Ethereum is an open-source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform and operating system featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality. It supports a modified version of Nakamoto consensus via transaction based state transitions.
The Ethereum Project's logo, first used in 2014
|Initial release||30 July 2015|
|Written in||Go, C++, Rust|
|Operating system||Clients available for Linux, Windows, macOS, POSIX, Raspbian|
|Platform||x86, AMD64, ARM|
|Type||Decentralized computing, Blockchain, Cryptocurrency|
|License||GPLv3, LGPLv3, MIT|
Ether is a cryptocurrency whose blockchain is generated by the Ethereum platform. Ether can be transferred between accounts and used to compensate participant mining nodes for computations performed. Ethereum provides a decentralized Turing-complete virtual machine, the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which can execute scripts using an international network of public nodes. "Gas", an internal transaction pricing mechanism, is used to mitigate spam and allocate resources on the network.
Ethereum was proposed in late 2013 by Vitalik Buterin, a cryptocurrency researcher and programmer. Development was funded by an online crowdsale that took place between July and August 2014. The system went live on 30 July 2015, with 11.9 million coins "premined" for the crowdsale. This accounts for about 13 percent of the total circulating supply.
In 2016, as a result of the collapse of The DAO project, Ethereum was split into two separate blockchains – the new separate version became Ethereum (ETH), and the original continued as Ethereum Classic (ETC). The value of the Ethereum currency grew over 13,000 percent in 2017.
Vitalik Buterin picked the name Ethereum after browsing Wikipedia articles about elements and science fiction, when he found the name, noting, "I immediately realized that I liked it better than all of the other alternatives that I had seen; I suppose it was the fact that sounded nice and it had the word 'ether', referring to the hypothetical invisible medium that permeates the universe and allows light to travel."
Ethereum was initially described in a white paper by Vitalik Buterin, a programmer involved with Bitcoin Magazine, in late 2013 with a goal of building decentralized applications. Buterin had argued that Bitcoin needed a scripting language for application development. Failing to gain agreement, he proposed development of a new platform with a more general scripting language.:88
At the time of public announcement in January 2014, the core Ethereum team was Vitalik Buterin, Mihai Alisie, Anthony Di Iorio, and Charles Hoskinson. Formal development of the Ethereum software project began in early 2014 through a Swiss company, Ethereum Switzerland GmbH (EthSuisse). Subsequently, a Swiss non-profit foundation, the Ethereum Foundation (Stiftung Ethereum), was created as well. Development was funded by an online public crowdsale during July–August 2014, with the participants buying the Ethereum value token (ether) with another digital currency, bitcoin. While there was early praise for the technical innovations of Ethereum, questions were also raised about its security and scalability.
Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA)
In March 2017, various blockchain start-ups, research groups, and Fortune 500 companies announced the creation of the Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA) with 30 founding members. By May, the nonprofit organization had 116 enterprise members—including ConsenSys, CME Group, Cornell University's research group, Toyota Research Institute, Samsung SDS, Microsoft, Intel, J. P. Morgan, Cooley LLP, Merck KGaA, DTCC, Deloitte, Accenture, Banco Santander, BNY Mellon, ING, and National Bank of Canada. By July 2017, there were over 150 members in the alliance, including recent additions MasterCard, Cisco Systems, and Scotiabank.
|Version||Code name||Release date|
|Old version, no longer supported: 0||Olympic||May, 2015|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1||Frontier||30 July 2015|
|Old version, no longer supported: 2||Homestead||14 March 2016|
|Current stable version: 3||Metropolis (vByzantium)||16 October 2017|
|Future release: 3.5||Metropolis (vConstantinople)||TBA|
|Future release: 4||Serenity||TBA|
Several codenamed prototypes of the Ethereum platform were developed by the Foundation, as part of their Proof-of-Concept series, prior to the official launch of the Frontier network. "Olympic" was the last of these prototypes, and public beta pre-release. The Olympic network provided users with a bug bounty of 25,000 ether for stress testing the limits of the Ethereum blockchain. "Frontier" marked the tentative experimental release of the Ethereum platform in July 2015.
"Homestead" was the first to be considered stable. It includes improvements to transaction processing, gas pricing, and security. Since the initial launch, Ethereum has undergone several planned protocol upgrades, which are important changes affecting the underlying functionality and/or incentive structures of the platform.
"Metropolis Part 1: Byzantium" was launched on October 16, 2017, and included changes to reduce the complexity of the EVM and provide more flexibility for smart contract developers. Byzantium also adds supports for zk-SNARKs (from Zcash); with the first zk-SNARK transaction occurring on testnet on September 19, 2017.
There are at least two other protocol upgrades planned in the future: "Metropolis Part 2: Constantinople" will lay the foundations for the transition to proof-of-stake (Casper), make adjustments to the difficulty time bomb, and add support for account abstraction.
The DAO event
In 2016 a decentralized autonomous organization called The DAO, a set of smart contracts developed on the platform, raised a record US$150 million in a crowdsale to fund the project. The DAO was exploited in June when US$50 million in ether were claimed by an anonymous entity. The event sparked a debate in the crypto-community about whether Ethereum should perform a contentious "hard fork" to reappropriate the affected funds. As a result of the dispute, the network split in two. Ethereum (the subject of this article) continued on the forked blockchain, while Ethereum Classic continued on the original blockchain. The hard fork created a rivalry between the two networks.
After the hard fork related to The DAO, Ethereum subsequently forked twice in the fourth quarter of 2016 to deal with other attacks. By the end of November 2016, Ethereum had increased its DDoS protection, de-bloated the blockchain, and thwarted further spam attacks by hackers.
|10−18||Wei, after cryptocurrency pionneer Wei Dai|
|Coins||Balances from accounts to be debited/credited, in Wei, non-UTXO scheme|
|Issuance||Block and Uncle/Ommer reward|
|Block reward||3 ETH (non-deterministic)|
|Block time||14-15 seconds on average|
|Circulating supply||Ξ98,316,894 (as of 20 March 2018[update])|
|Exchange rate||US$563.13 (as of 20 March 2018[update])|
|Market cap||US$55.37 billion (as of 20 March 2018[update])|
Ether is a fundamental cryptocurrency for operation of Ethereum, which thereby provides a public distributed ledger for transactions. It is used to pay for gas, a unit of computation used in transactions and other state transitions. Mistakingly, this currency is also referred to as Ethereum. It is listed under the code ETH and traded on cryptocurrency exchanges, and the Greek uppercase Xi character (Ξ) is generally used for its currency symbol. It is also used to pay for transaction fees and computational services on the Ethereum network.
As with other cryptocurrencies, the validity of each ether is provided by a blockchain, which is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography. By design, the blockchain is inherently resistant to modification of the data. It is an open, distributed ledger that records transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way. Unlike Bitcoin, Ethereum operates using accounts and balances in a manner called state transitions. This does not rely upon unspent transaction outputs (UTXOs). State denotes the current balances of all accounts and extra data. State is not stored on the blockchain, it is stored in a separate Merkle Patricia tree. A cryptocurrency wallet stores the public and private "keys" or "addresses" which can be used to receive or spend Ether. These can be generated through BIP 39 style mnemonics for a BIP 32 "HD Wallet". In Ethereum, this is unnecessary as it does not operate in a UTXO scheme. With the private key, it is possible to write in the blockchain, effectively making an ether transaction. To send ether to an account, you need the public key of that account. Ether accounts are pseudonymous in that they are not linked to individual persons, but rather to one or more specific addresses. Owners can store these addresses in software, on paper and possibly in memory ("brain wallet").
Ethereum addresses are composed of the prefix "0x", a common identifier for hexadecimal, concatenated with the rightmost 20 bytes of the Keccak-256 hash (big endian) of the ECDSA public key. In hexadecimal, 2 digits represents a byte, meaning addresses contain 40 hexadecimal digits. One example is 0xb794F5eA0ba39494cE839613fffBA74279579268, the Poloniex ColdWallet. Contract addresses are in the same format, however they are determined by sender and creation transaction nonce. User accounts are indistinguishable from contract accounts given only an address for each and no blockchain data. Any valid Keccak-256 hash put into the described format is valid, even if it does not correspond to an account with a private key or a contract. This is unlike Bitcoin, which uses base58check to ensure that addresses are properly typed.
Comparison to bitcoin
- Its block time is 14 to 15 seconds, compared with 10 minutes for bitcoin.
- Mining of ether generates new coins at a usually consistent rate, occasionally changing during hard forks, while for bitcoin the rate halves every 4 years.
- For proof-of-work, it uses the Ethash algorithm which reduces the advantage of specialized ASICs in mining.
- Transaction fees differ by computational complexity, bandwidth use and storage needs (in a system known as gas), while bitcoin transactions compete by means of transaction size, in bytes.
- Ethereum gas units each have a price that can be specified in a transaction. This is typically measured in Gwei. Bitcoin transactions usually have fees specified in satoshis per byte.
- Transaction fees are generally considerably lower for ether than for Bitcoin. In December 2017, the median transaction fee for ether corresponded to $0.33, while for bitcoin it corresponded to $23.
- Ethereum uses an account system where values in Wei are debited from accounts and credited to another, as opposed to Bitcoin's UTXO system, which is more analogous to spending cash and receiving change in return. Both systems have their pros and cons; in terms of storage space, complexity, and security/anonymity.
The total supply of ether was Ξ98 million as of January 2018. In 2017, mining generated 9.2 million new ether, corresponding to a 10% increase in its total supply. Casper FFG and CBC are expected to reduce the inflation rate to between 0.5% to 2%. There is no currently implemented hard cap on the total supply of ETH, but it is expected to end at a certain point, and become deflationary.
Markets and stores
One issue related to using smart contracts on a public blockchain is that bugs, including security holes, are visible to all but cannot be fixed quickly. One example of this is the 17 June 2016 attack on The DAO, which could not be quickly stopped or reversed.
There is ongoing research on how to use formal verification to express and prove non-trivial properties. A Microsoft Research report noted that writing solid smart contracts can be extremely difficult in practice, using The DAO hack to illustrate this problem. The report discussed tools that Microsoft had developed for verifying contracts, and noted that a large-scale analysis of published contracts is likely to uncover widespread vulnerabilities. The report also stated that it is possible to verify the equivalence of a Solidity program and the EVM code.
Ethereum blockchain applications are usually referred to as DApps (decentralized application), since they are based on the decentralized Ethereum Virtual Machine, and its smart contracts. Many uses have been proposed for Ethereum platform, including ones that are impossible or unfeasible. Use case proposals have included finance, the internet-of-things, farm-to-table produce, electricity sourcing and pricing, and sports betting. Ethereum is (as of 2017) the leading blockchain platform for initial coin offering projects, with over 50% market share.
As of January 2018, there are more than 250 live DApps, with hundreds more under development. Project applications listed in this section are not exhaustive and may be outdated.
- Digital signatures that ensure authenticity and proof of existence of documents: the Luxembourg Stock Exchange has developed such a system
- Slock.It is developing smart locks
- Digital tokens pegged to fiat currencies: Dai, stablecoin pegged to US dollar. Decentralized Capital. Spanish bank Santander is also involved in such a project.
- Digital tokens pegged to gold: Digix
- Improved digital rights management for music: Imogen Heap used the technology
- Platforms for prediction markets: Augur, Gnosis Stox
- Platforms for crowdfunding: the DAO
- Social media platforms with economic incentives: Backfeed, Akasha
- Decentralized marketplaces: FreeMyVunk, TransActive Grid
- Remittance: Everex
- Online gambling: CoinPoker,Etheroll
- Electric car charging management: RWE
- Secure identity systems for the Internet: uPort
- Labour economics: Blocklancer, Ethlance
- Video games: CryptoKitties' popularity in December 2017 caused the Ethereum network to slow down.
- Financial exchanges: EverMarkets Exchange, a 'hybrid decentralized' exchange for trading global futures contracts' 
Ethereum-based customized software and networks, independent from the public Ethereum chain, are being tested by enterprise software companies. Interested parties include Microsoft, IBM, JPMorgan Chase, Deloitte, R3, Innovate UK (cross-border payments prototype). Barclays, UBS and Credit Suisse are experimenting with Ethereum blockchain to automate Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) II requirements.
Ethereum-based permissioned blockchain variants are used and being investigated for various projects.
- J. P. Morgan Chase is developing a permissioned-variant of Ethereum blockchain dubbed "Quorum". It's designed to toe the line between private and public in the realm of shuffling derivatives and payments. The idea is to satisfy regulators who need seamless access to financial goings-on, while protecting the privacy of parties that don't wish to reveal their identities nor the details of their transactions to the general public.
- Royal Bank of Scotland has announced that it has built a Clearing and Settlement Mechanism (CSM) based on the Ethereum distributed ledger and smart contract platform.
In Ethereum all smart contracts are stored publicly on every node of the blockchain, which has costs. Being a blockchain means it is secure by design and is an example of a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. The downside is that performance issues arise in that every node is calculating all the smart contracts in real time, resulting in lower speeds. As of January 2016, the Ethereum protocol could process 25 transactions per second. On 19 December 2016, Ethereum exceeded one million transactions in a single day for the first time.
- Micro Raiden was launched November 2017.
- Buterin and Joseph Poon (a co-author of Bitcoin's lightning network whitepaper) announced in 2017 their plan to launch a scaling solution called Plasma which creates "child" blockchains to the "main" parent blockchain. The plasma project has skeptics; specifically, Vlad Zamfir (Ethereum's lead researcher on proof of stake) has publicly questioned the plasma project's viability.
- Ethereum engineers have been working on sharding the calculations, and the next step (called Ethereum 2) was presented at Devcon 3.
Ethereum's blockchain uses Merkle trees, for security reasons, to improve scalability, and to optimize transaction hashing. As with any Merkle tree implementation, it allows for storage savings, set membership proofs (called "Merkle proofs"), and light client synchronization.
Ethereum-based cryptocurrencies that emerged from forking the Ethereum blockchain:
ERC20 tokens that function within the Ethereum ecosystem are also referred as Ethereum tokens.
A finance blogger on FT Alphaville has pointed out that criminals are using Ethereum to run Ponzi schemes and other forms of investment fraud. The article was based on a paper from the University of Cagliari, which placed the number of Ethereum smart contracts which facilitate Ponzi schemes at nearly 10% of 1384 smart contracts examined. However, it also estimated that only 0.05% of the transactions on the network were related to such contracts.
- "ethereum". GitHub. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
- "Go Ethereum GitHub repository". Archived from the original on 3 October 2016.
- Understanding Ethereum (Report). CoinDesk. 24 June 2016.
- Cryptocurrencies: A Brief Thematic Review Archived 25 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine.. Social Science Research Network. Date accessed 28 august 2017.
- ConsenSys (23 June 2016). "Ethereum, Gas, Fuel, & Fees". ConsenSys Media. Archived from the original on 23 May 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- Aitken, Roger (23 April 2016). "Digital Gold 'Done Right' With DigixDAO Crypto-Trading on OpenLedger". Forbes. Archived from the original on 28 April 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- etherchain.org. "Accounts — etherchain.org - The ethereum blockchain explorer". www.etherchain.org. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
- De Jesus, Cecille (19 July 2016). "The DAO Heist Undone: 97% of ETH Holders Vote for the Hard Fork". Futurism, LLC. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
- Quentson, Andrew (17 July 2016). "Miners Vote Overwhelmingly in Support of Ethereum's Hardfork". Cryptocoinnews. Archived from the original on 26 June 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- Bradley, Miles (17 November 2016). "CoinDesk Research: Ethereum Hard Fork Had Little Impact on Sentiment". Coindesk. Archived from the original on 8 July 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "Ethereum hits a fresh record high and is up over 13,000% in a year". CNBC. January 8, 2017.
- Vitalik Buterin (2014). "So where did the name Ethereum come from?".
- "White Paper· ethereum/wiki Wiki · GitHub". Archived from the original on 28 March 2015.
- Finley, Klint (27 January 2014). "Out in the Open: Teenage Hacker Transforms Web Into One Giant Bitcoin Network". Wired. Archived from the original on 18 March 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
- Schneider, Nathan (7 April 2014). "Code your own utopia: Meet Ethereum, bitcoin's most ambitious successor". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 23 February 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- Tapscott, Don; Tapscott, Alex (2016-05-07). The Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin is Changing Money, Business, and the World. Portfolio. ISBN 978-0670069972.
- Vitalik Buterin (23 January 2014). "Ethereum: Now Going Public". Archived from the original on 2 March 2014.
- Schmid, Valentin (10 May 2014). "The Entrepreneur: Joe Lubin, COO of Ethereum". Epoch Times. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- "Company Overview of Ethereum Switzerland GmbH". Bloomberg. 20 August 2016. Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
The company was founded in 2014 and is based in Baar, Switzerland.
- Popper, Nathaniel (27 February 2017). "Business Giants to Announce Creation of a Computing System Based on Ethereum". New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 June 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- Peck, Morgan (2 March 2017). "Corporate Titans Unite to Build an Enterprise Version of the Ethereum Blockchain". Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- "Enterprise Ethereum Alliance expands dramatically announcing 86 new members" (PDF) (Press release). Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA). 19 May 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 June 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- Shin, Laura (22 May 2017). "Ethereum Enterprise Alliance Adds 86 New Members Including DTCC, State Street And Infosys". Forbes. Archived from the original on 22 May 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
- "The Enterprise Ethereum Alliance Just Got A Whole Lot Stronger".
- O'Leary, Rachel Rose (19 September 2017). "Ethereum's Byzantium Testnet Just Verified A Private Transaction". CoinDesk. Archived from the original on 23 September 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- Buterin, Vitalik (9 May 2015). "Olympic: Frontier Pre-Release". Ethereum Foundation. Archived from the original on 2 June 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- Lombardo, Hans (17 May 2015). "Ethereum Debuts "eπ" Ethereum-on-Raspberry Pi as Olympic Whirs before Frontier Release". Allcoinsnews. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- Gupta, Vinay (12 March 2015). "Getting to the Frontier". Ethereum Foundation. Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- Vigna, Paul (31 July 2015). "BitBeat: Ethereum Opens Its 'Frontier' for Business". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 6 September 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- "Ethereum Homestead Documentation: The Homestead Release". Ethereum Foundation. n.d. Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- Donnelly, Jacob (14 March 2016). "Ethereum Blockchain Project Launches First Production Release". CoindDesk. Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- Wilcke, Jeffrey (29 February 2016). "Homestead Release". Ethereum Foundation. Archived from the original on 3 June 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- Hertig, Alyssa (22 November 2016). "Ethereum's Fourth Blockchain Fork: So Far, So Good". CoinDesk. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- Gupta, Vinay (3 March 2015). "The Ethereum Launch Process". Ethereum Foundation. Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- Silva, Los (25 February 2017). "Ethereum's Road Map for 2017". ETHNews. Archived from the original on 2 June 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- "Metropolis Part 2: Constantinople & What's In Store for Etheruem?". CryptoCanucks. 2017-11-04. Retrieved 2018-02-21.
- Vigna, Paul (16 May 2016). "Chiefless Company Rakes in More than $100 Million". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 25 June 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- Popper, Nathaniel (18 June 2016). "Hacker May Have Taken $50 Million From Cybercurrency Project". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 June 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- Price, Rob (17 June 2016). "Digital Currency Ethereum is Cratering Amid Claims of a $50 Million Hack". Business Insider. Business Insider. Archived from the original on 11 June 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- Peck, Morgan (19 July 2016). ""Hard Fork" Coming to Restore Ethereum Funds to Investors of Hacked DAO". IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. IEEE. Archived from the original on 3 March 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "What is Ethereum? | The Ultimate Beginners' Guide – CoinCentral". coincentral.com. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
- Hertig, Alyssa (28 July 2016). "Ethereum's Two Ethereums Explained". CoinDesk. Archived from the original on 24 May 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- Redman, Jamie (14 October 2016). "Ethereum to Hard Fork Two More Times Following Recent Attacks". Bitcoin.com. Bitcoin.com. Archived from the original on 2 November 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- "What Is Ethereum?". weusecoins.com. Retrieved 2018-02-01.
- Popper, Nathaniel (27 March 2016). "Ethereum, a Virtual Currency, Enables Transactions That Rival Bitcoin's". New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 July 2016. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "Blockchains: The great chain of being sure about things". The Economist. 31 October 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
The technology behind bitcoin lets people who do not know or trust each other build a dependable ledger. This has implications far beyond the crypto currency.
- Narayanan, Arvind; Bonneau, Joseph; Felten, Edward; Miller, Andrew; Goldfeder, Steven (2016). Bitcoin and cryptocurrency technologies: a comprehensive introduction. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-17169-2.
- Iansiti, Marco; Lakhani, Karim R. (January 2017). "The Truth About Blockchain". Harvard Business Review. Harvard University. Retrieved 2017-01-17.
The technology at the heart of bitcoin and other virtual currencies, blockchain is an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way.
- Juchisth, Smith. "Wat is cryptocurrency? Een introductie in de blockchain". Cryptostart (in Dutch). Retrieved 9 December 2017.
- "Bitcoin Basics Lesson 2: Essentials of Bitcoin". Medium.com. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
- Wood, Gavin (3 February 2018). "ETHEREUM: A SECURE DECENTRALISED GENERALISED TRANSACTION LEDGER (EIP-150)". yellowpaper.io. Archived from the original on 3 February 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
- Antonio Madeira (2018-01-12). "Why is Ethereum different to Bitcoin?". CryptoCompare.
- Kyle Torpey (2017-12-28). "Will Bitcoin's Lightning Network Kill Off Altcoins Focused On Cheap Transactions?". Forbes.
- "Total Ether Supply and Market Capitalization". Etherscan. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
- "Evolution of total ether supply". etherchain.org. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
- Hertig, Alyssa (18 January 2017). "Where's Casper? Inside Ethereum's Race to Reinvent its Blockchain". CoinDesk. Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- Olga Kharif (2017-10-11). "Fans of Digital Currency Ether Can Now Buy ETNs—In Sweden". Bloomberg.
- "Store Directory". CoinPayments. Retrieved 2018-01-26.
- "What Is Ethereum?—Ethereum Homestead 0.1 documentation". ethdocs.org. Archived from the original on 27 April 2017.
- Dannen, Chris (2017). "The EVM". Introducing Ethereum and Solidity: Foundations of Cryptocurrency and Blockchain Programming for Beginners. Apress. pp. 47–67. ISBN 9781484225356.
- Triantafyllidis, Nikolaos Petros (19 February 2016). "The Ethereum Project: Ethereum History". Developing an Ethereum Blockchain Application (Report). University of Amsterdam. p. 20.
- "ethernodes.org - The Network number 1". ethernodes.org. Retrieved 2018-02-01.
- Dannen, Chris (27 March 2017). "Ethereum Devs Publish Roadmap for EVM Upgrade". CryptoNews. Archived from the original on 25 December 2017.
- "Ethereum Client Implementations - EntEthAlliance - Confluence". entethalliance.atlassian.net.
- "How Do Ethereum Smart Contracts Work?". CoinDesk.
- Rivlin, Brianne (14 November 2016). "Geth, Viper, and Wafr: New Ethereum Developments". ETHNews. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017.
- Piasecki, Piotr J. (2016). "Gaming Self-Contained Provably Fair Smart Contract Casinos". Ledger. 1: 99–110. doi:10.5195/ledger.2016.29. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016.
- Peck, M. (28 May 2016). "Ethereum's $150-Million Blockchain-Powered Fund Opens Just as Researchers Call For a Halt". IEEE Spectrum. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Archived from the original on 30 May 2016.
- "Short Paper: Formal Verification of Smart Contracts" (PDF). microsoft.com/. Microsoft. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- Greenspan, Gideon (17 April 2016). "Why Many Smart Contract Use Cases Are Simply Impossible - CoinDesk". CoinDesk. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017.
- "This Is Your Company on Blockchain". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
- Bordet, Julián (21 March 2016). "Decentralized Autonomous Organizations: Ethereum Sparks Up Googles of Tomorrow". The Cointelegraph. Archived from the original on 27 June 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
- "ICO Market Research: The Leading Blockchain Platforms Of 2017 - ICO Watch List Blog". ICO Watch List Blog. 17 August 2017. Archived from the original on 17 August 2017. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- "How Did Ethereum's Price Perform In 2017?". Investopedia. January 2, 2018.
- "Luxembourg Stock Exchange introduces blockchain into reporting service". 2016-10-18. Retrieved 2016-11-04.
- Allison, Ian. "Ethereum-based Slock.it reveals first ever lock opened with money". International Business Times UK. Archived from the original on 2 April 2016.
- Prince, Eliot. "MakerDAO Launches New Dai Stablecoin on the Ethereum Blockchain". Cryptoslate.
- Allison, Ian (12 September 2016). "Decentralized Capital issuing fiat-backed digital assets on the Ethereum blockchain". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 18 September 2016.
- "Santander Confirms Fiat-backed Token Project on Ethereum Blockchain". CoinTelegraph. Archived from the original on 17 December 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- Buntinx, JP (28 April 2016). "DigixDAO DGD Assets To Be Listed on OpenLedger". The Merkle. Archived from the original on 2 June 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- Allison, Ian (4 October 2015). "Imogen Heap shows how smart music contracts work using Ethereum". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 21 March 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- "Ethereum Prediction Market Service Takes First Steps With Beta Launch - CoinDesk". CoinDesk. 17 August 2016. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- "ICO Roundup 2017 by Cointelegraph: Cashing In On Blockchain Apps' Mainstream Year". CoinTelegraph. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- "Stox Prediction Platform Closes ICO after One Day; Raises over $30 Million". CryptoCoinsNews. 2 August 2017. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- Rennie, Ellie (12 May 2016). "The radical DAO experiment". Swinburne News. Swinburne University of Technology. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
When it reaches the end of the funding phase on 28 May, it will begin contracting blockchain-based start-ups to create innovative technologies. The extraordinary thing about The DAO is that no single entity owns it, and it has no conventional management structure or board of directors.
- Allison, Ian (30 April 2016). "Ethereum reinvents companies with launch of The DAO". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 1 May 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- Weinglass, Simona (19 August 2015). "Backfeed wants to decentralize the Internet and help you earn what you deserve". Geektime.com. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- CFA, Adam Hayes, (3 February 2017). "This New Social Network is Powered by Ethereum Technology". Investopedia. Archived from the original on 6 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- Allison, Ian (22 December 2015). "Game-changers FreeMyVunk and Digix allow video gamers to trade virtual assets for physical gold". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 17 March 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- Rutkin, Aviva (2 March 2016). "Blockchain-based microgrid gives power to consumers in New York". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- Mizrahi, Avi (1 December 2016). "Everex Helps Migrant Workers Send Remittance Back to Myanmar via Ethereum". Finance Magnates. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
- "CoinPoker Builds Smart Contracts for Virtual Poker Rooms - Cryptovest". 11 January 2018.
- Bitcoinist. "Ethereum Dice Game Etheroll Announces Crowdfund Opening Feb. 13". bitcoinist.com. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- Higgins, Stan. "Why a German Power Company is Using Ethereum to Test Blockchain Car Charging". CoinDesk. Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
- EconoTimes. "ConsenSys uPort wins International Blockchain Summit - EconoTimes". EconoTimes. Archived from the original on 8 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- Allison, Ian (23 September 2016). "ConsenSys uPort scoops first prize in International Blockchain Summit Demo Day". International Business Times UK. Archived from the original on 8 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- Tkatchuk, Ralph (20 November 2017). "Can Blockchain Supercharge the Gig Economy?". Dataconomy. Archived from the original on 20 November 2017.
- Gebron, Hunter (12 February 2017). "Ethlance and the Rise of the On-Demand Economy". Archived from the original on 1 December 2017.
- "CryptoKitties craze slows down transactions on Ethereum". 12 May 2017.
- Milano, Anneliese (21 May 2018). "Startup EverMarkets Aims To Shake Up Futures Trading with Blockchain". CoinDesk. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- "Big Business Giants From Microsoft to J.P. Morgan Are Getting Behind Ethereum". Fortune. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- "Hyperledger blockchain code almost comes together for IoT". Rethink Research. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
- Allison, Ian (3 May 2016). "Deloitte to build Ethereum-based 'digital bank' with New York City's ConsenSys". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 6 May 2016.
- Allison, Ian (20 January 2016). "R3 connects 11 banks to distributed ledger using Ethereum and Microsoft Azure". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 23 February 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
- "UK Government Awards £248k for Ethereum Prototype". CoinDesk. Archived from the original on 5 June 2016.
- "Settlement using blockchain to Automate Foreign Exchange in a Regulated environment (SAFER)". Innovate UK. Archived from the original on 4 May 2016.
- "Barclays, UBS, Credit Suisse Seek Ethereum Blockchain Solution For MiFID II Regulations". ETHNews.com. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
- "JP Morgan's Quorum blockchain powers new correspondent banking network " Banking Technology". www.bankingtech.com. Archived from the original on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- Hacket, Robert. "Why J.P. Morgan Chase Is Building a Blockchain on Ethereum". Fortune. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017.
- "Proving Ethereum for the Clearing Use Case" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 October 2016.
- Allison, Ian (7 December 2016). "Blockchain: RBS builds Ethereum-based distributed clearing house". IB Times. Archived from the original on 13 April 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
- Allison, Ian (25 January 2016). "How are banks actually going to use blockchains and smart contracts?". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
- Filiba, Jack. "Ethereum Breaks One Million Transactions in a Single Day". Archived from the original on 22 December 2017.
- Higgins, Stan. "'Microraiden' Payment Channels Go Live on Ethereum Network". Archived from the original on 22 December 2017.
- Hertig, Alyssa (12 August 2017). "Ethereum + Lightning? Buterin and Poon Unveil 'Plasma' Scaling Plan". CoinDesk. Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- Galeon, Dom. "Ethereum's Co-Founder Just Unveiled His Plan for the Future of Cryptocurrency". Archived from the original on 9 November 2017.
- Vitalik Buterin. "Merkling in Ethereum". Ethereum.org.
- "Expanse DAO Seeks to Develop Decentralised Ethereum".
- Kaminska, Izabella (1 June 2017). FT Alphaville. Archived from the original on 23 July 2017..
- Bartoletti, Carta; et al. "Dissecting Ponzi schemes on Ethereum: identification, analysis, and impact" (PDF). Universita di Cagliari. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 August 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2017.