^ a b c d OLIVER REED: ONE AMONG MANY PRETENDERS Luaine Lee, Knight. Chicago Tribune 23 Oct 1987: R.
  11. ^ "Ex-army corporal who served with Oliver Reed wants to track down old comrades". South Wales Argus. Gannett Company. 10 March 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  12. ^ Oliver Burns--at the Stake and at Film Critics Kramer, Carol. Chicago Tribune 22 Aug 1971: e3.
  13. ^ 'The Jokers' Wild With Oliver Reed Marks, Sally K. Los Angeles Times 4 Aug 1967: d11.
  14. ^ Reed p 124
  15. ^ Reed p 127
  16. ^ Reed p 127
  17. ^ Kürten, Jochen (22 November 2016). "100 years after his death, a new look at author Jack London". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  18. ^ Vincent, Alice (21 January 2013). "Michael Winner: His best films". Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  19. ^ Child, Ben (30 September 2011). "How Women in Love's nude wrestling scene romped past the 1960s censors". The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  20. ^ Oliver Reed Honored by Interstate Theaters Los Angeles Times27 June 1969: d15.
  21. ^ Brunson, Matt (5 July 2018). "Blockers, The Curse of the Cat People, Let's Make Love among new home entertainment titles". Creative Loafing Charlotte. Womack Digital, LLC. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  22. ^ Greenspun, Roger (26 December 1970). "screen: 'The Lady in the Car With Glasses and Gun':Samantha Eggar Stars in Mystery Story". NY Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  23. ^ Kemp, Stuart (15 November 2011). "'The Devils' With Oliver Reed and Vanessa Redgrave Scares Up U.K. DVD Release". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  24. ^ Alikhan, Anvar (28 May 2017). "Was Roger Moore the best James Bond ever? Or the worst?". Scroll.in. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  25. ^ "Devil of an actor". The Guardian. London: Guardian News & Media Limited. 7 May 1999. Retrieved 24 February 2006.
  26. ^ Reed's Formula for Success Murphy, Mary B. Los Angeles Times 27 Mar 1971: a9.
  27. ^ Lee, Benjamin (20 January 2016). "Oliver Reed movie used by Isis to threaten Italy". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  28. ^ "Oliver Reed". Bigredbook.info. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  29. ^ Delaney, Tim; Madigan, Tim (22 July 2015). The Sociology of Sports: An Introduction (2nd ed.). McFarland Publishing. p. 68. ISBN 9780786497676.
  30. ^ Collings, Mark (31 March 2014). "When Stars Collide: Richard Harris On Drinking With Ollie Reed". Sabotage Times. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  31. ^ Hassan, Genevieve (10 April 2017). "Missing in action: The films affected by actors' deaths". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  32. ^ Patterson, John (27 March 2015). "CGI Friday: a brief history of computer-generated actors". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  33. ^ Richards, Jeffrey (1 July 2008). Hollywood's Ancient Worlds. A&C Black. p. 177. ISBN 9780826435385.
  34. ^ "OliverReed.net". OliverReed.net. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  35. ^ Edgar, Kathleen J.; Kondek, Joshua (1998). Contemporary Theatre, Film and Television. 20. GALE Group. p. 346. ISBN 9780787620585.
  36. ^ Sellers, Robert (19 February 2009). Hellraisers: The Life and Inebriated Times of Burton, Harris, O'Toole and Reed. Random House. p. 149. ISBN 9781409050100.
  37. ^ Jane, Warren. "Shy schoolgirl who stole the heart of Oliver Reed". Express. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  38. ^ Sad' Oliver Reed cleared of blame for stand-in's broken back Weale, Sally. The Guardian 17 Dec 1993.
  39. ^ "When Oliver Reed lived in Guernsey". Dukeofnormandie.com. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  40. ^ Rees, Jasper (4 July 2013). "What Fresh Lunacy is This? The authorised biography of Oliver Reed by Robert Sellers, review". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  41. ^ Prone, Terry (20 July 2013). "In good spirits: why actor Oliver Reed was always drunk but never bored". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  42. ^ a b Cliff Goodwin (2011). "Evil Spirits: The Life of Oliver Reed". p. 141. Random House
  43. ^ "'Moon the Loon' tops poll as rock's most excessive rogue". The Independent. 15 July 2015.
  44. ^ Angus Konstam (2008) Piracy: The Complete History p.313. Osprey Publishing, Retrieved 11 October 2011
  45. ^ Festival del film Locarno. "Festival del film Locarno". pardolive.ch.
  46. ^ Sellers, Robert (2008). Hellraisers, Preface Publishing, p. 128; ISBN 1906838364.
  47. ^ Krebs, Albin; Jr, Robert McG Thomas (28 October 1981). "NOTES ON PEOPLE; Actor Guilty in Brawl". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  48. ^ Goodwin, Cliff. Evil Spirits: The Life of Oliver Reed (2001) p. 246
  49. ^ [1] Archived 11 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ "OliverReed.net". OliverReed.net. 9 May 1999. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  51. ^ "Oliver Reed, Diverse Actor For Film and TV, Dies at 61". The New York Times. 3 May 1999.
  52. ^ Adam (5 May 2014). "Oliver Reed's last drink in Malta". Air Malta. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  53. ^ Blackstock, Colin (3 May 1999). "Oliver Reed dies after last drink". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  54. ^ "The day Oliver Reed grabbed me by the balls" by Omid Djalili, The Guardian, 24 January 2016
  55. ^ Oliver, Ted (16 May 1999). "Ten-day farewell to king of hellraisers". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  56. ^ Hogan, Dick (17 May 1999). "Oliver Reed given a rousing send-off in Cork". Irish Times. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  57. ^ Gallagher, Paul (3 October 2016). "'I died in a bar of a heart attack': Oliver Reed predicts his own death in a TV interview from 1994". Dangerous Minds. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  58. ^ "15 Movie Scenes You Didn't Realise Were CGI". yahoo.com. 1 April 2015.
  59. ^ Kennedy, Maev; arts; correspondent, heritage (1 February 2001). "Reed named for Bafta award". Theguardian.com. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  60. ^ Singh, Anita (6 May 2010). "Russell Crowe: 'I'm not a hard man, I like poetry and wear make-up for a living'". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 4 June 2018.

NotesEdit

  • Reed, Oliver (1981). Reed All About Me. Hodder and Stoughton.

External linksEdit