The macaques (// or //) constitute a genus (Macaca) of Old World monkeys of the subfamily Cercopithecinae. The 23 species of macaques are widespread over the Old World, especially Asia. Macaques are principally frugivorous, although their diet also includes seeds, leaves, flowers, and tree bark, and some, such as the crab-eating macaque, subsist on a diet of invertebrates and occasionally small vertebrates. All macaque social groups are arranged around dominant, matriarchal females.
|Bonnet macaque in Manegaon, Maharashtra, India.|
Aside from humans (genus Homo), the macaques are the most widespread primate genus, ranging from Japan to the Indian subcontinent, and in the case of the barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus), to North Africa and Southern Europe. Twenty-three macaque species are currently recognized, including some of the monkeys best known to non-zoologists, such as the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), and the barbary macaque, a colony of which lives on the Rock of Gibraltar. Although several species lack tails, and their common names refer to them as apes, these are true monkeys, with no greater relationship to the true apes than any other Old World monkeys. Instead, this comes from an earlier definition of 'ape' that included primates generally.
Macaques have a very intricate social structure and hierarchy. If a macaque of a lower level in the social chain has eaten berries and none are left for a higher-level macaque, then the one higher in status can, within this social organization, remove the berries from the other monkey's mouth.
Relation with humansEdit
Nearly all (73–100%) pet and captive rhesus macaques are carriers of the herpes B virus. This virus is harmless to macaques, but infections of humans, while rare, are potentially fatal, a risk that makes macaques unsuitable as pets.
The people of Vietnam continue to engage in the hunting, killing, and eating of macaques.
In January 2018, scientists in China reported in the journal Cell the creation of two crab-eating macaque monkey clones, named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua, using the complex DNA transfer method that produced Dolly the sheep, for the first time.
- M. sylvanus group
- Barbary macaque, M. sylvanus
- M. nemestrina group
- Lion-tailed macaque, M. silenus
- Southern pig-tailed macaque or beruk, M. nemestrina
- Northern pig-tailed macaque, M. leonina
- Pagai Island macaque, M. pagensis
- Siberut macaque, M. siberu
- Moor macaque, M. maura
- Booted macaque, M. ochreata
- Tonkean macaque, M. tonkeana
- Heck's macaque, M. hecki
- Gorontalo macaque, M. nigrescens
- Celebes crested macaque, M. nigra
- M. fascicularis group
- M. mulatta group
- M. sinica group
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- macaque pronunciation by Oxford Dictionaries
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- Liu, Zhen; et al. (24 January 2018). "Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer". Cell. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.020. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- Normile, Dennis (24 January 2018). "These monkey twins are the first primate clones made by the method that developed Dolly". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aa1066. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
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- Li, C.; Zhao, C.; Fan, P. (25 Mar 2015). "White-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys): A new macaque species from Modog, southeastern Tibet". American Journal of Primatology. 77: 753–766. doi:10.1002/ajp.22394. PMID 25809642.
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