Filter bubbles result from personalized searches when a website algorithm selectively guesses what information a user would like to see based on information about the user (such as location, past click-behavior and search history). As a result, users become separated from information that disagrees with their viewpoints, effectively isolating them in their own cultural or ideological bubbles. The choices made by these algorithms are not transparent. Prime examples include Google Personalized Search results and Facebook's personalized news-stream. The bubble effect may have negative implications for civic discourse, according to Pariser, but contrasting views regard the effect as minimal and addressable. The surprising results of the U.S. presidential election in 2016 have been associated with the influence of social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook, and as a result have called into question the effects of the "filter bubble" phenomenon on user exposure to fake news and echo chambers, spurring new interest in the term, with many concerned that the phenomenon may harm democracy.
(Technologies such as social media) lets you go off with like-minded people, so you're not mixing and sharing and understanding other points of view ... It's super important. It's turned out to be more of a problem than I, or many others, would have expected.
The term was coined by internet activist Eli Pariser in his book by the same name; according to Pariser, users get less exposure to conflicting viewpoints and are isolated intellectually in their own informational bubble. He related an example in which one user searched Google for "BP" and got investment news about British Petroleum while another searcher got information about the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and that the two search results pages were "strikingly different".
Pariser defined his concept of filter bubble in more formal terms as "that personal ecosystem of information that's been catered by these algorithms". Other terms have been used to describe this phenomenon, including "one-sided information supply", "ideological frames" or a "figurative sphere surrounding you as you search the Internet". The past search history is built up over time when an Internet user indicates interest in topics by "clicking links, viewing friends, putting movies in your queue, reading news stories" and so forth. An Internet firm then uses this information to target advertising to the user or make it appear more prominently in a search results query page.
Pariser’s idea of the ‘filter bubble’ was popularized after the Ted Talk he gave in May 2011. Pariser gives examples of how ‘filter bubbles’ work and where they can be seen. In an attempt to test the validity of ‘filter bubbles’ Pariser asked two of his friends to search the word ‘Egypt’ on Google and send him the search results. What each of them found were two completely different search results, one focusing on the political tensions in the country at the time, and one with vacation advertisements.
In The Filter Bubble, Pariser warns that a potential downside to filtered searching is that it "closes us off to new ideas, subjects, and important information" and "creates the impression that our narrow self-interest is all that exists". It is potentially harmful to both individuals and society, in his view. He criticized Google and Facebook for offering users "too much candy, and not enough carrots". He warned that "invisible algorithmic editing of the web" may limit our exposure to new information and narrow our outlook. According to Pariser, the detrimental effects of filter bubbles include harm to the general society in the sense that it has the possibility of "undermining civic discourse" and making people more vulnerable to "propaganda and manipulation". He wrote:
A world constructed from the familiar is a world in which there’s nothing to learn ... (since there is) invisible autopropaganda, indoctrinating us with our own ideas.
A filter bubble has been described as exacerbating a phenomenon that has been called splinternet or cyberbalkanization, which happens when the Internet becomes divided up into sub-groups of like-minded people who become insulated within their own online community and fail to get exposure to different views; the term cyberbalkanization was coined in 1996.
Although his speech did not employ the term "filter", President Obama's farewell address identified a similar concept to filter bubbles as a "threat to [Americans'] democracy", i.e., the "retreat into our own bubbles, ...especially our social media feeds, surrounded by people who look like us and share the same political outlook and never challenge our assumptions... And increasingly we become so secure in our bubbles that we start accepting only information, whether it’s true or not, that fits our opinions, instead of basing our opinions on the evidence that is out there."
There are conflicting reports about the extent to which personalized filtering is happening and whether such activity is beneficial or harmful. Analyst Jacob Weisberg writing in Slate did a small non-scientific experiment to test Pariser's theory which involved five associates with different ideological backgrounds conducting exactly the same search—the results of all five search queries were nearly identical across four different searches, suggesting that a filter bubble was not in effect, which led him to write that a situation in which all people are "feeding at the trough of a Daily Me" was overblown. A scientific study from Wharton that analyzed personalized recommendations also found that these filters can actually create commonality, not fragmentation, in online music taste. Consumers apparently use the filter to expand their taste, not limit it. Book reviewer Paul Boutin did a similar experiment among people with differing search histories, and found results similar to Weisberg's with nearly identical search results. Harvard law professor Jonathan Zittrain disputed the extent to which personalisation filters distort Google search results; he said "the effects of search personalization have been light". Further, there are reports that users can shut off personalisation features on Google if they choose by deleting the Web history and by other methods. A spokesperson for Google suggested that algorithms were added to Google search engines to deliberately "limit personalization and promote variety".
While algorithms do limit political diversity, some of the filter bubble is the result of user choice. In a study by data scientists at Facebook, they found that for every four Facebook friends that share ideology, users have one friend with contrasting views. No matter what Facebook’s algorithm for its News Feed is, people are simply more likely to befriend/follow people who share similar beliefs. The nature of the algorithm is that it ranks stories based on a user’s history, resulting in a reduction of the “politically cross-cutting content by 5 percent for conservatives and 8 percent for liberals.” However, even when people are given the option to click on a link offering contrasting views, they still default to their most viewed sources. “[U]ser choice decreases the likelihood of clicking on a cross-cutting link by 17 percent for conservatives and 6 percent for liberals.”
There are reports that Google and other sites have vast information which might enable them to further personalise a user's Internet experience if they chose to do so. One account suggested that Google can keep track of user past histories even if they don't have a personal Google account or are not logged into one. One report was that Google has collected "10 years worth" of information amassed from varying sources, such as Gmail, Google Maps, and other services besides its search engine, although a contrary report was that trying to personalise the Internet for each user was technically challenging for an Internet firm to achieve despite the huge amounts of available web data. Analyst Doug Gross of CNN suggested that filtered searching seemed to be more helpful for consumers than for citizens, and would help a consumer looking for "pizza" find local delivery options based on a personalized search and appropriately filter out distant pizza stores. There is agreement that sites within the Internet, such as the Washington Post, The New York Times, and others are pushing efforts towards creating personalized information engines, with the aim of tailoring search results to those that users are likely to like or agree with.
Several designers developed tools to counteract the effects of filter bubbles. Swiss radio station SRF voted the word filterblase (the German translation of filter bubble) word of the year 2016.
Users can take actions to burst through their filter bubbles. Some make a conscious effort to evaluate what information they are exposing themselves to, thinking critically about whether they are engaging with a broad range of content. Steps to “re-engineer your internet diet” include creating your own research team of smart, insightful media leaders who wisely consume and produce only valid and credible articles. Users can examine their search history and cut sources that are unverifiable or weak. This view argues that users should change the psychology of how they approach media with their biases already intact instead of relying on a tech to erase their biases. Tech can also be used to combat filter bubbles. Chris Glushko, the VP of Marketing at IAB, advocates using fact-checking sites like Snopes.com to eradicate the occurrence of fake news.
Websites such as allsides.com and hifromtheotherside.com aim to expose readers to different perspectives with diverse content. Some additional plug-ins aimed to help us step out of our filter bubbles and make us aware of our personal perspectives; thus, these media show content that contradicts with our beliefs and opinions. For instance, Escape Your Bubble asks users to indicate a specific political party they want to be more informed about. The plug-in will then suggest articles from well-established sources for you to read relating to that political party, encouraging users to become more educated about the other party. In addition to plug-ins, there are apps created with the mission of encouraging us to open our echo chambers. Read Across the Aisle is a news app that reveals whether or not users are reading from diverse new sources that include multiple perspectives. Each source is color coordinated, representing the political leaning of each article. When users only read news from one perspective, the app communicates that to the user and encourages readers to explore other sources with opposing viewpoints. Although apps and plug-ins are tools humans can use, Eli Pariser stated “certainly, there is some individual responsibility here to really seek out new sources and people who aren’t like you.”
Since web-based advertising can further the effect of the filter bubbles by exposing users to more of the same content, users can block much advertising by deleting their search history, turning off targeted ads, and downloading browser extensions. Extensions such as Escape your Bubble for Google Chrome aim to help curate content and prevent users from only being exposed to biased information, while Mozilla Firefox extensions such as Lightbeam and Self-Destructing Cookies enable users to visualize how their data is being tracked, and lets them remove some of the tracking cookies. Some use anonymous search engines such as YaCy, duckduckgo, StartPage, and Disconnect in order to prevent companies from gathering their web-search data. Swiss daily Neue Zürcher Zeitung is beta-testing a personalised news engine app which uses machine learning to guess what content a user is interested in, while "always including an element of surprise"; the idea is to mix in stories which a user is unlikely to have followed in the past.
The European Union is taking measures to lessen the impact of the filter bubble. The European Parliament is sponsoring inquiries into how filter bubbles affect people’s ability to access diverse news. Additionally, it introduced a program aimed to educate citizens about social media. In the U.S., the CSCW panel suggests the use of news aggregator apps to broaden media consumers news intake. News aggregator apps scan all current news articles and direct you to different viewpoints regarding a certain topic. Users can also use a diversely-aware news balancer which visually shows the media consumer if they are leaning left or right when it comes to reading the news, indicating right-leaning with a bigger red bar or left-leaning with a bigger blue bar. A study evaluating this news balancer found “a small but noticeable change in reading behavior, toward more balanced exposure, among users seeing the feedback, as compared to a control group”.
By media companiesEdit
In light of recent concerns about information filtering on social media, Facebook acknowledged the presence of filter bubbles and has taken strides toward removing them. In January 2017, Facebook removed personalization from its Trending Topics list in response to problems with some users not seeing highly talked-about events there. Facebook’s strategy is to reverse the Related Articles feature that it had implemented in 2013, which would post related news stories after the user read a shared article. Now, the revamped strategy would flip this process and post articles from different perspectives on the same topic. Facebook is also attempting to go through a vetting process whereby only articles from reputable sources will be shown. Along with the founder of Craigslist and a few others, Facebook has invested $14 million into efforts "to increase trust in journalism around the world, and to better inform the public conversation”. The idea is that even if people are only reading posts shared from their friends, at least these posts will be credible.
As the popularity of cloud services increases, personalized algorithms used to construct filter bubbles are expected to become more widespread. Scholars have begun considering the effect of filter bubbles on the users of social media from an ethical standpoint, particularly concerning the areas of personal freedom, security, and information bias.
Filter bubbles in popular social media and personalized search sites can determine the particular content seen by users, often without their direct consent or cognizance, due to the algorithms used to curate that content. Critics of the use of filter bubbles speculate that individuals may lose autonomy over their own social media experience and have their identities socially constructed as a result of the pervasiveness of filter bubbles.
Technologists, social media engineers, and computer specialists have also examined the prevalence of filter bubbles. Mark Zuckerberg, founder of Facebook, and Eli Pariser, author of “The Filter Bubble,” have even expressed concerns regarding the risks of privacy and information polarization. The information of the users of personalized search engines and social media platforms is not private, though some people believe it should be. The concern over privacy has resulted in a debate as to whether or not it is moral for information technologists to take users’ online activity and manipulate future exposure to related information.
Since the content seen by individual social media users is influenced by algorithms that produce filter bubbles, users of social media platforms are more susceptible to confirmation bias, and may be exposed to biased, misleading information. Social sorting and other unintentional discriminatory practices are also anticipated as a result of personalized filtering.
- Communal reinforcement
- Confirmation bias
- Content farm
- Echo chamber — a similar phenomenon where ideas are amplified in an enclosed system, and opposing views aggressively censored
- False consensus effect
- Group polarization
- Media consumption
- Search engine manipulation effect
- Selective exposure theory
- Serendipitous discovery, an antithesis of filter bubble
- Search engines that claim to avoid the filter bubble: DuckDuckGo, Ixquick, MetaGer, and Startpage.
- Bozdag, Engin (23 June 2013). "Bias in algorithmic filtering and personalization". Ethics and Information Technology. 15 (3): 209–227.
- Web bug (slang)
- Website visitor tracking
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