Kenneth Grahame (// GRAY-əm; 8 March 1859 – 6 July 1932) was a Scottish writer, most famous for The Wind in the Willows (1908), one of the classics of children's literature. He also wrote The Reluctant Dragon. Both books were later adapted for stage and film, of which A. A. Milne's Toad of Toad Hall was the first. The Disney films The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad and The Reluctant Dragon are other adaptations.
Kenneth Grahame in 1910
|Born||8 March 1859|
Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
|Died||6 July 1932 (aged 73)|
Pangbourne, Berkshire, England, UK
|Notable works||The Wind in the Willows (1908)|
Kenneth Grahame was born on 8 March 1859 in Edinburgh, Scotland. When he was a little more than a year old, his father, an advocate, received an appointment as sheriff-substitute in Argyllshire at Inveraray on Loch Fyne. Kenneth loved the sea and was happy there, but when he was five, his mother died of puerperal fever, and his father, who had a drinking problem, gave over care of Kenneth, his brother Willie, his sister Helen and the new baby Roland to Granny Ingles, the children's grandmother, in Cookham Dean in the village of Cookham in Berkshire.
There the children lived in a spacious, if dilapidated, home, The Mount, on spacious grounds in idyllic surroundings, and were introduced to the riverside and boating by their uncle, David Ingles, curate at Cookham Dean church. This ambiance, particularly Quarry Wood and the River Thames, is believed, by Peter Green, his biographer, to have inspired the setting for The Wind in the Willows. He was an outstanding pupil at St Edward's School in Oxford. During his early years at St Edwards, a sports regimen had not been established and the boys had freedom to explore the old city with its quaint shops, historic buildings, and cobblestone streets, St Giles' Fair, the upper reaches of the Thames, and the nearby countryside.
Grahame wanted to attend Oxford University, but was not allowed to do so by his guardian on grounds of cost. Instead he was sent to work at the Bank of England in 1879, and rose through the ranks until retiring as its Secretary in 1908 due to ill health, which may have been precipitated by a strange, possibly political, shooting incident at the bank in 1903. Grahame was shot at three times, all shots missing. An alternative explanation, given in a letter on display in the Bank museum, is that he had quarrelled with Walter Cunliffe, one of the bank's directors, who would later become Governor of the Bank of England, in the course of which he was heard to say that Cunliffe was "no gentleman", and that his retirement was enforced ostensibly on health grounds. He was awarded an annual pension of £400 but a worked example on display indicates he was actually due £710.
Marriage and fatherhoodEdit
Grahame married Elspeth Thomson in 1899; they had only one child, a boy named Alastair (whose nickname was "Mouse") born blind in one eye and plagued by health problems throughout his short life. On Grahame's retirement, they returned to Cookham where he had lived as a child, and lived at Mayfield, now Herries Preparatory School, where he turned the bedtime stories he told Alastair into his masterpiece. Alastair eventually committed suicide on a railway track while an undergraduate at Oxford University, five days before his 20th birthday on 7 May 1920. Out of respect for Grahame, Alastair's demise was recorded as an accidental death.
Literary scholars and historians now consider that Grahame may have been homosexual. According to Cardiff University Professor Emeritus Peter Hunt, Grahame shared a house in London with set designer Walford Graham Robertson, while Grahame's wife and son lived in Berkshire.
Grahame died in Pangbourne, Berkshire, in 1932. He is buried in Holywell Cemetery, Oxford. Grahame's cousin Anthony Hope, also a successful author, wrote his epitaph, which reads: "To the beautiful memory of Kenneth Grahame, husband of Elspeth and father of Alastair, who passed the river on the 6th of July, 1932, leaving childhood and literature through him the more blest for all time."
While still a young man in his 20s, Grahame began to publish light stories in London periodicals such as the St. James Gazette. Some of these stories were collected and published as Pagan Papers in 1893, and, two years later, The Golden Age. These were followed by Dream Days in 1898, which contains The Reluctant Dragon.
There is a ten-year gap between Grahame's penultimate book and the publication of his triumph, The Wind in the Willows. During this decade, Grahame became a father. The wayward, headstrong nature he saw in his little son Alastair he transformed into the swaggering Mr. Toad, one of its four principal characters. The character in the book known as Ratty was inspired by his good friend, and writer, Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch. Grahame mentions this in a signed copy he gave to Quiller-Couch's daughter, Foy Felicia. Despite its success, he never attempted a sequel. The book is still widely enjoyed by adults and children today, also in films, while Toad remains one of the most celebrated and beloved characters. In 1929, A. A. Milne wrote the play Toad of Toad Hall, which is based on part of The Wind in the Willows. The Wind in the Willows won the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award in 1958. In the 1990s, William Horwood produced with a series of sequels.
- Peter Hunt, "Grahame, Kenneth (1859–1932)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, UK: OUP, 2004) retrieved 8 July 2016.
- Green, Peter (1983). "Chapter 1: Dragons and Pterodactyles 1859–67". Beyond the Wild Wood: The World of Kenneth Grahame Author of The Wind in the Willows. New York: Facts on File. pp. 9–24. ISBN 0-87196-740-5.
- Green, Peter (1983). "Chapter 2: The Spell of Oxford". Beyond the Wild Wood: The World of Kenneth Grahame Author of The Wind in the Willows. New York: Facts on File. pp. 29–40. ISBN 0-87196-740-5.
- "From Quill Pen to Computer: The Bank of England's Staff from 1694". Bank of England Museum. Archived from the original on 21 February 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
- John Preston (8 February 2008). "Kenneth Grahame: Lost in the wild wood". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
- "Bank of England Museum". Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- Robin & Valerie Bootle (1990). The Story of Cookham. private, Cookham. p. 188. ISBN 0-9516276-0-0.
- "Biography". Kenneth Grahame Society. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
- Robb, Graham (2004). Strangers: Homosexual Love in the Nineteenth Century. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 217.
- McCormick, Joseph Patrick (2018-01-28). "Scholar says The Wind in the Willows can be read as a "gay manifesto"". PinkNews. Retrieved 2018-01-29.
- Carpenter, Humphrey; Mari Prichard (1991). The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 216–219. ISBN 0-19-211582-0.
- Auctioned by Bonhams on Tuesday 23 March 2010 for £32,400: Flood, Alison (24 March 2010). "First edition of The Wind in the Willows sells for £32,400". guardian.co.uk. Archived from the original on 26 March 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
- "Newsweek's Top 100 Books: The Meta-List". Retrieved 3 June 2010.
- Green, Peter, the historian of Hellenistic Greece, wrote a biography of Grahame, Kenneth Grahame 1859–1932. A Study of His Life, Work and Times in 1959, with black and white illustrations, and subsequently wrote the introduction to the Oxford World's Classics edition of The Wind in the Willows. Several abridged versions of the biography with added color illustrations were published in the United States and Britain 1982 to 1993 under the title Beyond the Wild Wood: The World of Kenneth Grahame Author of The Wind in the Willows ISBN 0-87196-740-5 and ISBN 1-85627-336-9
- Grahame, K, The Annotated Wind in the Willows, edited with preface and notes by Annie Gauger and Brian Jacques, Norton, ISBN 978-0-393-05774-4.
- Grahame, K, The Wind in the Willows: An Annotated Edition, edited by Seth Lerer. Belknap Press / Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-03447-1.
- Prince, Alison: Kenneth Grahame: An Innocent in the Wild Wood (London: Allison & Busby, 1994) ISBN 0-85031-829-7
- Wullschläger, Jackie (2001) . Inventing Wonderland: The Lives of Lewis Carroll, Edward Lear, J. M. Barrie, Kenneth Grahame, and A. A. Milne. London: Methuen. ISBN 978-0-413-70330-9.
- www.kennethgrahamesociety.net – online literary society focusing on the life and works of Kenneth Grahame
- Works by Kenneth Grahame at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Kenneth Grahame at Internet Archive
- Works by Kenneth Grahame at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- The Killing of Mr Toad – play by David Gooderson about the moving Grahame family story and its resonances with The Wind in the Willows
- Plaque to Kenneth Grahame at Blewbury (Oxfordshire Blue Plaques Board)
- Kenneth Grahame at Find a Grave
- Kenneth Grahame at Library of Congress Authorities, with 222 catalogue records
- Messing About in Boats – amateur boating and boat-building magazine whose name quotes a well-known remark by Ratty to Mole in The Wind in the Willows: "Believe me, my young friend, there is nothing – absolutely nothing – half so much worth doing as simply messing about in boats."