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|Systems of government|
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies (however in some countries the head of state, regardless of whether the country's system is a parliamentary republic or a constitutional monarchy, has 'reserve powers' given to use at their discretion in order to act as a non-partisan 'referee' of the political process and ensure the nation's constitution is upheld). Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power.
For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other governments and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister", "premier" or "chancellor") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power.[clarification needed]
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In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state usually does not have executive powers as an executive president would (some may have 'reserve powers' or a bit more influence beyond that), because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister).[clarification needed]
However, in a parliamentary republic with a head of state whose tenure is dependent on parliament, the head of government and head of state can form one office (as in Botswana, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, and South Africa), but the president is still selected in much the same way as the prime minister is in most Westminster systems. This usually means that they are the leader of the largest party or coalition of parties in parliament.
In some cases, the president can legally have executive powers granted to them to undertake the day-to-day running of government (as in Austria and Iceland) but by convention they either do not use these powers or they use them only to give effect to the advice of the parliament or head of government. Some parliamentary republics could therefore be seen as following the semi-presidential system but operating under a parliamentary system.
Following the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War, France once again became a republic – the French Third Republic – in 1870. The President of the Third Republic had significantly less executive powers than those of the previous two republics had. The Third Republic lasted until the invasion of France by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following the end of the war, the French Fourth Republic was constituted along similar lines in 1946. The Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after the war, and played an important part in the development of the process of European integration, which changed the continent permanently. Some attempts were made to strengthen the executive branch of government to prevent the unstable situation that had existed before the war, but the instability remained and the Fourth Republic saw frequent changes in government – there were 20 governments in ten years. Additionally, the government proved unable to make effective decisions regarding decolonization. As a result, the Fourth Republic collapsed and Charles de Gaulle was given power to rule by decree, subsequently legitimized by approval of a new constitution in a referendum on 28 September 1958 that led to the establishment of the French Fifth Republic in 1959.
Commonwealth of NationsEdit
Since the London Declaration of 29 April 1949 (just weeks after Ireland declared itself a republic, and excluded itself from the Commonwealth) republics have been admitted as members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
In the case of many republics in the Commonwealth of Nations, it was common for the Sovereign, formerly represented by a Governor-General, to be replaced by a non-executive head of state. This was the case in South Africa (which ceased to be a member of the Commonwealth immediately upon becoming a republic, and later switched to having an executive presidency), Malta, Trinidad and Tobago, India, Vanuatu, and most recently Barbados. In many of these examples, the last Governor-General became the first president. Such was the case with Sri Lanka and Pakistan.
Other states became parliamentary republics upon gaining independence.
|Full parliamentary republics|
|Country/territory||Head of state||Head of state elected by||Cameral structure||Parliamentary republic adopted||Previous government form||Notes|
|Albania||Bajram Begaj||Parliament, by three-fifths majority||Unicameral||1991||One-party state|
|Armenia||Vahagn Khachaturyan||Parliament, by absolute majority||Unicameral||2018[note 1]||Semi-presidential republic|
|Austria||Alexander Van der Bellen||Direct election, by two-round system||Bicameral||1945||One-party state (as part of Nazi Germany, see Anschluss)|
|Bangladesh||Abdul Hamid||Parliament||Unicameral||1991[note 2]||Presidential republic|
|Barbados||Sandra Mason||Parliament, by two-thirds majority if there is no joint nomination||Bicameral||2021||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Christian Schmidt
|Direct election of collective head of state, by first-past-the-post vote||Bicameral||1991||One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)|
|Bulgaria||Rumen Radev||Direct election, by two-round system||Unicameral||1991||One-party state|
|China, Republic of||Tsai Ing-wen||Direct election, by first-past-the-post
Nominally by the National Assembly[note 3]
Nominally Tricameral[note 4]
Only nominally a parliamentary republic since 1996
|One-party military dictatorship (Mainland China)
Constitutional monarchy (Taiwan as part of the Japanese Empire)
|Nominally; the Constitution has been partially superseded by additional articles that provide for a semi-presidential republic with direct presidential elections and a unicameral legislature. These additional articles have a sunset clause that will terminate them in the event of a hypothetical resumption of ROC rule in Mainland China.|
|Croatia||Zoran Milanović||Direct election, by two-round system||Unicameral||2000||Semi-presidential republic|
|Czech Republic||Miloš Zeman||Direct election, by two-round system (since 2013; previously parliament, by majority)||Bicameral||1993||Parliamentary republic (part of Czechoslovakia)|
|Dominica||Charles Savarin||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1978||Associated state of the United Kingdom|
|Estonia||Alar Karis||Parliament, by two-thirds majority||Unicameral||1991[note 5]||Presidential republic, thereafter occupied by a one-party state|
|Ethiopia||Sahle-Work Zewde||Parliament, by two-thirds majority||Bicameral||1991||One-party state|
|Fiji||Wiliame Katonivere||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||2014||Military dictatorship|
|Finland||Sauli Niinistö||Direct election, by two-round system||Unicameral||2000[note 6]||Semi-presidential republic|
|Georgia||Salome Zourabichvili||Electoral college (parliament and regional delegates), by absolute majority||Unicameral||2018[note 7]||Semi-presidential republic|
|Germany||Frank-Walter Steinmeier||Federal Assembly (parliament and state delegates), by absolute majority||Bicameral||1949[note 8]||One-party state|
|Greece||Katerina Sakellaropoulou||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1975||Military dictatorship; constitutional monarchy|
|Hungary||Katalin Novák||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1990||One-party state (Hungarian People's Republic)|
|Iceland||Guðni Th. Jóhannesson||Direct election, by first-past-the-post vote||Unicameral||1944||Constitutional monarchy (in a personal union with Denmark)|
|India||Droupadi Murmu||Parliament and state legislature, by instant-runoff vote||Bicameral||1950||Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion)|
|Iraq||Barham Salih||Parliament, by two-thirds majority||Unicameral[note 9]||2005||One-party state|
|Ireland||Michael D. Higgins||Direct election, by instant-runoff vote||Bicameral||1949[note 10]||To 1936: Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion)
|Israel||Isaac Herzog||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||2001||Semi-parliamentary republic|
|Italy||Sergio Mattarella||Parliament and region delegates, by two-thirds majority; by absolute majority, starting from the fourth ballot, if no candidate achieves the aforementioned majority in the first three ballots||Bicameral||1946||Constitutional monarchy||Prime Minister is dependent on the confidence of both of the houses of Parliament.|
|Kosovo||Vjosa Osmani||Parliament, by two-thirds majority; by a simple majority, at the third ballot, if no candidate achieves the aforementioned majority in the first two ballots||Unicameral||2008||UN-administered Kosovo (formally part of Serbia)|
|Latvia||Egils Levits||Parliament||Unicameral||1991[note 11]||Presidential republic, thereafter occupied by a one-party state|
|Lebanon||Michel Aoun||Parliament||Unicameral||1941||Protectorate (French mandate of Lebanon)|
|Malta||George Vella||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1974||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)|
|Mauritius||Prithvirajsing Roopun||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1992||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)|
|Moldova||Maia Sandu||Direct election, by two-round system
(since 2016; previously by parliament, by three-fifths majority)
|Montenegro||Milo Đukanović||Direct election, by two-round system||Unicameral||1992||One-party state (Part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)|
|Nepal||Bidhya Devi Bhandari||Parliament and state legislators||Bicameral||2008[note 12]||Constitutional monarchy|
|North Macedonia||Stevo Pendarovski||Direct election, by two-round system||Unicameral||1991||One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)|
|Pakistan||Arif Alvi||Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff vote||Bicameral||2010||Assembly-independent republic|
|Poland||Andrzej Duda||Direct election, by majority||Bicameral||1989||One-party state (Polish People's Republic)||Poland has also been identified as a de facto semi-presidential republic as the President does exercise some form of governance and appoints the Prime Minister as the head of government. The decision is then subject to a parliamentary vote of confidence.|
|Samoa||Tuimalealiifano Va'aletoa Sualauvi II||Parliament||Unicameral||1960||Trust Territory of New Zealand|
|Serbia||Aleksandar Vučić||Direct election, by two-round system||Unicameral||1991||One-party state (part of Yugoslavia, and later Serbia and Montenegro)|
|Singapore||Halimah Yacob||Direct election (since 1993)||Unicameral||1965||State of Malaysia|
|Slovakia||Zuzana Čaputová||Direct election, by two-round system (since 1999; previously by parliament)||Unicameral||1993||Parliamentary Republic (part of Czechoslovakia)|
|Slovenia||Borut Pahor||Direct election, by two-round system||Bicameral||1991||One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)|
|Somalia||Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed||Parliament||Bicameral||2012[note 13]||One-party state|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Paula-Mae Weekes||Parliament||Bicameral||1976||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)|
|Vanuatu||Tallis Obed Moses||Parliament and regional council presidents, by majority||Unicameral||1980||British–French condominium (New Hebrides)|
|Parliamentary republics with an executive presidency|
|Country||Head of state||Head of state elected by||Cameral structure||Parliamentary republic with an executive presidency adopted||Previous government form||Notes|
|Botswana||Mokgweetsi Masisi||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1966||British protectorate (Bechuanaland Protectorate)|
|Kiribati||Taneti Maamau||Direct election, by first-past-the-post vote||Unicameral||1979||Protectorate|
|Marshall Islands||David Kabua||Parliament||Bicameral||1979||UN Trust Territory (part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)|
|Nauru||Lionel Aingimea||Parliament||Unicameral||1968||UN Trusteeship between Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom.|
|South Africa||Cyril Ramaphosa||Parliament, by majority||Bicameral||1961||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)||Was a full parliamentary republic from 1961–1984; adopted an executive presidency in 1984.|
|Country||Head of state||Head of state elected by||Cameral structure||Assembly-independent republic adopted||Previous government form||Notes|
|Federated States of Micronesia||David W. Panuelo||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1986||UN Trust Territory (Part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)|
|Guyana||Irfaan Ali||Semi-direct election, by first-past-the-post vote (vacancies are filled by Parliament, by majority)||Unicameral||1980||Full parliamentary republic|
|San Marino||Francesco Mussoni
|Parliament||Unicameral||1291||Theocracy (part of the Papal States)||Two collective heads of state and heads of government, the Captains Regent|
|Suriname||Chan Santokhi||Parliament||Unicameral||1987||Full parliamentary republic|
|Country||Head of state||Head of state elected by||Cameral structure||Parliamentary republic adopted||Previous government form||Notes|
|Parliament by exhaustive ballot at a joint sitting of both houses||Bicameral||1848||Confederation of states||Also has citizen-initiated referendums|
|Changed to||Reason for change||Notes|
|Full parliamentary republics|
|Armenian SSR||1920||1991||Semi-presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|First Austrian Republic||1920||1929||Semi-presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Belarus||1990||1994||Presidential system||New constitution adopted|
|Burma (present-day Myanmar)||1948||1962||Military dictatorship||1962 Burmese coup d'état|
|Chile||1891||1924||Military junta||1924 Chilean coup d'état|
|1925||1925||Presidential system||New constitution|
|Republic of China||1947||1972 (de facto)||Presidential system||Constitution suspended||The provisions establishing a parliamentary republic remain in the Constitution which is generally in effect, but are suspended by the Additional Articles, which have a sunset clause that will terminate them in the event of a hypothetical resumption of ROC rule in Mainland China.|
|1991 (de jure; nominally remains parliamentary)||Semi-presidential system||Additional articles of the Constitution adopted|
|First Czechoslovak Republic||1920||1939||One-party state||Munich agreement|
|Third Czechoslovak Republic||1945||1948||One-party parliamentary republic||Coup d'état|
|Fourth Czechoslovak Republic||1948||1989||Multi-party parliamentary republic||Velvet Revolution||One-party system under the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia|
|Fifth Czechoslovak Republic||1989||1992||State dissolved||Velvet Divorce|
|State of East Indonesia||1946||1950||State dissolved||Merged to the Republic of Indonesia|
|French Third Republic||1870||1940||Puppet state||World War II German occupation|
|French Fourth Republic||1946||1958||Semi-presidential system||New constitution adopted|
|Georgian SSR||1921||1991||Semi-presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Guyana||1970||1980||Assembly-independent republic||New constitution adopted|
|Hungary||1946||1949||One-party state||Creation of the People's Republic of Hungary|
|Indonesia||1945||1959||Presidential system||Presidential constitution reinstated|
|Israel||1948||1996||Semi-parliamentary system||Constitutional amendment|
|Second Republic of South Korea||1960||1961||Military junta||16 May coup|
|Kyrgyzstan||2010||2021||Presidential system||New constitution adopted|
|Lithuanian First Republic||1920||1926||One-party state||1926 Lithuanian coup d'état||In June 1940, Lithuania was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.|
(which led in 1979 to the democratic, presidential Second Nigerian Republic)
|Pakistan||1956||1958||Military dictatorship||1958 Pakistani coup d'état|
|1973||1978||1977 Pakistani coup d'état|
|1997||1999||1999 Pakistani coup d'état|
|2002||2003||Assembly-independent republic||Constitutional amendment|
|Second Polish Republic||1919||1935||Presidential system||New constitution adopted|
|First Portuguese Republic||1911||1926||Military dictatorship
(which led in 1933
to the Estado Novo one-party presidential republic)
|28 May coup|
|First Philippine Republic (Malolos Republic)||1899||1901||Military dictatorship
(De facto United States Colony)
|Capture of Emilio Aguinaldo to the American forces|
|Fourth Philippine Republic||1973||1981||Semi-presidential system
(de facto Military dictatorship under Martial Law between 1972 and 1986.)
|Republic of the Congo||1960||1965||Military dictatorship
(De facto one-party state)
|1965 Congolese coup d'état|
|Rhodesia||1970||1979||Parliamentary system||Creation of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia||Political rights were restricted to the white minority|
|Russian SFSR||1917||1991||Semi-presidential system||Referendum|
|Soviet Union||1922||1990||Semi-presidential system||Constitutional amendment||Had a collective head of state with a distinct Chairman until 1989|
One-party system under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
|First Spanish Republic||1873||1874||Constitutional monarchy||Restoration of the monarchy|
|Second Spanish Republic||1931||1939||One-party state
(which declared itself a constitutional monarchy in 1947)
|Suriname||1975||1987||Assembly-independent republic||New constitution adopted|
|Sri Lanka||1972||1978||Semi-presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Syrian Republic||1930||1958||State dissolved||Creation of the United Arab Republic||Merged into the United Arab Republic, which operated as a One-party presidential system|
|Syrian Arab Republic||1961||1963||One-party presidential system||1963 Syrian coup d'état|
|Transvaal Republic||1852||1902||Colony of the British Empire||Second Boer War|
|Turkey||1923||2018||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Uganda||1963||1966||One-party state||Suspension of the constitution|
|Ukrainian SSR||1919||1991||Semi-presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Yugoslavia||1945||1953||Parliamentary republic with an executive presidency||Constitutional amendment||Had a collective head of state with a distinct Chairman|
One-party system under the Communist Party of Yugoslavia
|Zimbabwe Rhodesia||1979||1979||Dependent territory||Reversion to Southern Rhodesia|
|Zimbabwe||1980||1987||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Parliamentary republics with an executive presidency|
with an executive
|Changed to||Reason for change||Notes|
|Gambia||1970||1982||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment||The president was elected semi-directly by a constituency-based double simultaneous vote, with vacancies filled by Parliament; a motion of no confidence automatically entailed snap parliamentary elections. Presidential elections were made fully direct and separate from parliamentary elections in 1982.|
|Kenya||1964||2013||Presidential system||New constitution and elections||Originally, the president was elected semi-directly by a constituency-based double simultaneous vote, with vacancies filled by Parliament; a motion of no confidence automatically entailed either the resignation of the president or snap parliamentary elections. Presidential elections were made fully direct in 1969, including after a vacancy, but their schedule remained linked to the parliamentary elections.|
A separate Prime Minister existed between 2008 and 2013
The switch to a fully presidential system was legislated in 2010, but only took effect in 2013.
|Yugoslavia||1953||1963||Assembly-independent republic||New constitution||One-party system under the League of Communists of Yugoslavia|
|Changed to||Reason for change||Notes|
|First Republic of Ghana||1960||1966||Military dictatorship
(Which led to the fully parliamentary Second Republic of Ghana)
|Pakistan||1985||1997||Full parliamentary republic||Constitutional amendment|
|Serbia and Montenegro||1992||2000||Semi-presidential republic||Constitutional amendment|
|Tanganyika||1962||1964||State dissolved||Creation of the United Republic of Tanzania||Merged into the United Republic of Tanzania, which operated as a One-party presidential system|
|Yugoslavia||1963||1980||Directorial republic||New constitution and the death of Josip Broz Tito||One-party system under the League of Communists of Yugoslavia|
The change to a directorial system was legislated in 1973, but only took effect in 1980.
|Yugoslavia||1980||1992||—||Breakup of Yugoslavia||One-party system under the League of Communists of Yugoslavia|
- Changed after the 2015 referendum.
- Was, previously, a parliamentary republic between 1972 and 1975.
- The Constitution of the Republic of China went into effect on 25 December 1947 as the Chinese Civil War was underway. On 1 October 1949, the Kuomintang-led Republic of China (ROC) was succeeded in Mainland China by the People's Republic of China, a single-party state governed by the Chinese Communist Party. The ROC government was then confined to the island of Taiwan from 7 December. The provisions establishing a parliamentary republic remain in the Constitution but are suspended by the Additional Articles, which established direct presidential elections since 1996.
- Under the Additional Articles, the Control Yuan ceased to be a parliamentary chamber in 1993 and the National Assembly was dissolved in 2005 leaving the Legislative Yuan as the unicameral chamber. Functions of the National Assembly were transferred to the Legislative Yuan and nationwide referendums. According to Judicial Yuan Interpretation no. 76, Shall the National Assembly, the Legislative Yuan and the Control Yuan be considered en masse as equivalent to the parliaments of democratic nations? issued on May 3, 1957: The Constitution was enacted according to the exhortation of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen. In addition to the National Assembly, five Yuans have been established, the concept of which is not really analogous to the separation of powers system. The National Assembly representing all the nationals exercises the political power, the Legislative Yuan is the highest legislative institution of the nation and the Control Yuan is the highest monitoring institution of the nation. All of them are composed of representatives or members that are directly or indirectly elected by the people. Their functions and powers are similar to those important powers exercised by the parliaments of democratic nations. Although some of their approachs to the exercise of power, such as a regular annual assembly, quorum and resolution by the majority are not the same as those of parliaments of democratic nations, the National Assembly, the Legislative Yuan and the Control Yuan, from the perspective of the nature of their statuses and functions in the Constitution, should be considered as equivalent to the parliaments of democratic nations.
- Estonia was previously a parliamentary republic between 1918 and 1934 when the system was changed to a presidential system which was thereafter overthrown by a coup d'état. In 1938, Estonia finally adopted a presidential system and in June 1940 was illegally occupied by the Soviet Union. Became a parliamentary republic again in 1990 with the implementation of an interim period to restore full independence, which was achieved by 1991.
- Formerly a semi-presidential republic, it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter, First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University. In his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press, revised 2008 ISBN 9780719078538), he quotes Nousiainen, Jaakko (June 2001). "From semi-presidentialism to parliamentary government: political and constitutional developments in Finland". Scandinavian Political Studies. 24 (2): 95–109. doi:10.1111/1467-9477.00048. as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". According to the Finnish Constitution, the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire. Finland is actually represented by its prime minister, and not by its president, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. The 2012 constitutional amendements reduced the powers of the president even further.
- "Salome Zurabishvili Wins Georgia Presidential Runoff". The New York Times. The Associated Press. 29 November 2018. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- In the case of the former West German states, including former West Berlin, the previous one-party state is Nazi Germany, but in the case of the New Länder and former East Berlin it is East Germany. German reunification took place on 3 October 1990, when the five re-established states of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) joined the Federal Republic of Germany, and Berlin was united into a single city-state. Therefore, this date applies to today's Federal Republic of Germany as a whole, although the area of former East Germany was no part of that parliamentary republic until 1990.
- Officially bicameral, upper house never entered into functions, to present day.
- The head of state was ambiguous from 1936 until the Republic of Ireland Act came into force on 18 April 1949. A minority of Irish republicans assert that the Irish Republic proclaimed in 1919 is still extant.
- Latvia was previously a parliamentary republic between 1921 and 1934 when the then prime minister Kārlis Ulmanis took power in a coup d'état. In June 1940 Latvia was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
- Under a transitional government between 2006 and 2015; this Transitional Government was responsible to an elected Constituent Assembly, which resolved to establish a republic in 2008.
- Had a transitional government between 1991 and 2012.
- Twomey, Anne. "Australian politics explainer: Gough Whitlam's dismissal as prime minister". The Conversation. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
- "The President's Role - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
- Arend Lijphart, ed. (1992). Parliamentary versus presidential government. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-878044-1.
- "Malta: Heads of State: 1964-1974". Archontology.org. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- "British Monarch's Titles: 1867-2018". Archontology.org. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- "Mauritius: Heads of State: 1968-1992". Archontology.org. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- Paxton, John (1984). The Statesman's Year-Book 1984-85. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-333-34731-7. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- Constitution of Nepal Archived December 23, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- Kiran Khalid, CNN (9 April 2010). "Pakistan lawmakers approve weakening of presidential powers". CNN. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
|author=has generic name (help)
- "'18th Amendment to restore Constitution'". Nation.com.pk. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
- Veser, Ernst [in German] (23 September 1997). "Semi-Presidentialism-Duverger's Concept — A New Political System Model" (PDF) (in English and Chinese). Department of Education, School of Education, University of Cologne. pp. 39–60. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 April 2021. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
Duhamel has developed the approach further: He stresses that the French construction does not correspond to either parliamentary or the presidential form of government, and then develops the distinction of 'système politique' and 'régime constitutionnel'. While the former comprises the exercise of power that results from the dominant institutional practice, the latter is the totality of the rules for the dominant institutional practice of the power. In this way, France appears as 'presidentialist system' endowed with a 'semi-presidential regime' (1983: 587). By this standard he recognizes Duverger's pléiade as semi-presidential regimes, as well as Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and Lithuania (1993: 87).
- Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
- Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). French Politics. 3 (3): 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
Even if the president has no discretion in the forming of cabinets or the right to dissolve parliament, his or her constitutional authority can be regarded as 'quite considerable' in Duverger's sense if cabinet legislation approved in parliament can be blocked by the people's elected agent. Such powers are especially relevant if an extraordinary majority is required to override a veto, as in Mongolia, Poland, and Senegal. In these cases, while the government is fully accountable to parliament, it cannot legislate without taking the potentially different policy preferences of the president into account.
- McMenamin, Iain. "Semi-Presidentialism and Democratisation in Poland" (PDF). School of Law and Government, Dublin City University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- "Trinidad and Tobago: Heads of State: 1962-1976". Archontology.org. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- "South Africa: Heads of State: 1910-1961". Archontology.org. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- Carlin, John (31 May 1994). "South Africa returns to the Commonwealth fold". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2022-05-25. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- "Secession Talked by Some Anti-Republicans". Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. 11 October 1960. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- Every list of candidates for Parliament must also have a candidate for President, and the having the most votes automatically has its candidate elected President