Brain mapping

Brain mapping is a set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps.

Brain mapping
MeSHD001931

According to the definition established in 2013 by Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT), brain mapping is specifically defined, in summary, as the study of the anatomy and function of the brain and spinal cord through the use of imaging, immunohistochemistry, molecular & optogenetics, stem cell and cellular biology, engineering, neurophysiology and nanotechnology.

OverviewEdit

All neuroimaging is considered part of brain mapping. Brain mapping can be conceived as a higher form of neuroimaging, producing brain images supplemented by the result of additional (imaging or non-imaging) data processing or analysis, such as maps projecting (measures of) behavior onto brain regions (see fMRI). One such map, called a connectogram, depicts cortical regions around a circle, organized by lobes. Concentric circles within the ring represent various common neurological measurements, such as cortical thickness or curvature. In the center of the circles, lines representing white matter fibers illustrate the connections between cortical regions, weighted by fractional anisotropy and strength of connection.[1] At higher resolutions brain maps are called connectomes. These maps incorporate individual neural connections in the brain and are often presented as wiring diagrams.[2]

Brain mapping techniques are constantly evolving, and rely on the development and refinement of image acquisition, representation, analysis, visualization and interpretation techniques.[3] Functional and structural neuroimaging are at the core of the mapping aspect of brain mapping.

Some scientists have criticized the brain image-based claims made in scientific journals and the popular press, like the discovery of "the part of the brain responsible" things like love or musical abilities or a specific memory. Many mapping techniques have a relatively low resolution, including hundreds of thousands of neurons in a single voxel. Many functions also involve multiple parts of the brain, meaning that this type of claim is probably both unverifiable with the equipment used, and generally based on an incorrect assumption about how brain functions are divided. It may be that most brain functions will only be described correctly after being measured with much more fine-grained measurements that look not at large regions but instead at a very large number of tiny individual brain circuits. Many of these studies also have technical problems like small sample size or poor equipment calibration which means they cannot be reproduced - considerations which are sometimes ignored to produce a sensational journal article or news headline. In some cases the brain mapping techniques are used for commercial purposes, lie detection, or medical diagnosis in ways which have not been scientifically validated.[4][page needed]

HistoryEdit

In the late 1980s in the United States, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science was commissioned to establish a panel to investigate the value of integrating neuroscientific information across a variety of techniques.[5][page needed]

Of specific interest is using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion MRI (dMRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG), electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET), Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and other non-invasive scanning techniques to map anatomy, physiology, perfusion, function and phenotypes of the human brain. Both healthy and diseased brains may be mapped to study memory, learning, aging, and drug effects in various populations such as people with schizophrenia, autism, and clinical depression. This led to the establishment of the Human Brain Project.[6][page needed] It may also be crucial to understanding traumatic brain injuries (as in the case of Phineas Gage)[7] and improving brain injury treatment.[8][9]

Following a series of meetings, the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) evolved.[10][page needed] The ultimate goal is to develop flexible computational brain atlases.

AchievementsEdit

The Eyewire Museum is an interactive digital catalog visualizing data of mouse retinal cells.[11]

The interactive and citizen science website Eyewire maps mices' retinal cells and was launched in 2012. In 2021, the most comprehensive 3D map of the human brain was published by an U.S. IT company. It shows neurons and their connections along with blood vessels and other components of a millionth of a brain. For the map, the 1 mm³ sized fragment was sliced into over 5 000 nanometers-thin pieces which were scanned with an electron microscope. The interactive map required 1.4 petabytes of storage-space.[12][13] About two months later, scientists reported that they created the first complete neuron-level-resolution 3D map of a monkey brain which they scanned via a new method within 100 hours. They made only a fraction of the 3D map publicly available as the entire map takes more than 1 petabyte of storage space even when compressed.[14][15]

In 2021, the first connectome that shows how an animal's brain changes throughout its lifetime was reported. Scientists mapped and compared the whole brains of eight isogenic C. elegans worms, each at a different stage of development.[16][17] Later this year, scientists combined electron microscopy and brainbow imaging to show for the first time the development of a mammalian neural circuit. They reported the complete wiring diagrams between the CNS and muscles of ten individual mice.[18]

In August 2021, scientists of the MICrONS program, launched in 2016,[19] published a functional connectomics dataset that "contains calcium imaging of an estimated 75,000 neurons from primary visual cortex (VISp) and three higher visual areas (VISrl, VISal and VISlm), that were recorded while a mouse viewed natural movies and parametric stimuli".[20][21] Based on this data they also published "interactive visualizations of anatomical and functional data that span all 6 layers of mouse primary visual cortex and 3 higher visual areas (LM, AL, RL) within a cubic millimeter volume" – the MICrONS Explorer.[22]

In October 2021, the BRAIN Initiative Cell Census Network (BICCN) concluded the first phase of a long-term project to generate an atlas of the entire mouse (mammalian) brain with 17 studies, including an atlas and census of cell types in the primary motor cortex.[23][24][25]

Current Atlas toolsEdit

Full SBMT definitionEdit

Brain mapping is the study of the anatomy and function of the brain and spinal cord through the use of imaging (including intra-operative, microscopic, endoscopic and multi-modality imaging), immunohistochemistry, molecular & optogenetics, stem cell and cellular biology, engineering (material, electrical and biomedical), neurophysiology and nanotechnology.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Irimia, Andrei; Chambers, Micah C.; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Horn, John D. (2012). "Circular representation of human cortical networks for subject and population-level connectomic visualization". NeuroImage. 60 (2): 1340–51. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.01.107. PMC 3594415. PMID 22305988.
  2. ^ Shi, Y (May 2017). "Connectome imaging for mapping human brain pathways". Nature. 22 (9): 1230–1240. doi:10.1038/mp.2017.92. PMC 5568931. PMID 28461700.
  3. ^ Kambara, T; Sood, S; Alqatan, Z; Klingert, C; Ratnam, D; Hayakawa, A; Nakai, Y; Luat, AF; Agarwal, R; Rothermel, R; Asano, E (2018). "Presurgical language mapping using event-related high-gamma activity: The Detroit procedure". Clin Neurophysiol. 129 (1): 145–154. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2017.10.018. PMC 5744878. PMID 29190521.
  4. ^ Satel, Sally L.; Lilienfeld, Scott O. (2015). Brainwashed: The Seductive Appeal of Mindless Neuroscience. New York: Basic Books (Perseus Book Group). ISBN 978-0465062911.
  5. ^ Pechura, Constance M.; Martin, Joseph B. (1991). Mapping the Brain and Its Functions: Integrating Enabling Technologies Into Neuroscience Research. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on a National Neural Circuitry Database. doi:10.17226/1816. ISBN 978-0-309-04497-4. PMID 25121208.
  6. ^ Koslow, Stephen H.; Huerta, Michael F., eds. (1997). Neuroinformatics: An Overview of the Human Brain Project. Mahwah, New Jersey: L. Eribaum. ISBN 9781134798421.
  7. ^ Van Horn, John Darrell; Irimia, Andrei; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Chambers, Micah C.; Kikinis, Ron; Toga, Arthur W. (2012). Sporns, Olaf (ed.). "Mapping Connectivity Damage in the Case of Phineas Gage". PLOS ONE. 7 (5): e37454. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...737454V. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037454. PMC 3353935. PMID 22616011.
  8. ^ Irimia, Andrei; Chambers, Micah C.; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Filippou, Maria; Hovda, David A.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Gerig, Guido; Toga, Arthur W.; Vespa, Paul M.; Kikinis, Ron; Van Horn, John D. (2012). "Patient-Tailored Connectomics Visualization for the Assessment of White Matter Atrophy in Traumatic Brain Injury". Frontiers in Neurology. 3: 10. doi:10.3389/fneur.2012.00010. PMC 3275792. PMID 22363313.
  9. ^ Mohan, Mohind C (15 March 2021). A Gene Map of Brain Injury Disorders (1 ed.). Academic Press. pp. 123–134. ISBN 9780128219744.
  10. ^ Toga, Arthur W.; Mazziotta, John C., eds. (2002). Brain Mapping: The Methods. Vol. 1. Academic Press (Elsevier Science). ISBN 978-0-12-693019-1.
  11. ^ Bae, J. Alexander; Mu, Shang; Kim, Jinseop S.; Turner, Nicholas L.; Tartavull, Ignacio; Kemnitz, Nico; Jordan, Chris S.; Norton, Alex D.; Silversmith, William M.; Prentki, Rachel; Sorek, Marissa; David, Celia; Jones, Devon L.; Bland, Doug; Sterling, Amy L. R.; Park, Jungman; Briggman, Kevin L.; Seung, H. Sebastian; EyeWirers, The (2017-08-30). "Structural and functional diversity of a dense sample of retinal ganglion cells". bioRxiv: 182758. doi:10.1101/182758. S2CID 214722973. Retrieved 24 June 2021.
  12. ^ "Google and Harvard map brain connections in unprecedented detail". New Atlas. 2021-06-02. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  13. ^ Shapson-Coe, Alexander; Januszewski, Michał; Berger, Daniel R.; Pope, Art; Wu, Yuelong; Blakely, Tim; Schalek, Richard L.; Li, Peter; Wang, Shuohong; Maitin-Shepard, Jeremy; Karlupia, Neha; Dorkenwald, Sven; Sjostedt, Evelina; Leavitt, Laramie; Lee, Dongil; Bailey, Luke; Fitzmaurice, Angerica; Kar, Rohin; Field, Benjamin; Wu, Hank; Wagner-Carena, Julian; Aley, David; Lau, Joanna; Lin, Zudi; Wei, Donglai; Pfister, Hanspeter; Peleg, Adi; Jain, Viren; Lichtman, Jeff W. (2021-05-30). "A connectomic study of a petascale fragment of human cerebral cortex". bioRxiv: 2021.05.29.446289. doi:10.1101/2021.05.29.446289. S2CID 235270687. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  14. ^ "Chinese team hopes high-res image of monkey brain will unlock secrets". South China Morning Post. 1 August 2021. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  15. ^ Xu, Fang; Shen, Yan; Ding, Lufeng; Yang, Chao-Yu; Tan, Heng; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Qingyuan; Xu, Rui; Wu, Fengyi; Xiao, Yanyang; Xu, Cheng; Li, Qianwei; Su, Peng; Zhang, Li I.; Dong, Hong-Wei; Desimone, Robert; Xu, Fuqiang; Hu, Xintian; Lau, Pak-Ming; Bi, Guo-Qiang (26 July 2021). "High-throughput mapping of a whole rhesus monkey brain at micrometer resolution". Nature Biotechnology: 1–8. doi:10.1038/s41587-021-00986-5. ISSN 1546-1696. PMID 34312500.
  16. ^ "Why a tiny worm's brain development could shed light on human thinking". phys.org. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  17. ^ Witvliet, Daniel; Mulcahy, Ben; Mitchell, James K.; Meirovitch, Yaron; Berger, Daniel R.; Wu, Yuelong; Liu, Yufang; Koh, Wan Xian; Parvathala, Rajeev; Holmyard, Douglas; Schalek, Richard L.; Shavit, Nir; Chisholm, Andrew D.; Lichtman, Jeff W.; Samuel, Aravinthan D. T.; Zhen, Mei (August 2021). "Connectomes across development reveal principles of brain maturation". Nature. 596 (7871): 257–261. bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.04.30.066209v3. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03778-8. ISSN 1476-4687.
  18. ^ Meirovitch, Yaron; Kang, Kai; Draft, Ryan W.; Pavarino, Elisa C.; Henao E., Maria F.; Yang, Fuming; Turney, Stephen G.; Berger, Daniel R.; Peleg, Adi; Schalek, Richard L.; Lu, Ju L.; Tapia, Juan-Carlos; Lichtman, Jeff W. (September 2021). "Neuromuscular connectomes across development reveal synaptic ordering rules". bioRxiv. doi:10.1101/2021.09.20.460480. S2CID 237598181.
  19. ^ Cepelewicz, Jordana. "The U.S. Government Launches a $100-Million "Apollo Project of the Brain"". Scientific American. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  20. ^ "This is a map of half a billion connections in a tiny bit of mouse brain". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  21. ^ Consortium, MICrONS; Bae, J. Alexander; Baptiste, Mahaly; Bodor, Agnes L.; Brittain, Derrick; Buchanan, JoAnn; Bumbarger, Daniel J.; Castro, Manuel A.; Celii, Brendan; Cobos, Erick; Collman, Forrest; Costa, Nuno Maçarico da; Dorkenwald, Sven; Elabbady, Leila; Fahey, Paul G.; Fliss, Tim; Froudarakis, Emmanouil; Gager, Jay; Gamlin, Clare; Halageri, Akhilesh; Hebditch, James; Jia, Zhen; Jordan, Chris; Kapner, Daniel; Kemnitz, Nico; Kinn, Sam; Koolman, Selden; Kuehner, Kai; Lee, Kisuk; Li, Kai; Lu, Ran; Macrina, Thomas; Mahalingam, Gayathri; McReynolds, Sarah; Miranda, Elanine; Mitchell, Eric; Mondal, Shanka Subhra; Moore, Merlin; Mu, Shang; Muhammad, Taliah; Nehoran, Barak; Ogedengbe, Oluwaseun; Papadopoulos, Christos; Papadopoulos, Stelios; Patel, Saumil; Pitkow, Xaq; Popovych, Sergiy; Ramos, Anthony; Reid, R. Clay; Reimer, Jacob; Schneider-Mizell, Casey M.; Seung, H. Sebastian; Silverman, Ben; Silversmith, William; Sterling, Amy; Sinz, Fabian H.; Smith, Cameron L.; Suckow, Shelby; Takeno, Marc; Tan, Zheng H.; Tolias, Andreas S.; Torres, Russel; Turner, Nicholas L.; Walker, Edgar Y.; Wang, Tianyu; Williams, Grace; Williams, Sarah; Willie, Kyle; Willie, Ryan; Wong, William; Wu, Jingpeng; Xu, Chris; Yang, Runzhe; Yatsenko, Dimitri; Ye, Fei; Yin, Wenjing; Yu, Szi-chieh (9 August 2021). "Functional connectomics spanning multiple areas of mouse visual cortex". pp. 2021.07.28.454025. doi:10.1101/2021.07.28.454025v2.
  22. ^ "Cortical MM^3". MICrONS Explorer. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  23. ^ "Neuroscientists roll out first comprehensive atlas of brain cells". University of California-Berkeley. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
  24. ^ Edward M. Callaway et al. (October 2021). "A multimodal cell census and atlas of the mammalian primary motor cortex". Nature. 598 (7879): 86–102. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03950-0. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 34616075.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  25. ^ Winnubst, Johan; Arber, Silvia (October 2021). "A census of cell types in the brain's motor cortex". Nature. pp. 33–34. doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02493-8. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
  26. ^ Harvard Whole Brain Atlas Archived 2016-01-18 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ Serag, Ahmed; Aljabar, Paul; Ball, Gareth; Counsell, Serena J.; Boardman, James P.; Rutherford, Mary A.; Edwards, A. David; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Rueckert, Daniel (2012). "Construction of a consistent high-definition spatio-temporal atlas of the developing brain using adaptive kernel regression". NeuroImage. 59 (3): 2255–65. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.09.062. PMID 21985910. S2CID 9747334.

Further readingEdit

  • Rita Carter (1998). Mapping the Mind.
  • F.J. Chen (2006). Brain Mapping And Language
  • F.J. Chen (2006). Focus on Brain Mapping Research.
  • F.J. Chen (2006). Trends in Brain Mapping Research.
  • F.J. Chen (2006). Progress in Brain Mapping Research.
  • Koichi Hirata (2002). Recent Advances in Human Brain Mapping: Proceedings of the 12th World Congress of the International Society for Brain Electromagnetic Topography (ISBET 2001).
  • Konrad Maurer and Thomas Dierks (1991). Atlas of Brain Mapping: Topographic Mapping of Eeg and Evoked Potentials.
  • Konrad Maurer (1989). Topographic Brain Mapping of Eeg and Evoked Potentials.
  • Arthur W. Toga and John C. Mazziotta (2002). Brain Mapping: The Methods.
  • Tatsuhiko Yuasa, James Prichard and S. Ogawa (1998). Current Progress in Functional Brain Mapping: Science and Applications.

External linksEdit