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The first photograph was an image produced in 1826 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce on a polished pewter plate covered with a petroleum derivative called bitumen of Judea but for centuries images had been projected onto surfaces - artists used the camera obscura and camera lucida to trace scenes as early as the 16th century, and the optical properties of which had been described as early as the 4th Century BC by the Chinese philosopher Mozi. These early "cameras" did not fix an image, but only projected images from an opening in the wall of a darkened room onto a surface, turning the room into a large pinhole camera.

The advent of photography, from the Ancient Greek words φως phos ("light"), and γραφη graphê ("stylus", "paintbrush") or γραφω graphō (the verb, "I write/draw"), together meaning "drawing with light" or "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", has gained the interest of scientists and artists from its inception. Scientists have used photography to record and study movements, such as Eadweard Muybridge's study of human and animal locomotion (1887). Artists are equally interested in these aspects but also try to explore avenues other than the photo-mechanical representation of reality, such as the pictorialist movement. Military, police and security forces use photography for surveillance, recognition and data storage. Photography is used to preserve favorite memories and as a source of entertainment.

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Match

Burning match. Photo Credit: Sebastian Ritter

Selected biography

André Kertész (July 2, 1894 – September 28, 1985) born Andor Kertész, was a Hungarian-born photographer distinguished by his photographic composition and by his early efforts in developing the photo essay. In the early years of his lengthy career, his then-unorthodox camera angles, and his unwillingness to compromise his personal photographic style, prevented his work from gaining wider recognition. Even towards the end of his life, Kertész did not feel he had gained worldwide recognition. The first photographer to have an exposition devoted to his work, he is recognized as one of the seminal figures of photojournalism, if not photography as a whole.

Dedicated by his family to work as a stock broker, Kertész was an autodidact and his early work was mostly published in magazines. This would continue until much later in his life when he ceased to accept commissions. He served briefly in WWI and began to form dreams to move to Paris, which he realised in 1925, against the wishes of his family. There he was involved with the artistic melting pot of immigrates and the dadaist movement, and achieved critical and commercial success. The imminent threat of WWII pushed him to immigrate again to the United States, where he had a more difficult life and needed to rebuild his reputation through commissioned work. He would take offense with several editors that he felt did not recognize his work. In the 1940s and '50s he stopped working for magazines and began achieved greater international success. Despite the numerous and awards he collected over the years, he still felt unrecognized, a sentiment which did not change even into his death.

Did you know

  • ...that the inventors of Kodachrome, Leopold Mannes and Leopold Godowsky, Jr. were both accomplished musicians?

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Selected article

Phalaenopsis JPEG
JPEG (pronounced JAY-peg; IPA: [ˈdʒeɪpɛg]) is a commonly used standard method of compression for photographic images. The name JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, the name of the joint ISO/CCITT committee which created the standard. The group was organized in 1986, issuing a standard in 1992 which was approved in 1994 as ISO 10918-1. JPEG should not be confused with MPEG, the Moving Picture Experts Group, which produces compression schemes for motion pictures.

JPEG provides for lossy compression of images (although there are variations on the standard baseline JPEG which are lossless). The file format which employs this compression is commonly also called JPEG; the most common file extension for this format is .jpg, though .jpeg, .jfif, .JPG, and .JPE are also used.

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Genres of photography Aerial photography | Astrophotography | Aviation photography | Candid photography | Chronophotography | Color photography | Commercial photography | Computational photography (artistic) | Digiscoping | Fashion photography | Fine art photography | Glamour photography | Infrared photography | Kirlian photography | Kite aerial photography | Macro photography | Nature photography | New Topography | Night photography | Non-nude photography | Panoramic photography | Portrait photography | Post-mortem photography | Rollout photography | Secret photography | Still life photography | Stock photography | Straight photography | Street photography | Strip aerial photography | Subminiature photography | Ultraviolet photography | Underwater photography | Vernacular photography | War photography | Wedding photography | Wildlife photography
Photographic techniques Afocal photography | Airbrush | Background light | Backlighting (lighting design) | Bracketing | Burned (image) | Chemography | Color correction | Composograph | Contre-jour | Deep focus | Double exposure | Dutch angle | Exposure compensation | Fill flash | Fill light | Framing | Hand-colouring | Harris Shutter | High dynamic range imaging | High-key lighting | Infinity cove | Kallitype | Key light | Kite aerial photography | Lenticular printing | Light painting | Manual focus | Multiple exposure | Perspective correction | Photo manipulation | Photogram | Photographic print toning | Push printing | Push processing | Rephotography | Rule of thirds | Sandwich printing | Shallow focus | Simplicity | Slit-scan photography | Stereoscopy | Stopping down | Sunny 16 rule | Three-point lighting | Tinted photograph | Zone System
Photographers Fictional photographers | Magnum photographers | Photographers by nationality | Photojournalists | Pioneers of photography | Photographic studios | Photographers by subject | Photographers who committed suicide | Stock photographers | Photographer stubs | Women photographers

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