Timeline of computing 2020–present

This article presents a detailed timeline of events in the history of computing from 2020 to the present. For narratives explaining the overall developments, see the history of computing.

Significant events in computing include events relating directly or indirectly to software, hardware and wetware. Mostly[clarification needed] excluded are:

  • events in general robotics
  • events about uses of computational tools in biotechnology and similar fields (except for improvements to the underlying computational tools) as well as events in media-psychology except when those are directly linked to computational tools

Currently excluded are:

Growth of supercomputer performance, based on data from the top500.org website. The logarithmic y-axis shows performance in GFLOPS.
  Combined performance of 500 largest supercomputers
  Fastest supercomputer
  Supercomputer in 500th place
Share of operating systems families in TOP500 supercomputers by time trend
Usage share of web browsers in November 2020 according to StatCounter

2023 edit

AI edit

 
Combining GPT-4 and Stable Diffusion to generate art from sketches[1]
  • Chatbot and text-generating AI, ChatGPT (released on 30 Nov 2022), a large language model, became popular, with some considering the large public's attention as unwarranted hype as potential applications are limited. Similar software such as Cleverbot existed for many years, and the software is, on the fundamental level, not structured toward accuracy – e.g. providing seemingly credible but incorrect answers to queries and operating "without a contextual understanding of the language" – but only toward essentially the authenticity of mimicked human language.[2][3][4][5][6] It was estimated that only two months after its launch, it had 100 million active users.[7] Applications may include solving or supporting school writing assignments,[8] malicious social bots (e.g. for misinformation, propaganda, and scams),[9][10] and providing inspiration (e.g. for artistic writing or in design or ideation in general).[11][12]
  • Further LLM developments during what has been called an "AI boom" included: local or open source versions of LLaMA which was leaked in March,[24][25][26] news outlets reported on GPT4-based Auto-GPT that given natural language commands uses the Internet and other tools in attempts to understand and achieve its tasks with unclear or so-far little practicality,[27] a systematic evaluation of answers from four "generative search engines" suggested their outputs "appear informative, but frequently contain unsupported statements and inaccurate citations",[28] a multi-modal open source tool for understanding and generating speech,[29] a data scientist argued that "researchers need to collaborate to develop open-source LLMs that are transparent" and independent,[30] Stability AI launched an open source LLM.[31]
 
AI Descartes system overview[79]
  • Researchers demonstrated an open source 'AI scientist' that can create models of natural phenomena from knowledge axioms and experimental data, showing the software can rediscover physical laws like "Kepler's third law of planetary motion, Einstein's relativistic time-dilation law, and Langmuir's theory of adsorption" using logical reasoning and a few data points.[80][79]
 
The fMRI machine used for brain-reading
  • Researchers demonstrated a non-invasive brain-reading method. It can translate a person's neural activity into a continuous stream of text using fMRI data and transformer machine learning. Prior training data is required for this semantic decoding. Participants listened to stories for 16 hours while their brain activity was recorded.[81]
  • A new AI algorithm developed by Baidu was shown to boost the antibody response of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines by 128 times.[82]
 
Outline of the study's open source virtual brain model.[83]
  • A machine learning model is trained to recognise the key features of chemicals with senolytic activity. It finds three chemicals – ginkgetin, periplocin and oleandrin – able to remove senescent cells without damaging healthy cells.[86][87]
  • Articles in science outlets like Nature suggest contemporary viral concerns about hypothetical existential risk of AI "plays into the tech companies' agenda" – partly in the form of 'criti-hype'[88] – and that this "hinders effective regulation of the societal harms AI is causing right now" and in the near-future.[89]
  • A science writer provides an overview of "the nascent industry of AI-designed drugs".[90]
 
Illustration of "thought cloning"
  • A preprint introduces the concept of "thought cloning" by which AI use data of or imitate human thinking.[91]
  • Metaresearchers showed that AI trained with study-author-networks data could generate scientifically promising "alien" hypotheses that would likely not be considered otherwise.[92]
  • A study provides an overview and living review of open source LLMs, assessing the levels of openness of their differentiated elements and reviewing the risks of relying on proprietary software or the importance of open source AI.[93]
 
Summary of the Med-PaLM MMed-PaLM M training data


Software-hardware systems edit

Software edit

Hardware and wetware edit

 
Scientists coin and outline a new field 'organoid intelligence' (OI)
 
Bioinspired neuromorphic motion-cognition nerve in comparison with an ocular-vestibular cross-modal sensory nerve of macaques[166]
 
"BacCam" demonstrates encoding and storing data into bacterial DNA without new DNA synthesis by recording light exposure.

2022 edit

AI edit

 
AI company DeepMind reported that its AlphaFold program had determined the likely structure of nearly every protein known to science.
 
Deep learning systems learn intuitive basic physics similar to infants and any physics via potential variables-identification from only visual data (of virtual 3D environments).

Software-hardware systems edit

 
The overall process of testing the reproducibility and robustness of the cancer biology literature via Eve[197]

Software edit

 
Measured results of the study about change in intelligence in children 9–12 from screen time watching, screen time socializing and screen time gaming.[234]
  • Teaching hospital press release: "New AI technology integrates multiple data types to predict cancer outcomes". Brigham and Women's Hospital via medicalxpress.com. Retrieved September 18, 2022.</ref>
  • News outlets reported that in July, for the first time, more people watched streaming TV than cable within the U.S.[globalize].[253][254]
  • A researcher reported that the social media app TikTok adds a keylogger to its, on iOS essentially unavoidable, in-app browser in iOS, which allows its Chinese company to gather, for example, passwords, credit card details, and everything else that is typed into websites opened from taps on any external links within the app. Shortly after the report, the company claimed such capabilities are only used for debugging-types of purposes.[255][256] To date, it has largely not been investigated which and to which extent (other) apps have capacities for such or similar data-collection.[255][256][additional citation(s) needed]
  • A university reported the development of a driver isolation framework to protect operating system kernels, primarily the monolithic Linux kernel which gets ~80,000 commits/year to its drivers,[image needed] from defects and vulnerabilities in device drivers,[257][258] with the Mars Research Group developers describing this lack of isolation as one of the main factors undermining kernel security.[259]
  • A study concluded that advanced artificial intelligence with learned goal planning would or may intervene in the provision of reward to short-circuit reward via advanced exploits of ambiguity in the data about its goal such as considering the sending of the reward itself as humans' goal and intervening in the data-provision about its goal.[260][261]
~August: Artificial intelligence art became highly sophisticated and popular and started winning art prizes. The two images are made via the open source Stable Diffusion.

Hardware edit

2021 edit

 
A study found that carbon emissions from Bitcoin mining in China – where a majority of the proof-of-work algorithm that generates current economic value is computed, largely fueled by nonrenewable sources – have accelerated rapidly and would soon exceed total annual emissions of countries like Italy, interfering with climate change mitigation commitments.
  • A study found that carbon emissions from Bitcoin mining in China – where a majority of the proof-of-work algorithm that generates current economic value is computed, largely fueled by nonrenewable sources – had accelerated rapidly and would soon exceed total annual emissions of countries like Italy, interfering with climate change mitigation commitments.[322][323]
  • Neuralink revealed a male macaque with chips embedded on each side of its brain, playing a mind-controlled version of Pong. While similar technology has been demonstrated for decades, and wireless implants have existed for years, some observers noted that the organization increased the number of implanted electrodes that are read wirelessly.[324][325][326]
  • Scientists reviewed materials strategies for organic neuromorphic devices, suggesting that "their biocompatibility and mechanical conformability give them an advantage for creating adaptive biointerfaces, brain-machine interfaces, and biology-inspired prosthetics".[327][328][relevant?]
 
Researchers published the first in-depth study of Web browser tab interfaces.
  • Researchers published the first in-depth study of Web browser tab interfaces. They found that many people struggle with tab overload and conducted surveys and interviews about people's tab use. Thereby they formalized pressures for closing tabs and for keeping tabs open. The authors then developed related UI design considerations which could enable better tools and changes to the code of Web browsers – like Firefox – that allow knowledge workers and other users to better manage their tabs.[329][330]
  • Operation of the U.S. Colonial Pipeline was interrupted by a ransomware cyber attack.[331]
  • A new record for the smallest single-chip system was achieved, occupying a total volume of less than 0.1 mm³.[332][333]
 
Scientists demonstrated the first brain–computer interface that decodes neural signals for handwriting and has a record output speed of up to 90 characters per minute – more than double the previous record.
 
Scientists debated the research cognitive impacts of smartphones and digital technology in general and by prevalent forms of use.
  • In the debate regarding the cognitive impacts of smartphones and digital technology, a group reported that, contrary to widespread belief, scientific evidence does not show that these technologies harm biological cognitive abilities and that they instead change predominant ways of cognition – such as a reduced need to remember facts or conduct mathematical calculations by pen and paper outside contemporary schools. However, some activities – like reading novels – that require long attention-spans and don't feature ongoing rewarding stimulation may become more challenging in general.[347][348]
  • Open 3D Engine – a game engine that is free and open source software (FOSS) and has GNU/Linux support – was released.[349]
  • Researchers used a brain–computer interface to enable a man who was paralyzed since 2003 to produce comprehensible words and sentences by decoding signals from electrodes in the speech areas of his brain.[350][351]
  • Japan achieved a new world record Internet speed: 319 Tbit/s over ~3000 km which, albeit not being the fastest speed overall, beats the previous record of 178 Tbit/s.[352][353]
  • Scientists reported that worldwide adolescent loneliness and depression increased substantially after 2012 and that loneliness in contemporary schools appears to be associated with smartphone access and Internet use.[354][355]
 
DeepMind's AlphaFold AI predicted the structures of over 350,000 proteins, including 98.5% of the ~20,000 proteins in the human body, along with degrees of confidence for accuracy.
  • DeepMind announced that its AlphaFold AI had predicted the structures of over 350,000 proteins, including 98.5% of the ~20,000 proteins in the human body. The 3D data along with their degrees of confidence for accuracy was made freely available with a database, doubling the previous number of protein structures in the public domain.[356]
  • Scientists published the first complete neuron-level-resolution 3D map of a monkey brain which they scanned within 100 hours.[357][358]
 
A researcher reported that solar superstorms would cause large-scale global months-long Internet outages.
 
Researchers developed machine learning models for genome-based early detection and prioritization of high-risk potential zoonotic viruses.
 
Schema of how the open database, interactive visualization tools, protocols and a metadata ontology for reporting device data, open-source code for data analysis, etc. can support perovskite solar cell development[387]
  • Researchers reported the development of a database and analysis tool about perovskite solar cells which systematically integrates over 15,000 publications, in particular device-data about over 42,400 of such photovoltaic devices. Authors described the site – which requires signing up to access the data and uses software that is partly open source but to date not free software[388] – as a participative "Wikipedia for perovskite solar cell research" and suggest that extensively capturing the progress of an entire field including interactive data exploration functionalities could also be applicable to many fields in materials science, engineering and biosciences.[389][387]
  • A third[390] main convergent graphical shell (Maui Shell) and UI framework (MauiKit), based on KDE/Kirigami, for the GNU/Linux operating system on smartphones, desktops and other devices, was released.[391][392][393][394]

2020 edit

Awards and challenges edit

To display all pages, subcategories and images click on the "►":
Computer-related events(11 C, 10 P)
Award / challenge Year Recipient/s / winner/s Description
FSF Free Software Awards – Advancement of Free Software award 2020 Bradley M. Kuhn For his work in enforcing the GNU General Public License (GPL) and promoting copyleft through his position at Software Freedom Conservancy.[427][428]
FSF Free Software Awards – Advancement of Free Software award 2021 Paul Eggert A computer scientist who teaches in the Department of Computer Science at the University of California, Los Angeles, contributor to the GNU operating system for over thirty years and current maintainer of the Time Zone Database.[429][430][431]
FSF Free Software Awards – Social benefit award 2020 CiviCRM Free program that nonprofit organizations around the world use to manage their mailings and contact databases[427][428]
FSF Free Software Awards – Social benefit award 2021 SecuRepairs An association of information security experts who support the right to repair[429][430][431]
FSF Free Software Awards – Award for outstanding new Free Software contributor 2020 Alyssa Rosenzweig Leads the Panfrost project,[432] a project to reverse engineer and implement a free driver for the Mali series of graphics processing units (GPUs) used on a wide variety of single-board computers and mobile phones.[427][428]
FSF Free Software Awards – Award for outstanding new Free Software contributor 2021 Protesilaos Stavrou A philosopher who since 2019 has become a mainstay of the GNU Emacs community through his blog posts, conference talks, livestreams, and code contributions.[429][430][431]

Open policy proposals edit

Deaths edit

2024 edit

2023 edit

2022 edit

2021 edit

2020 edit

Further topics edit

Very broad outlines of topic domains and topics with substantial progress during the decade not yet included above with a Further information: link:

Software edit

COVID-19 edit

Economic events and economics edit

General topics

New releases edit

To display all pages, subcategories and images click on the "►":
2020s software(9 C)
2020s robots(2 C, 2 P)

See also edit

References edit

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