A sitcom (a shortening of situation comedy, or situational comedy) is a genre of comedy centred on a fixed set of characters who mostly carry over from episode to episode. Sitcoms can be contrasted with sketch comedy, where a troupe may use new characters in each sketch, and stand-up comedy, where a comedian tells jokes and stories to an audience. Sitcoms originated in radio, but today are found mostly on television as one of its dominant narrative forms.

A sitcom may be recorded in front of a studio audience, depending on the program's production format. The effect of a live studio audience can be imitated or enhanced by the use of a laugh track.

Critics disagree over the utility of the term "sitcom" in classifying shows that have come into existence since the turn of the 21st century. Many contemporary American sitcoms use the single-camera setup and do not feature a laugh track, thus often resembling the dramedy shows of the 1980s and 1990s rather than the traditional sitcom.[1]

History edit

The terms "situation comedy" or "sitcom" were not commonly used until the 1950s.[2] There were prior examples on radio, but the first television sitcom is said to be Pinwright's Progress, ten episodes being broadcast on the BBC in the United Kingdom between 1946 and 1947.[3][4] In the United States, director and producer William Asher has been credited with being the "man who invented the sitcom",[5] having directed over two dozen of the leading sitcoms, including I Love Lucy, from the 1950s through the 1970s.

By country edit

Australia edit

There have been few long-running Australian-made sitcoms, but many US and UK sitcoms have been successful there. Sitcoms are a staple of government broadcaster Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC); in the 1970s and 1980s many UK sitcoms also screened on the Seven Network. By 1986, UK comedies Bless This House and Are You Being Served? had been repeated by ABC Television several times, and were then acquired and screened by the Seven Network, in prime time.[6]

In 1981, Daily at Dawn was the first Australian comedy series to feature a regular gay character (Terry Bader as journalist Leslie).[7]

In 1987, Mother and Son was winner of the Television Drama Award presented by the Australian Human Rights Commission.[8][9]

In 2007, Kath & Kim's first episode of series four attracted an Australian audience of 2.521 million nationally,[10] the highest rating ever for a first episode in the history of Australian television,[10] until the series premiere of Underbelly: A Tale of Two Cities in 2009 with 2.58 million viewers.[11]

In 2013, Please Like Me received an invitation to screen at the Series Mania Television Festival in Paris,[12] was praised by critics [13] and has garnered numerous awards and nominations.[14] Also in 2013, At Home With Julia was criticised by several social commentators as inappropriately disrespectful to the office of Prime Minister,[15] the show nevertheless proved very popular both with television audiences — becoming the most watched Australian scripted comedy series of 2011[16] — and with television critics.[17] Nominated to the 2012 Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts Awards for Best Television Comedy Series.[18]

Canada edit

Although there have been a number of notable exceptions, Canadian television networks have generally fared poorly with their sitcom offerings, with relatively few Canadian sitcoms attaining notable success in Canada or internationally.[19] Canadian television has had much greater success with sketch comedy and dramedy series.[19]

The popular show King of Kensington aired from 1975 to 1980, drawing an average of 1.5 to 1.8 million viewers weekly at its peak.[20]

The Trailer Park Boys movie of 1999 was followed up by a television series that ran from 2001 to 2018, airing in Canada, the U.S. and the U.K.

Corner Gas, which ran for six seasons from 2004 to 2009, became an instant hit, averaging a million viewers per episode.[21] It has been the recipient of six Gemini Awards, and has been nominated almost 70 times for various awards.[22]

Other noteworthy recent sitcoms have included Call Me Fitz, Schitt's Creek,[23] Letterkenny and Kim's Convenience,[24] all of which have been winners of the Canadian Screen Award for Best Comedy Series.

India edit

Sitcoms started appearing on Indian television in the 1980s, with serials like Yeh Jo Hai Zindagi (1984), Nukkad (1986) and Wagle Ki Duniya (1988) on the state-run Doordarshan channel. Gradually, as private channels were allowed, many more sitcoms followed in the 1990s, such as Dekh Bhai Dekh (1993), Zabaan Sambhalke (1993), Shrimaan Shrimati (1995), Office Office (2001), Ramani Vs Ramani (2001), Amrutham (Telugu 2001–2007), Khichdi (2002), Sarabhai vs Sarabhai (2005) to F.I.R. (2006–2015), Taarak Mehta Ka Ooltah Chashmah (2008–present), Uppum Mulakum (Malayalam 2015–present), and Bhabiji Ghar Par Hain (2015–present).[25] SAB TV is one of the leading channels of India dedicated entirely to Sitcoms.

Taarak Mehta Ka Ooltah Chashmah is the longest running sitcom of Indian television and is known as the flagship show of SAB TV.[26]

Iran edit

On Tiptoes and Shabhaye Barareh were among the first and most important sitcoms that led to the growth of this type of comedy in Iran, the idea of making On Tiptoes was borrowed from the series Friends.

Mexico edit

El Chavo del Ocho, which ran from 1971 to 1980, was the most watched show on Mexican television and had a Latin American audience of 350 million viewers per episode at its peak of popularity during the mid-1970s.[27] The show continues to be popular in Hispanic America as well as in Brazil, Spain, the United States, and other countries, with syndicated episodes averaging 91 million daily viewers in all of the markets where it is distributed in the Americas.[28][29] Since it ceased production in 1992, the show has earned an estimated billion in syndication fees alone for Televisa.[29]

New Zealand edit

Gliding On, a popular sitcom in New Zealand in the early 1980s, won multiple awards over the course of its run, including Best Comedy, Best Drama and Best Direction at the Feltex Awards.[30]

Russia edit

The first Russian sitcom series was "Strawberry" (resembled "Duty Pharmacy" in Spanish format), which was aired in 1996–1997 on the RTR channel. However, the "boom" of Russian sitcoms began only in the 2000s — when in 2004, the STS started very successful sitcom "My Fair Nanny" (an adaptation of the American sitcom "The Nanny"). Since that time sitcoms in Russia were produced by the two largest entertainment channels of the country — STS and TNT. In 2007 the STS released the first original domestic sitcom — "Daddy's Daughters" (there were only adaptations before), and in 2010 TNT released "Interns" — the first sitcom, filmed as a comedy (unlike dominated "conveyor" sitcoms).

United Kingdom edit

Although styles of sitcom have changed over the years they tend to be based on a family, workplace or other institution, where the same group of contrasting characters is brought together in each episode. British sitcoms are typically produced in one or more series of six episodes. Most such series are conceived and developed by one or two writers. The majority of British sitcoms are 30 minutes long and are recorded on studio sets in a multiple-camera setup. A subset of British comedy consciously avoids traditional situation comedy themes and storylines to branch out into more unusual topics or narrative methods. Blackadder (1983–1989) and Yes Minister/Yes Prime Minister (1980–1988, 2013) moved what is often a domestic or workplace genre into the corridors of power. A later development was the mockumentary in such series as The Office (2001–2003, 2013). Also coming of age in such series as The Inbetweeners (2008–2010).

United States edit

The sitcom format was born in January 1926 with the initial broadcast of Sam 'n' Henry on WGN radio in Chicago, Illinois. The 15-minute daily program was revamped in 1928, moved to another station, renamed Amos 'n' Andy, and became one of the most successful sitcoms of the period. It was also one of the earliest examples of radio syndication. In 1947, the first American television sitcom, Mary Kay and Johnny, debuted. Since that time, many of the most watched shows in the US have been sitcoms.

American sitcoms are generally written to run a total of 22 minutes in length, leaving eight minutes for advertisements in a 30-minute timeslot.[31]

Some popular British shows have been successfully adapted for the US.[32] Some of the most successful American sitcoms of the 1970s, including All in the Family, Three's Company, and Sanford and Son, were adapted from British productions.

South Korea edit

In South Korea, sitcoms are called "시트콤". Since the popularity of Dr. Oh's people (오박사네 사람들, Obacksane Saramdeul) in 1993, the term sitcom has become popular in South Korea, and in the 90s, SBS's LA Arirang (LA 아리랑) and MBC's Men and Women (남자 셋 여자 셋, Namja set Yeoja set), family sitcom and youth sitcom have become popular terms.

In the case of directing techniques, computer graphics was not used as much in the early days as in the positive electrode, but as the level of CG of broadcasters began to rise in the late 1990s, CG began to be actively used in sitcoms.

However, since the mid-2010s, it has become difficult to see sitcoms in Korea. For a representative reason, the production cost of a sitcom is a quarter of that of the anode, so there are problems in the casting process and material selection. And unlike the anode, the profit is not as high as expected due to the characteristic that it is not easy to sell overseas.[33]

High Kick! (거침없이 하이킥, Guchim-eoupsi Highkik) and one of its series, "High Kick Through the Roof" (지붕뚫고 하이킥, "Jiboong-Dulko Highkik"), are sitcoms that gained huge popularity in South Korea that are often talked about in the country.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "The Evolution Of The Sitcom: The Age of the Single Camera" Archived 2016-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. New York Film Academy, September 24, 2014.
  2. ^ Dalton, Mary M.; Linder, Laura R., eds. (2012). Sitcom Reader, The: America Viewed and Skewed. SUNY Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-7914-8263-6.
  3. ^ "Pinwright's Progress". comedy.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2010-03-08. Retrieved 2010-03-08.
  4. ^ Lewisohn, Mark (2003). "Radio Times Guide to TV Comedy". BBC Worldwide Ltd.
  5. ^ "William Asher – The Man Who Invented the Sitcom" Archived 2016-04-09 at the Wayback Machine, Palm Springs Life Dec. 1999
  6. ^ Collier, Shayne. Again and again and again. The Sydney Morning Herald – The Guide: 2 June 1986, p.1, 6. [1] Archived 2015-11-21 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Howes, Keith. (1998, February). "Gays of Our Lives". Outrage, Number 177, 38-49.
  8. ^ "1987 Human Rights Medal and awards winners". Human Rights Medal and Awards. Australian Human Rights Commission. 1987. Archived from the original on 2017-12-01. Retrieved 2017-11-28.
  9. ^ Tynan, Jacinta (2008-09-13). "Weird how my rello won his fame". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 2012-11-02. Retrieved 2010-11-05.
  10. ^ a b Seven Network (20 August 2007). "Seven – Daily Ratings Report". ebroadcast.com.au. Archived from the original on 20 May 2009. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
  11. ^ Knox, David (2009-02-10). "2.58m: Underbelly sets new record". TV Tonight. Archived from the original on 2009-05-20. Retrieved 2015-10-02.
  12. ^ Knox, David (22 February 2013). "Please Like Me, Puberty Blues selected for French TV festival". TV Tonight. Archived from the original on 14 April 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
  13. ^ "Please Like Me". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on 6 May 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  14. ^ "Please Like Me - Awards". IMDb. Archived from the original on 8 September 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  15. ^ Craven, Peter (8 Sep 2011). "At Home With Julia: inane drivel of the most idiotic kind". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 2014-01-12. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  16. ^ "Packed to the Rafters and Underbelly are 2011's top local dramas – Mumbrella". Mumbrella. 2011-11-28. Archived from the original on 2017-09-03. Retrieved 2017-02-01.
  17. ^ Knox, David (Dec 1, 2011). "Critics' Choice: The Best of 2011". TV Tonight. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  18. ^ "Inaugural Samsung AACTA Awards Nominees" (PDF). Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-10-31.
  19. ^ a b "Why do Canadian sitcoms suck?" Archived 2017-01-16 at the Wayback Machine. canada.com, March 21, 2014.
  20. ^ "King to be bachelor". Ottawa Citizen. 1978-01-25. Archived from the original on 2022-03-19. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  21. ^ "Strong numbers mean replay of Corner Gas debut" (Press release). CTV Inc. 2004-01-23. Archived from the original on 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2007-01-08.
  22. ^ "'Corner Gas' gives thanks with premiere on Monday, Oct. 13". CTV Globemedia. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-09-30. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  23. ^ "The success of Schitt's Creek marks a turning point for the CBC" Archived 2017-04-07 at the Wayback Machine. The Globe and Mail, January 9, 2017.
  24. ^ "CBC orders more Kim's Convenience" Archived 2017-01-13 at the Wayback Machine. Media in Canada, December 21, 2016.
  25. ^ Patel, Nidhin (2011-10-13). "'Taarak Mehta' completes 700 episodes". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 2013-12-31.
  26. ^ Panjari, Swagata (October 1, 2018). "TMKOC: The journey of India's longest running TV show". Television Post. Archived from the original on June 22, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2021.
  27. ^ "Adiós al Chavo del 8: murió Roberto Gómez Bolaños". Forbes Mexico. 2014-11-29. Archived from the original on 2014-12-05. Retrieved November 29, 2014.
  28. ^ "El Chavo del 8 – Historia". Chespirito (in Spanish). Archived from the original on February 2, 2011. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
  29. ^ a b "Meet El Chavo, The World's Most Famous (And Richest) Orphan". Forbes. Archived from the original on February 9, 2021. Retrieved November 29, 2014.
  30. ^ "Roger Hall Piece about Gliding On". NZ On Screen. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
  31. ^ How Sitcoms Work, page 3 Archived 2012-06-29 at the Wayback Machine.
  32. ^ When British TV flies across the pond Archived 2015-10-04 at the Wayback Machine. CNN.com, April 6, 2012. Retrieved October 15, 2013.
  33. ^ Boram, Kim (June 24, 2021). "Sitcoms return to small screen as streaming giants set out on new projects". Yonhap News Agency. Seoul.

Further reading edit

External links edit