Alan Alexander Milne (//; 18 January 1882 – 31 January 1956) was an English writer best known for his books about the teddy bear Winnie-the-Pooh, as well as for children's poetry. Milne was primarily a playwright before the huge success of Winnie-the-Pooh overshadowed all his previous work. Milne served in both World Wars, as a lieutenant in the Royal Warwickshire Regiment in the First World War and as a captain in the Home Guard in the Second World War.
A. A. Milne
|Born||Alan Alexander Milne|
18 January 1882
Kilburn, London, England
|Died||31 January 1956 (aged 74)|
Hartfield, Sussex, England
|Alma mater||Trinity College, Cambridge|
Dorothy "Daphne" de Sélincourt
|Relatives||Aubrey de Sélincourt (brother-in-law)|
Milne was the father of bookseller Christopher Robin Milne, upon whom the character Christopher Robin is based. It was during a visit to London Zoo, where Christopher became enamoured with the tame and amiable bear Winnipeg, that Milne was inspired to write the story of Winnie-the-Pooh for his son. Milne bequeathed the original manuscripts of the Winnie-the-Pooh stories to the Wren Library at Trinity College, Cambridge, his alma mater.
Early life and military career edit
Alan Alexander Milne was born in Kilburn, London, to John Vine Milne, who was born in Jamaica, and Sarah Marie Milne (née Heginbotham), on 18 January 1882. He grew up at Henley House School, 6/7 Mortimer Road (now Crescent), Kilburn, a small independent school run by his father. One of his teachers was H. G. Wells, who taught there in 1889–90. Milne attended Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he studied on a mathematics scholarship, graduating with a B.A. in Mathematics in 1903. He edited and wrote for Granta, a student magazine. He collaborated with his brother Kenneth and their articles appeared over the initials AKM. Milne's work came to the attention of the leading British humour magazine Punch, where Milne was to become a contributor and later an assistant editor. Considered a talented cricket fielder, Milne played for two amateur teams that were largely composed of British writers: the Allahakbarries and the Authors XI. His teammates included fellow writers J. M. Barrie, Arthur Conan Doyle and P. G. Wodehouse.
Milne joined the British Army in World War I and served as an officer in the Royal Warwickshire Regiment. He was commissioned into the 4th Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment, on 1 February 1915 as a second lieutenant (on probation). His commission was confirmed on 20 December 1915. He served on the Somme as a signals officer from July-November 1916, but caught trench fever and was invalided back to England. Having recuperated, he worked as a signals instructor, before being recruited into Military Intelligence to write propaganda articles for MI7 (b) between 1917 and 1918. He was discharged on 14 February 1919, and settled in Mallord Street, Chelsea. He relinquished his commission on 19 February 1920, retaining the rank of lieutenant.
After the war, he wrote a denunciation of war titled Peace with Honour (1934), which he retracted somewhat with 1940's War with Honour. During World War II, Milne was one of the most prominent critics of fellow English writer (and Authors XI cricket teammate) P. G. Wodehouse, who was captured at his country home in France by the Nazis and imprisoned for a year. Wodehouse made radio broadcasts about his internment, which were broadcast from Berlin. Although the light-hearted broadcasts made fun of the Germans, Milne accused Wodehouse of committing an act of near treason by cooperating with his country's enemy. Wodehouse got some revenge on his former friend (e.g. in The Mating Season) by creating fatuous parodies of the Christopher Robin poems in some of his later stories, and claiming that Milne "was probably jealous of all other writers.... But I loved his stuff."
Milne married Dorothy "Daphne" de Sélincourt (1890–1971) in 1913 and their son Christopher Robin Milne was born in 1920. In 1925, Milne bought a country home, Cotchford Farm, in Hartfield, East Sussex.
During World War II, Milne was a captain in the British Home Guard in Hartfield & Forest Row, insisting on being plain "Mr. Milne" to the members of his platoon. He retired to the farm after a stroke and brain surgery in 1952 left him an invalid, and by August 1953, "he seemed very old and disenchanted." Milne died in January 1956, aged 74.
Literary career edit
1903 to 1925 edit
During this period he published 18 plays and three novels, including the murder mystery The Red House Mystery (1922). His son was born in August 1920 and in 1924 Milne produced a collection of children's poems, When We Were Very Young, which were illustrated by Punch staff cartoonist E. H. Shepard. A collection of short stories for children A Gallery of Children, and other stories that became part of the Winnie-the-Pooh books, were first published in 1925.
Milne was an early screenwriter for the nascent British film industry, writing four stories filmed in 1920 for the company Minerva Films (founded in 1920 by the actor Leslie Howard and his friend and story editor Adrian Brunel). These were The Bump, starring Aubrey Smith; Twice Two; Five Pound Reward; and Bookworms. Some of these films survive in the archives of the British Film Institute. Milne had met Howard when the actor starred in Milne's play Mr Pim Passes By in London.
Looking back on this period (in 1926), Milne observed that when he told his agent that he was going to write a detective story, he was told that what the country wanted from a "Punch humorist" was a humorous story; when two years later he said he was writing nursery rhymes, his agent and publisher were convinced he should write another detective story; and after another two years, he was being told that writing a detective story would be in the worst of taste given the demand for children's books. He concluded that "the only excuse which I have yet discovered for writing anything is that I want to write it; and I should be as proud to be delivered of a Telephone Directory con amore as I should be ashamed to create a Blank Verse Tragedy at the bidding of others."
1926 to 1928 edit
Milne is most famous for his two Pooh books about a boy named Christopher Robin after his son, Christopher Robin Milne (1920–1996), and various characters inspired by his son's stuffed animals, most notably the bear named Winnie-the-Pooh. Christopher Robin Milne's stuffed bear, originally named Edward, was renamed Winnie after a Canadian black bear named Winnie (after Winnipeg), which was used as a military mascot in World War I, and left to London Zoo during the war. "The Pooh" comes from a swan the young Milne named "Pooh". E. H. Shepard illustrated the original Pooh books, using his own son's teddy Growler ("a magnificent bear") as the model. The rest of Christopher Robin Milne's toys, Piglet, Eeyore, Kanga, Roo and Tigger, were incorporated into A. A. Milne's stories, and two more characters – Rabbit and Owl – were created by Milne's imagination. Christopher Robin Milne's own toys are now on display in New York where 750,000 people visit them every year. The fictional Hundred Acre Wood of the Pooh stories derives from Five Hundred Acre Wood in Ashdown Forest in East Sussex, South East England, where the Pooh stories were set. Milne lived on the northern edge of the forest at Cotchford Farm, , and took his son walking there. E. H. Shepard drew on the landscapes of Ashdown Forest as inspiration for many of the illustrations he provided for the Pooh books. The adult Christopher Robin commented: "Pooh's Forest and Ashdown Forest are identical." Popular tourist locations at Ashdown Forest include: Galleon's Lap, The Enchanted Place, the Heffalump Trap and Lone Pine, Eeyore's Sad and Gloomy Place, and the wooden Pooh Bridge where Pooh and Piglet invented Poohsticks.
Not yet known as Pooh, he made his first appearance in a poem, "Teddy Bear", published in Punch magazine in February 1924 and republished that year in When We Were Very Young. Pooh first appeared in the London Evening News on Christmas Eve, 1925, in a story called "The Wrong Sort of Bees". Winnie-the-Pooh was published in 1926, followed by The House at Pooh Corner in 1928. A second collection of nursery rhymes, Now We Are Six, was published in 1927. All four books were illustrated by E. H. Shepard. Milne also published four plays in this period. He also "gallantly stepped forward" to contribute a quarter of the costs of dramatising P. G. Wodehouse's A Damsel in Distress. The World of Pooh won the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award in 1958.
1929 onward edit
The success of his children's books was to become a source of considerable annoyance to Milne, whose self-avowed aim was to write whatever he pleased and who had, until then, found a ready audience for each change of direction: he had freed pre-war Punch from its ponderous facetiousness; he had made a considerable reputation as a playwright (like his idol J. M. Barrie) on both sides of the Atlantic; he had produced a witty piece of detective writing in The Red House Mystery (although this was severely criticised by Raymond Chandler for the implausibility of its plot in his essay The Simple Art of Murder in the eponymous collection that appeared in 1950). But once Milne had, in his own words, "said goodbye to all that in 70,000 words" (the approximate length of his four principal children's books), he had no intention of producing any reworkings lacking in originality, given that one of the sources of inspiration, his son, was growing older.
Another reason Milne stopped writing children's books, and especially about Winnie-the-Pooh, was that he felt "amazement and disgust" over the immense fame his son was exposed to, and said that "I feel that the legal Christopher Robin has already had more publicity than I want for him. I do not want CR Milne to ever wish that his name were Charles Robert."
In his literary home, Punch, where the When We Were Very Young verses had first appeared, Methuen continued to publish whatever Milne wrote, including the long poem "The Norman Church" and an assembly of articles entitled Year In, Year Out (which Milne likened to a benefit night for the author).
In 1930, Milne adapted Kenneth Grahame's novel The Wind in the Willows for the stage as Toad of Toad Hall. The title was an implicit admission that such chapters as Chapter 7, "The Piper at the Gates of Dawn," could not survive translation to the theatre. A special introduction written by Milne is included in some editions of Grahame's novel.
Milne and his wife became estranged from their son, who came to resent what he saw as his father's exploitation of his childhood and came to hate the books that had thrust him into the public eye. Christopher's marriage to his first cousin, Lesley de Sélincourt, distanced him still further from his parents – Lesley's father and Christopher's mother had not spoken to each other for 30 years.
Death and legacy edit
I suppose that every one of us hopes secretly for immortality; to leave, I mean, a name behind him which will live forever in this world, whatever he may be doing, himself, in the next.
—A. A. Milne.
A. A. Milne died at his home in Hartfield, Sussex, on 31 January 1956, nearly two weeks after his 74th birthday. A memorial service took place on 10 February at All Hallows-by-the-Tower church in London.
The rights to A. A. Milne's Pooh books were left to four beneficiaries: his family, the Royal Literary Fund, Westminster School and the Garrick Club. After Milne's death in 1956, thirteen days after his 74th birthday, his widow sold her rights to the Pooh characters to Stephen Slesinger, whose widow sold the rights after Slesinger's death to the Walt Disney Company, which has made many Pooh cartoon movies, a Disney Channel television show, as well as Pooh-related merchandise. In 2001, the other beneficiaries sold their interest in the estate to the Disney Corporation for $350m. Previously Disney had been paying twice-yearly royalties to these beneficiaries. The estate of E. H. Shepard also received a sum in the deal. The UK copyright on the text of the original Winnie the Pooh books expires on 1 January 2027; at the beginning of the year after the 70th anniversary of the author's death (PMA-70), and has already expired in those countries with a PMA-50 rule. This applies to all of Milne's works except those first published posthumously. The illustrations in the Pooh books will remain under copyright until the same amount of time has passed, after the illustrator's death; in the UK, this will be on 1 January 2047. In the US, copyright will not expire until 95 years after publication for each of Milne's books first published before 1978, but this includes the illustrations.
In 2008, a collection of original illustrations featuring Winnie-the-Pooh and his animal friends sold for more than £1.2 million at auction in Sotheby's, London. Forbes magazine ranked Winnie the Pooh the most valuable fictional character in 2002; Winnie the Pooh merchandising products alone had annual sales of more than $5.9 billion. In 2005, Winnie the Pooh generated $6 billion, a figure surpassed only by Mickey Mouse.
A memorial plaque in Ashdown Forest, unveiled by Christopher Robin in 1979, commemorates the work of A. A. Milne and Shepard in creating the world of Pooh. The inscription states they "captured the magic of Ashdown Forest, and gave it to the world". Milne once wrote of Ashdown Forest: "In that enchanted place on the top of the forest a little boy and his bear will always be playing."
In 2003, Winnie-the-Pooh was ranked number 7 on the BBC's The Big Read poll which determined the UK's "best-loved novels". In 2006, Winnie-the-Pooh received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, marking the 80th birthday of Milne's creation.
Marking the 90th anniversary of Milne's creation of the character, and the 90th birthday of Queen Elizabeth II, Winnie-the-Pooh Meets the Queen (2016) sees Pooh meet the Queen at Buckingham Palace. The illustrated and audio adventure is narrated by the actor Jim Broadbent. Also in 2016, a new character, a Penguin, was unveiled in The Best Bear in All the World, which was inspired by a long-lost photograph of Milne and his son Christopher with a toy penguin.
The composer Harold Fraser-Simson, a near neighbor, produced six books of Milne songs between 1924 and 1932. The poems have been parodied many times, including with the books When We Were Rather Older and Now We Are Sixty. The 1963 film The King's Breakfast was based on Milne's poem of the same name.
Milne has been portrayed in television and film. Domhnall Gleeson plays him in Goodbye Christopher Robin, a 2017 biographical drama film. In the 2018 fantasy film Christopher Robin, an extension of the Disney Winnie the Pooh franchise, Tristan Sturrock plays Milne, and filming took place at Ashdown Forest.
An elementary school in Houston, Texas, operated by the Houston Independent School District (HISD), is named after Milne. The school, A. A. Milne Elementary School in Brays Oaks, opened in 1991.
The bulk of A. A. Milne's papers are housed at the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin. The collection, established at the center in 1964, consists of manuscript drafts and fragments for over 150 of Milne's works, as well as correspondence, legal documents, genealogical records, and some personal effects. The library division holds several books formerly belonging to Milne and his wife Dorothy. The center also has small collections of correspondence from Christopher Robin Milne and Milne's frequent illustrator E. H. Shepard.
Religious views edit
Milne did not speak out much on the subject of religion, although he used religious terms to explain his decision, while remaining a pacifist, to join the British Home Guard. He wrote: "In fighting Hitler we are truly fighting the Devil, the Anti-Christ ... Hitler was a crusader against God."
His best known comment on the subject was recalled on his death:
The Old Testament is responsible for more atheism, agnosticism, disbelief – call it what you will – than any book ever written; it has emptied more churches than all the counter-attractions of cinema, motor bicycle and golf course.
He wrote in the poem "Explained":
Said to her Nan:
"Please will you tell me how God began?
Somebody must have made Him. So
Who could it be, 'cos I want to know?"
He also wrote in the poem "Vespers":
"Oh! Thank you, God, for a lovely day.
And what was the other I had to say?
I said "Bless Daddy," so what can it be?
Oh! Now I remember it. God bless Me."
- Lovers in London (1905. Some consider this more of a short story collection; Milne did not like it and considered The Day's Play as his first book.)
- Once on a Time (1917)
- Mr. Pim (1921) (A novelisation of his 1919 play Mr. Pim Passes By)
- The Red House Mystery (1922). Serialised: London (Daily News), serialised daily from 3 to 28 August 1921
- Two People (1931) (Inside jacket claims this is Milne's first attempt at a novel.)
- Four Days' Wonder (1933)
- Chloe Marr (1946)
- Peace With Honour (1934)
- It's Too Late Now: The Autobiography of a Writer (1939)
- War With Honour (1940)
- War Aims Unlimited (1941)
- Year In, Year Out (1952) (illustrated by E. H. Shepard)
Punch articles edit
- The Day's Play (1910)
- The Holiday Round (1912)
- Once a Week (1914)
- The Sunny Side (1921)
- Those Were the Days (1929) [The four volumes above, compiled]
Newspaper articles and book introductions edit
- The Chronicles of Clovis by "Saki" (1911) [Introduction to]
- Not That It Matters (1919)
- If I May (1920)
- By Way of Introduction (1929)
- Women and Children First!. John Bull, 10 November 1934
- It Depends on the Book (1943, in September issue of Red Cross Newspaper The Prisoner of War)
Story collections for children edit
- A Gallery of Children (1925)
- Winnie-the-Pooh (1926) (illustrated by Ernest H. Shepard)
- The House at Pooh Corner (1928) (illustrated by E. H. Shepard)
- Short Stories
Poetry collections for children edit
- When We Were Very Young (1924) (illustrated by E. H. Shepard)
- Now We Are Six (1927) (illustrated by E. H. Shepard)
Story collections edit
- The Secret and other stories (1929)
- The Birthday Party (1948)
- A Table Near the Band (1950)
- When We Were Very Young (1924) (illustrated by E. H. Shepard)
- For the Luncheon Interval (1925) [poems from Punch]
- Now We Are Six (1927) (illustrated by E. H. Shepard)
- Behind the Lines (1940)
- The Norman Church (1948)
Screenplays and plays edit
- Wurzel-Flummery (1917)
- Belinda (1918)
- The Boy Comes Home (1918)
- Make-Believe (1918) (children's play)
- The Camberley Triangle (1919)
- Mr. Pim Passes By (1919)
- The Red Feathers (1920)
- The Romantic Age (1920)
- The Stepmother (1920)
- The Truth About Blayds (1920)
- The Bump (1920, Minerva Films), starring C. Aubrey Smith and Faith Celli
- Twice Two (1920, Minerva Films)
- Five Pound Reward (1920, Minerva Films)
- Bookworms (1920, Minerva Films)
- The Great Broxopp (1921)
- The Dover Road (1921)
- The Lucky One (1922)
- The Truth About Blayds (1922)
- The Artist: A Duologue (1923)
- Give Me Yesterday (1923) (a.k.a. Success in the UK)
- Ariadne (1924)
- The Man in the Bowler Hat: A Terribly Exciting Affair (1924)
- To Have the Honour (1924)
- Portrait of a Gentleman in Slippers (1926)
- Success (1926)
- Miss Marlow at Play (1927)
- Winnie the Pooh. Written specially by Milne for a 'Winnie the Pooh Party' in aid of the National Mother-Saving Campaign, and performed once at Seaford House on 17 March 1928
- The Fourth Wall or The Perfect Alibi (1928) (later adapted for the film Birds of Prey (1930), directed by Basil Dean)
- The Ivory Door (1929)
- Toad of Toad Hall (1929) (adaptation of The Wind in the Willows)
- Michael and Mary (1930)
- Other People's Lives (1933) (a.k.a. They Don't Mean Any Harm)
- Miss Elizabeth Bennet (1936) [based on Pride and Prejudice]
- Sarah Simple (1937)
- Gentleman Unknown (1938)
- The General Takes Off His Helmet (1939) in The Queen's Book of the Red Cross
- The Ugly Duckling (1941)
- Before the Flood (1951).
- "A.A. Milne | British author". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
- "The bear who inspired Winnie-the-Pooh". Zoological Society of London. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
- "A A Milne's Winnie-the-Pooh goes to London". Trinity College Cambridge. 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2023.
- "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/35031. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Thwaite, Ann. A.A. Milne: His Life. London: Faber and Faber, 1990. ISBN 0571138888 p. 8
- Thwaite, Ann (January 2008). "Milne, Alan Alexander (1882–1956)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/35031. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- "Hampstead: Education". A History of the County of Middlesex. 9: 159–169. 1989. Retrieved 9 June 2008.
- "Milne, Alan Alexander (MLN900AA)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
- "What is the connection between Peter Pan, Sherlock Holmes, Winnie the Pooh and the noble sport of cricket?. BBC. Retrieved 25 November 2014
- Parkinson, Justin (26 July 2014). "Authors and actors revive cricket rivalry". BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
- "No. 29070". The London Gazette. 16 February 1915. p. 1563.
- London Gazette. issue 29408 17 December 1915. Retrieved 26 February 2015
- Thwaite, Ann. A.A. Milne: His Life. London: Faber and Faber, 1990. ISBN 0571138888 pp. 172–185
- Finch, Christopher (2000). Disney's Winnie the Pooh: A Celebration of the Silly Old Bear. Disney Editions. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-7868-6352-5.
- Davidson, Max (27 March 2013). "For sale: Winnie-the-Pooh creator A A Milne's home". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 28 March 2013.
- "No. 31786". The London Gazette (Supplement). 17 February 1920. p. 2036.
- "'Winnie the Pooh' has an enchanting heritage". Licensing source. Retrieved 16 June 2022.
- Capitalization as in the British Library Catalogue
- "The Art of Fiction – P.G. Wodehouse" (PDF). The Paris Review. 2005. p. 18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2008.
- "Cotchford Farm". National Monument Records. English Heritage. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- "Letter La Z 5 July 1917 – John Middleton Murry to Beatrice Elvery". George Lazarus Collection. 12 August 1953. Retrieved 9 June 2008.
- Jill C. Wheeler (2010). "A. A. Milne." p. 21. ABDO Publishing Company,
- Milne, A. A. (August 1904). "Lillian's Loves". Punch, or the London Charivari. 127 (24 August 1904): 142.
- Milne, A. A. (November 1904). "Answers to [Fictional] Correspondents". Punch, or the London Charivari. 127 (9 November 1904): 333.
- "A. A. Milne". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2008.
- Eforgan, E. (2010). Leslie Howard: The Lost Actor. ISBN 978-0-85303-971-6.
- Thomas Burnett Swann (1971). A. A. Milne. Twayne Publishers. p. 41. ISBN 978-0805713961.
- Milne, Alan Alexander (1926) . "Introduction (dated April 1926)". The Red House Mystery. London: Methuen. pp. ix–xii.
- "V&A · Winnie-the-Pooh: Exploring a Classic". Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
- "The Adventures of the REAL Winnie-the-Pooh". The New York Public Library. Archived from the original on 15 July 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- Ford, Rebecca (28 February 2007) "Happy Birthday Pooh", Daily Express. Retrieved 15 October 2011
- "Pooh celebrates his 80th birthday". BBC. Retrieved 11 November 2012
- Plans to improve access to Pooh Bridge unveiled. BBC. Retrieved 15 October 2011
- "Celebrate Winnie-The-Pooh's 90th with a Rare Recording (And Hunny)". NPR. 20 July 2015.
- David A Jasen (2002). P.G. Wodehouse: A Portrait of a Master. London: Music Sales Group. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-85712-754-9.
- Award List. "Lewis Carroll Shelf Award Winners," Lewis Carroll Shelf Award Collection, Living Arts Corporation, Loveland, Colorado.
- "AA Milne and the curse of Pooh bear". BBC. Retrieved 3 May 2023.
- Alan Hedblad (1998). "Something about the Author, Volume 100." p. 177. Gale,
- Jill C. Wheeler (2010). "A. A. Milne." p. 19. ABDO Publishing Company,
- "Catalog of Copyright Entries. New Series: 1940–1943, Part 1." p. 449. Copyright Office, Library of Congress, 1940
- Milne, Christopher (1974). The Enchanted Places. London: Eyre Methuen. ISBN 978-0-14-003449-3.
- Brandreth, Giles. "The real Christopher Robin". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
- Boyce, Frank Cottrell (23 September 2017). "AA Milne, Christopher Robin and the curse of Winnie-the-Pooh". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
- "Happy birthday, A.A. Milne!". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 14 November 2014
- Thwaite, Ann (2014). A. A. Milne His Life. Pan Macmillan.
- Treneman, Ann (4 August 1998). "A bit of a stink at the Garrick over Winnie the Pooh's pot of money". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
- "Walt Disney secures rights to Winnie the Pooh". The Guardian. London. 6 March 2001. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
- "Pooh pictures sell for £1.2m at auction". Metro (London). 18 December 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2012
- "Top-Earning Fictional Characters". Forbes (New York). 25 September 2003. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- "Pooh joins Hollywood Walk of Fame". BBC. Retrieved 24 November 2014
- "The Big Read", BBC, April 2003. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- "Winnie the Pooh meets the Queen in a new story". BBC News. 19 September 2016.
- "Listen to the moment Winnie-the-Pooh meets penguin friend in new book". BBC News. 19 September 2016.
- Kennedy, Maev (3 September 2017). "Winnie-the-Pooh heads to V&A for big winter exhibition". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
- Kennedy, Maev (4 December 2017). "Winnie-the-Pooh heads to the V&A in London for bear-all exhibition". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
- 'Enchanted Places – Complete Settings of Songs by A.A. Milne', reviewed at MusicWeb International, 7 November 2023
- "The King's Breakfast (1963)". BFI. Retrieved 4 January 2020
- Jaafar, Ali (13 April 2016). "'Star Wars' Domhnall Gleeson in Talks To Play Winnie The Pooh Creator AA Milne In 'Goodbye Christopher Robin'". Deadline. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
- Daniels, Nia (9 August 2017). "Disney's Christopher Robin starts filming in the UK". KFTV. Media Business Insight. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
- "About A. A. Milne". A. A. Milne Elementary School. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
- "BO_PublicSchool_Ltr_Sep24_2018.pdf". Brays Oaks Management District. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
- "Elementary Schools (K-Z)". Houston Independent School District. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
- "Janus: Milne, Alan Alexander (1882–1956) poet and playwright". janus.lib.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
- "A. A. (Alan Alexander) Milne: An Inventory of His Collection in the Manuscript Collection at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center". norman.hrc.utexas.edu. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
- "University of Texas Libraries / HRC". catalog.lib.utexas.edu. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
- Milne, Alan Alexander (1940). War with Honour. London: Macmillan. pp. 16–17.
- Simpson, James B. (1988). Simpson's Contemporary Quotations. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-43085-2. Archived from the original on 22 January 2009.
- Milne, A. A. (2009). The Winnie-the-Pooh Collection Set. illustrated by E.H. Shepard. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-525-42292-1.
- Milne, A. A. (1943). "It depends on the book". Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
- (London) Daily News, 9 March 1928
Further reading edit
- Thwaite, Ann. A.A. Milne: His Life. London: Faber and Faber, 1990. ISBN 0571138888
- Toby, Marlene. A.A. Milne, Author of Winnie-the-Pooh. Chicago: Children's Press, 1995. ISBN 051604270X
- Wullschläger, Jackie (2001) . Inventing Wonderland: The Lives of Lewis Carroll, Edward Lear, J. M. Barrie, Kenneth Grahame, and A. A. Milne. London: Methuen. ISBN 978-0-413-70330-9.
- A. A. Milne Collection at the Harry Ransom Center
- Ann Thwaite Collection of A. A. Milne at the Harry Ransom Center
- Works by A. A. Milne in eBook form at Standard Ebooks
- Works by A. A. Milne at Project Gutenberg
- Works by A. A. Milne at Faded Page (Canada)
- Works by A. A. Milne at BiblioWiki (Canada) includes the complete text of the four Pooh books
- Works by or about A. A. Milne at Internet Archive
- Works by A. A. Milne at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Portraits of A. A. Milne in the National Portrait Gallery
- Essays by Milne at Quotidiana.org
- Milne extract in The Guardian
- Profile Archived 30 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine at Just-Pooh.com
- A. A. Milne at poeticous.com
- A. A. Milne at IMDb
- AA Milne | Books | The Guardian
- Finding aid to the A.A. Milne letters at Columbia University Rare Book & Manuscript Library