Paris Saint-Germain F.C.
Paris Saint-Germain Football Club (French pronunciation: [paʁi sɛ̃ ʒɛʁmɛ̃]), commonly referred to as Paris Saint-Germain, Paris SG, or simply Paris or PSG, is a French professional football club based in Paris. Founded in 1970, the club has traditionally worn red and blue kits. PSG has played their home matches in the 47,929-capacity Parc des Princes, in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, since 1974. The club plays in the highest tier of French football, Ligue 1.
|Full name||Paris Saint-Germain Football Club|
|Nickname(s)||Les Parisiens (The Parisians)|
Les Rouge et Bleu (The Red and Blues)
|Short name||PSG, Paris SG, Paris|
|Founded||12 August 1970|
|Ground||Parc des Princes|
|Owner||Qatar Sports Investments|
|Head coach||Thomas Tuchel|
|2018–19||Ligue 1, 1st|
|Active departments of|
|Football (Men's)||Football (Youth Men's)||Football (Women's)|
|Handball (Men's)||Esports||Judo (Mixed)|
|Closed departments of|
|Boxing (Men's)||Rugby League (Men's)|
The Parisian club established itself as a major force in France, and one of the major forces of European football in the 2010s. PSG have won 40 titles, making it the most successful French club in history by this measure. PSG are also the club with most consecutive seasons playing in the top-flight (they have been 45 seasons in Ligue 1 since 1974), one of only two French clubs to have won a major European title, the most popular football club in France, and one of the most widely supported teams in the world.
Domestically, the Parisians have won eight Ligue 1 titles, a record twelve Coupe de France, a record eight Coupe de la Ligue, and a record nine Trophée des Champions titles. In European football, they have won one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup and one UEFA Intertoto Cup. The capital club has also won one Ligue 2, regarded as a minor official title. PSG have a long-standing rivalry with Olympique de Marseille. The duo contest French football's most notorious match, known as Le Classique.
The State of Qatar, through its shareholding organisation Qatar Sports Investments (QSI), has been the club's owner since 2011. The takeover made Paris Saint-Germain the richest club in France and one of the wealthiest in the world. As of the 2018–19 season, PSG have the fifth-highest revenue in the footballing world with an annual revenue of €636m according to Deloitte, and are the world's eleventh most valuable football club, worth €825m according to Forbes.
Paris Saint-Germain Football Club was founded on 12 August 1970 after the merger of Paris Football Club and Stade Saint-Germain. PSG made an immediate impact, winning promotion to Ligue 1 in their first season after claiming the Ligue 2 title. Their momentum was soon checked, however, and the club split in 1972. Paris FC remained in Ligue 1, while PSG kept their name but were administratively demoted to Division 3. PSG got their revenge in 1974 when they returned to Ligue 1 and Paris FC slipped into the division below. The club also moved into Parc des Princes that same year.
The club's trophy cabinet welcomed its first major silverware in the shape of the Coupe de France in 1982, during a decade marked by players such as Safet Sušić, Luis Fernández and Dominique Rocheteau. PSG claimed their maiden league title in 1986 and immediately went into decline. But a takeover by television giants Canal+ revitalised the club and PSG entered their golden era. Led by David Ginola, George Weah and Raí, the club won nine trophies during the 1990s. Most notably, the Parisians claimed a second league title in 1994 and their crowning glory, the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1996.
At the start of the 21st century, PSG struggled to rescale the heights despite the magic of Ronaldinho and the goals of Pauleta. Five more trophies arrived in the form of three Coupe de France, one Coupe de la Ligue and one UEFA Intertoto Cup, but the club became better known for lurching from one high-profile crisis to another. Indeed, Paris Saint-Germain spent two seasons staving off relegations that were only very narrowly avoided.
This changed in 2011 with the arrival of new majority shareholders Qatar Sports Investments (QSI). Since the buyout, PSG have signed several stars like Zlatan Ibrahimović, Thiago Silva, Edinson Cavani, Neymar and Kylian Mbappé, and have dominated French football. Despite this, the UEFA Champions League has proven to be a trophy beyond their reach. PSG have never even made it to the semifinals since 2012, reaching the quarterfinals on five occasions as well as exiting the competition at the last-16 round three times.
Colours and mascot
Since their foundation, Paris Saint-Germain have always represented both the city of Paris and the nearby royal town of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. As a result, red, blue and white are the club's traditional colours. The red and blue are Parisian colours, a nod to revolutionary figures Lafayette and Jean Sylvain Bailly, and the white is a symbol of French royalty and Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
On the club's crest, the Eiffel Tower in red and the blue background represent Paris, while the fleur de lys in white is a hint to the coat of arms of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. The fleur de lys is a royal symbol as well and recalls that French King Louis XIV was born in the town. Throughout its history, PSG have brandished several different crests, but all of them have featured the club's three historical colours.
Likewise, PSG's most iconic shirts have been predominantly red, blue or white, with the remaining two colours included as well. The club's official mascot, Germain the Lynx, also sports PSG's traditional colours. It was unveiled during the 2010 Tournoi de Paris in commemoration of the club's 40th anniversary, and can be seen entertaining kids in the stands of Parc des Princes or near the pitch with the players during the warm-up.
Anthems and mottos
"Allez Paris-Saint-Germain!" is the club's official anthem. The hymn was originally recorded by Les Parisiens in 1977 at the initiative of historical PSG leader and music producer Charles Talar, who produced and released it under his homonym record label. Chanted by supporters, the anthem is also usually played before every match at Parc des Princes. In 2010, as part of its 40th anniversary celebrations, the club recorded a new version to the tune of "Go West" by Village People. Its lyrics were also rewritten with suggestions made by fans.
"Ô Ville Lumière" ("Oh City of Light"), to the tune of "Flower of Scotland," is another veritable club anthem. PSG gave it official status in 2015 when the club announced it would accompany the players' entry into the field, a tradition which began in 1992 with the song "Who Said I Would" by Phill Collins. Supporters' groups from the Boulogne and Auteuil stands also have several different chants, most notably "Le Parc est à nous" ("The Parc is ours"), "Paris est magique!" ("Paris is magical!") and "Ici, c'est Paris!" ("This is Paris!"). Both stands began exchanging these chants during PSG matches in the 1990s. "Paris est magique!" and "Ici, c'est Paris!" also became the club's most iconic mottos or slogans.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paris Saint-Germain FC kits.|
Paris Saint-Germain wore a red shirt during their first three seasons of existence. The jersey also featured a blue and white collar to bring together the three colours of the club: the red and blue of Paris, and the white of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. During the 2010–11 season, PSG wore a red home shirt to commemorate their 40th anniversary.
The connection between PSG and the city's fashion houses is a longstanding one. French fashion designer Daniel Hechter became club president in 1973 and designed PSG's traditional look that same year: a red vertical stripe, bordered with white, on a blue background. Hechter based his creation on the red-and-white jersey worn by Ajax, the Dutch champion dominating European competition at the time, but with the French flag in mind.
First worn between 1973 and 1981, the so-called "Hechter shirt" returned as PSG's home identity in 1994 and has remained so ever since despite several experiments from Nike. PSG stars from the 1990s and 2000s like Raí, Ronaldinho and Pauleta are associated with the "Hechter shirt." It was with that jersey that PSG reached five European semi-finals in a row (1993–1997), claimed the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1995–96 and achieved the (first) eight consecutive wins against arch-rivals Olympique de Marseille (2002–2004).
Promoted by PSG president Francis Borelli, the capital club changed its home identity in 1981–82. The new shirt, worn until 1992–93, was white with blue and red vertical stripes on the left. PSG legends from the 1980s like Safet Sušić, Luis Fernández and Dominique Bathenay are associated with the white jersey. It was with this outfit that fans saw the first big Paris Saint-Germain team that won two Coupe de France titles (1982, 1983), experienced their first European campaign in 1983, and claimed their maiden league crown in 1986.
The original crest of the club, also known as the Paris FC logo, was used until 1973. It featured a ball with a vessel (a historic symbol of Paris). This crest logically changed shortly after Paris Saint-Germain split from Paris FC in 1972. Like with the club's iconic shirt, PSG president and fashion designer Daniel Hechter also created its historic crest in 1973. Known as the Eiffel Tower logo, it added Saint-Germain-en-Laye symbols for the first time: the fleur de lys and the cradle, representing royalty and the birthplace of French King Louis XIV in the town, respectively. The new crest mainly consisted of the Eiffel Tower in red against a blue background with the cradle and the fleur de lys between the tower's legs.
Parc des Princes was added to the crest in 1980. This logo lasted until 1991 with the exception of the 1986–87 and 1987–88 seasons when the club used a special logo in support of the Paris candidature for the 1992 Summer Olympics. The stadium was removed from the crest in 1991. Former PSG owners Canal+ tried to replace the iconic crest in 1993. The new model had the acronym "PSG" and underneath it "Paris Saint-Germain." Under pressure from supporters, the traditional crest returned in 1995 with "Paris Saint-Germain" above the tower and "1970" underneath its legs. This crest went through a slight facelift in 2002.
Under the leadership of their Qatari owners and club president Nasser Al-Khelaifi, the club requested a major makeover of the Eiffel Tower crest in 2013. The new logotype clearly puts forward the brand “Paris” instead of “Paris Saint-Germain.” PSG's logo was redrawn, making the word “Paris” very big, above a large Eiffel Tower. Underneath it, “Saint-Germain,” written in smaller letters, remains associated with the fleur-de-lis, its emblem. In contrast, Louis XIV's cradle and the club's founding year "1970" were left out. As PSG deputy general manager Jean-Claude Blanc said: “We are called Paris Saint-Germain but, above all, we are called Paris.”
Parc des Princes
Paris Saint-Germain played their first game at Parc des Princes against Red Star on 10 November 1973, as a curtain-raiser for that season's opening Ligue 1 match between Paris FC (PFC) and Sochaux. The club moved into the ground upon its return to Ligue 1 in 1974, ironically the same year that Paris FC were relegated. Up until that point it had been the home venue of PFC. On the other hand, PSG had been playing at several grounds including Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre, Stade Jean-Bouin, Stade Bauer, and even Parc des Princes a few times that season despite the reluctance of PFC. Parc des Princes has a seating capacity of 47,929 spectators.
Camp des Loges
The Camp des Loges became the club's training ground in 1970 following the foundation of Paris Saint-Germain. Construction of a new Camp des Loges began in January 2008, on the same site as the old one. At a cost of €5m, it was inaugurated in November 2008. In 2013, the venue was renamed Ooredoo Training Centre as part of a sponsorship deal with Ooredoo.
Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre
The Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre, whose main stadium has a seating capacity of 2,164 spectators, is a sports complex located just across the street from Camp des Loges. It was one of PSG's main grounds until 1974. That year the club moved into Parc des Princes. The stadium — as well as the other artificial turf and grass football pitches of the complex — hosts training sessions and home matches for the club's male and female youth academy sides.
Paris Saint-Germain Training Center
The Paris Saint-Germain Training Center will be the new training ground and sports complex of Paris Saint-Germain. It will replace Camp des Loges upon its completion in 2022. Owned and financed by the club, the venue will bring together PSG's male football, handball and judo teams, as well as the football and handball youth academies. The club, however, will remain closely linked to their historic birthplace in Saint-Germain-en-Laye as Camp des Loges will become the training ground of the female football team and academy.
Paris Saint-Germain is the most popular football club in France with 22% of fans identifying as Parisians. Le Classique arch-rivals Olympique de Marseille come second with 20%, while Olympique Lyonnais is third with 14%. PSG is also one of the most widely supported teams in the world with 35 million supporters worldwide, more than any other French club. Famous PSG fans include former French President Nicolas Sarkozy and retired NBA player Tony Parker.
In 1976 the club didn't have a big passionate fanbase and thus began offering cheaper season tickets to young supporters that year. These fans were placed in the Kop K, located in the K section of the Borelli stand at Parc des Princes. Following an increase in ticket prices, Kop K supporters moved to the Boulogne stand in 1978, and the Kop of Boulogne (KoB) was born. There, the club's first Italian-style ultra group, Boulogne Boys, was founded in 1985. Other KoB groups, however, took British hooligans as dubious role models and violence rapidly escalated. PSG supporters' groups have been linked to football hooliganism ever since.
PSG owners Canal+ responded in 1991 by encouraging and financing non-violent fans of the KoB stand to take place in the Auteuil stand at the other end of Parc des Princes. The Virage Auteuil was born, alongside Supras Auteuil, its most notorious ultras. At first the measure worked but, slowly, a violent rivalry arose between the two stands. Things came to a head in 2010 before a match against Marseille in Paris. Boulogne fan Yann Lorence was killed following a fight between groups from both stands outside Parc des Princes, forcing PSG president Robin Leproux to take action.
The club exiled the supporters' groups from Parc des Princes and banned them from all PSG matches in what was known as Plan Leproux. It made PSG pay the price in terms of atmosphere, with one of Europe's most feared venues now subdued. For their part, former Virage Auteuil supporters formed the Collectif Ultras Paris (CUP) in February 2016, with the aim of reclaiming their place at the stadium. In October 2016, after a six-year absence, the club agreed to their return. Grouped in the Auteuil end of the stadium, the CUP currently is the only ultra association officially recognized by PSG. The ultra movement has also started to come back to life in the Boulogne stand. New groups Block Parisii, Paname Rebirth and Résistance Parisienne are trying to convince the club of relaunching the Kop of Boulogne.
Paris Saint-Germain shares an intense rivalry with Olympique de Marseille; matches between the two teams are referred to as Le Classique. The term Le Classique is modelled after El Clásico, contested between Real Madrid and Barcelona. The Spanish press borrowed the term Clásico from South America, where most countries use it to label the biggest rivalries in the continent, such as the Superclásico between Boca Juniors and River Plate, and the Uruguayan Clásico between Nacional and Peñarol.
The clash is considered France's biggest rivalry as well as one of the greatest in club football. At the very least, it is France's most violent. Important security measures are taken to prevent confrontations between the fans, but violent episodes still often occur when they meet. Like all the game's major rivalries, it extends beyond the pitch. PSG/OM has a historical, cultural and social importance that makes it more than just a football match. It involves the two largest cities in France: Paris against Marseille, capital against province and north against south.
PSG and l'OM are the most successful clubs in French football history and the only French teams to have won major European trophies. They were also the dominant forces in the land prior to the emergence of Olympique Lyonnais at the start of the millennium. The duo remain, along with Saint-Étienne, the only French sides with a truly national fan base, being the most popular clubs in France, and the most followed French teams outside the country. Both clubs are at or near the top of the attendance lists every year as well.
Tournoi de Paris
Initially held by Racing Paris between 1957 and 1966, the Tournoi de Paris briefly returned in 1973 with new organizers Paris FC, before current hosts Paris Saint-Germain successfully relaunched the competition in 1975. Abandoned in 1993 for financial reasons, PSG revived it in 2010 for the club's 40th anniversary. Not held in 2011, it was renamed Trophée de Paris in 2012, and featured a single prestigious match. This was the last edition to date. PSG is the most successful club in the competition's history, having lifted the trophy on seven occasions. Regarded as French football's most prestigious friendly tournament, the Tournoi de Paris is also considered a precursor of both the Intercontinental Cup and FIFA Club World Cup.
Tournoi Indoor de Paris-Bercy
The Tournoi Indoor de Paris-Bercy was a mid-season indoor football invitational competition hosted by Paris Saint-Germain at the AccorHotels Arena in Paris, France. The tournament was founded in 1984 and was held annually until 1991. Played indoors (synthetic field and seven-a-side), the competition featured host club PSG and five more teams. Paris SG is the most successful club in the history of the competition, having lifted the trophy on two occasions.
Ownership and finances
During their first three years of existence, Paris Saint-Germain was fan-owned and had nearly 15,000 socios (associates, supporters, shareholders). The club was run by board members Guy Crescent, Pierre-Étienne Guyot and Henri Patrelle. A group of wealthy French businessmen, led by Daniel Hechter and Francis Borelli, would then buy the club in 1973. Paris changed hands in 1991, when Canal+ took over, and then again in 2006, with the arrival of Colony Capital. The State of Qatar, through its shareholding organisation Qatar Sports Investments (QSI), has been PSG's owner since 2011.
This means that PSG are one of only two state-owned clubs in the world, along with Manchester City. As a result, Paris SG are also one of the richest clubs in the world. QSI, a subsidiary of the Qatar Investment Authority (QIA), became the club's majority shareholders in June 2011 and sole shareholders in March 2012. For his part, QSI chairman Nasser Al-Khelaifi has been PSG president since the takeover. PSG's real boss, however, is the Emir of Qatar Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani. He is both the chairman of the QIA and the founder of QSI.
Upon their arrival, QSI pledged to form a team capable of winning the UEFA Champions League and making the club France's biggest name. Consequently, since the summer of 2011, Paris Saint-Germain have spent more than €1b on player transfers such as Thiago Silva, Zlatan Ibrahimović, Edinson Cavani, David Luiz, Neymar and Kylian Mbappé. These massive expenditures have translated in PSG's domination of French football, winning 20 national titles in the process. However, they have not yet brought home the coveted Champions League trophy and have caused the capital club problems with UEFA and its Financial Fair Play regulations (FFP).
As of the 2018–19 season, Paris Saint-Germain have the fifth-highest revenue in the footballing world with an annual turnover of €542m according to Deloitte, and are the world's eleventh most valuable football club, worth €825m according to Forbes. PSG's strong financial position has been sustained by the club's lucrative sponsorship deals with several commercial partners, including top sponsors Nike and ALL. Throughout their history, though, PSG has rarely been profitable. Prior to the Qatar buyout, the club's cumulative losses between 1998 and 2010 amounted to €300m.
Records and statistics
Since their inception, Paris Saint-Germain have played 49 seasons, all of them within the top three levels of the French football league system: Ligue 1, Ligue 2 and Division 3. The Red and Blues hold many records, most notably being the most successful French club in history in terms of trophies won (with 40), the club with most consecutive seasons playing in the top-flight (they have been 45 seasons in Ligue 1 since 1974), the only club to have won the Coupe de France without conceding a single goal (1992–93 and 2016–17), and one of only two French clubs to have won a major European title.
PSG have won the Ligue 1 title eight times. The club's worst Ligue 1 finish to date is 16th, their placing at the end of the 1971–72 and 2007–08 seasons. The 2015–16 season was the club's best to date. PSG won all four domestic titles (Ligue 1, Coupe de France, Coupe de la Ligue and Trophée des Champions) and reached the quarter-finals of the UEFA Champions League. In Ligue 1, the capital club finished with 96 points (national record), while Zlatan Ibrahimović scored 50 goals in all competitions (national record). However, the club's record for most goals in a season was set in 2017–18, when PSG scored 171 goals in all competitions.
The Parisians are also the only club to have won the Coupe de la Ligue five times in a row (2014–2018), the only club to have won the Coupe de France four times in a row (2015–2018), the only club to win the Trophée des Champions seven times in a row (2013–2019), the first European club to have won all four national titles (Ligue 1, Coupe de France, Coupe de la Ligue and Trophée des Champions) in a single season (2014–15, 2015–16 and 2017–18), and the youngest European club to have won a European trophy.
On the other hand, influential officials and players in the club's history include most decorated president Nasser Al-Khelaifi, most decorated manager Laurent Blanc, record appearance maker Jean-Marc Pilorget, top scorer Edinson Cavani, assist leader Safet Sušić, most capped and longest-serving captain Thiago Silva, Ballon d'Or winner and FIFA World Player of the Year George Weah, and PSG Hall of Famers Jean Djorkaeff, Jean-Pierre Dogliani, Mustapha Dahleb, Carlos Bianchi, Dominique Bathenay, Dominique Rocheteau, Luis Fernández, Bernard Lama, David Ginola, Ricardo, Valdo, Raí, Jay-Jay Okocha, Ronaldinho, Pauleta, David Beckham and Zlatan Ibrahimović.
- As of the 2019–20 season.
|Domestic||Ligue 1||8||1985–86, 1993–94, 2012–13, 2013–14, 2014–15, 2015–16, 2017–18, 2018–19|
|Coupe de France||12||1981–82, 1982–83, 1992–93, 1994–95, 1997–98, 2003–04, 2005–06, 2009–10, 2014–15, 2015–16, 2016–17, 2017–18|
|Coupe de la Ligue||8||1994–95, 1997–98, 2007–08, 2013–14, 2014–15, 2015–16, 2016–17, 2017–18|
|Trophée des Champions||9||1995, 1998, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019|
|European||UEFA Cup Winners' Cup||1||1995–96|
|UEFA Intertoto Cup||1||2001|
French teams are limited to four players without EU citizenship. Hence, the squad list includes only the principal nationality of each player; several non-European players on the squad have dual citizenship with an EU country. Also, players from the ACP countries—countries in Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific that are signatories to the Cotonou Agreement—are not counted against non-EU quotas due to the Kolpak ruling.
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Out on loan
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Hall of Fame
Staff and management
|Assistant coaches|| Arno Michels|
|Video analysis manager||Benjamin Weber|
|Goalkeeper coach||Gianluca Spinelli|
|Fitness coaches|| Denis Lefebve|
|Performance manager||Martin Buchheit|
|Doctors|| Christophe Baudot|
|Physiotherapists|| Bruno Mazziotti|
|Deputy general manager||Jean-Claude Blanc|
|Secretary general||Victoriano Melero|
|Assistant sporting director||Angelo Castellazzi|
- "Parc des Princes". PSG.fr. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
- "Paris Saint-Germain FC". UEFA.com. 22 August 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- "Histoire". PSG.fr. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
- "Le Palmarès du PSG". Histoire du #PSG. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- "PSG, 45 saisons consécutives et nouveau record en Ligue 1". Histoire du #PSG. 11 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
- "Paris city guide". UEFA.com. Archived from the original on 9 July 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- "Le PSG est le nouveau club préféré des Français". Onze Mondial. 22 March 2018. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- "The Top 15 Biggest and Most Supported Football Teams in the World". Zeelo Blog. 19 April 2019. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- "France's passion play". FIFA.com. 12 March 2009. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
- "Le Qatar sans limite". Le Parisien. 7 March 2012. Archived from the original on 6 December 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
- "Paris Saint-Germain, having conquered France, are still working on Qatar". The National. 30 December 2015. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
- "Deloitte Football Money League 2020". Deloitte. 14 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- "Paris Saint-Germain on the Forbes Soccer Team Valuations List". Forbes. 12 June 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "La création du PSG de 1970 à 1973". Paris United. 12 November 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "Histoire du Paris Saint Germain". PSG70. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- "Le jour où le PSG a investi le Parc". SoFoot. 13 August 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- "Things You Should Know About Paris Saint-Germain FC". Culture Trip. 14 December 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- "A brief history of PSG". ESPN FC. 17 August 2012. Archived from the original on 12 November 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- "PSG firmly in the pantheon". FIFA.com. 17 October 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- "Paris Saint-Germain's Qatari owners have spent $1.17 billion on players". CNBC.com. 18 September 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "PSG Have Spent €1.17Billion On Players And Still Haven't Got Past Champions League QF's". SPORTbible. 7 March 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- "PSG's Champions League fortunes won't change until the club changes its zero-sum gamesmanship". Yahoo! Sports. 6 March 2019. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "Neymar and Mbappe lead PSG in mocking Haaland celebration". ESPN.com. 12 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- "Le PSG". Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- "Blasons, Logos, Écussons du PSG". PSG70. Archived from the original on 11 November 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
- "Paris Saint-Germain, la capitale scintille en rouge et bleu". SO FOOT.com. 28 December 2015. Archived from the original on 17 April 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- "Le PSG prend un nouveau virage". PSG.fr. 23 July 2010. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
- "Allez Paris-Saint-Germain". Bide et Musique. 9 February 2003. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- "PSG: Ecoutez l'hymne des Parisiens chanté par les joueurs !". Sportune. 22 March 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- "Chronologie". Nouvel Obs. 1 June 2006. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- "Les chants des supporters du PSG en vidéos". PSG MAG. 6 November 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- "Comment "O Ville Lumière" est en train de pousser Phil Collins vers la sortie". L'ÉQUIPE. 19 December 2015. Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- "VIDÉOS - Les chants les plus emblématiques des supporters dans les stades de foot en France". France Bleu. 20 April 2018. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- "Kop of Boulogne, the story". SO FOOT.com. 5 March 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- "PSG Ultràs are bringing the spark back to the Parc". Unusual Efforts. 16 November 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
- "Parc des Princes". The Blizzard. 4 September 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- "Can Paris Saint-Germain become the world's richest sports club?". Financial Times. 28 March 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- "Paris is Earning". The Classical. 11 January 2012. Archived from the original on 31 January 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- "Historique des maillots du PSG : les années 1970". PSG MAG. 16 June 2010. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- "Historique des maillots du PSG : les années 2010". PSG MAG. 20 June 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
- "At P.S.G., a Style Few Clubs Can Match". The New York Times. 3 November 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
- "Historique des maillots du PSG : les années 1980". PSG MAG. 17 June 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
- "The Crest Dissected – Paris Saint Germain". The Football History Boys. 11 April 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- "Historique des maillots du PSG : les années 1990". PSG MAG. 18 June 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
- "Design sporting club: L'OM et le PSG. Une histoire d'amour... du design". Design sporting club. 5 January 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
- "PSG dreams bigger with its new brand logo by Dragon Rouge". Dragon Rouge. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
- "Millième au Parc des Princes : ces dix matches qui ont fait l'histoire du PSG". Europe1. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- "A brief history: Paris FC". thefootballcult – Medium. 16 January 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- "1973 – 1978 : Paris se replace sur la scène française". Paris United. 19 November 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "Le PSG et Manchester City, les faux jumeaux". Le Monde. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- "Le Camp des Loges à St-Germain". 78actu. 26 June 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- "Présentation du nouveau centre d'entraînement". PSG.fr. 3 November 2008. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- "Ooredoo, nouveau partenaire du Paris Saint-Germain". PSG.fr. 12 September 2013. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- "Stade municipal Georges Lefèvre". Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- "Qu'est-ce que le Paris Saint-Germain Training Center ?". PSG.fr. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "Pourquoi le choix du site de Poncy, à Poissy ?". PSG.fr. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "Le campus PSG dévoile un nouveau site et de nouveaux visuels". CulturePSG. 25 July 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- "Le centre d'entraînement du PSG à Poissy sera finalement livré en 2022". Le Parisien. 16 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- "Le PSG choisit Poissy pour son futur centre d'entraînement". Le Parisien. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- "Que deviendra le Centre Ooredoo ?". PSG.fr. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "PSG – OM : Ces stars qui supportent le Paris Saint-Germain". Non Stop People. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
- "tribune K du Parc des Princes, là ou tout a commencé…". Paris.canal-historique. 20 September 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- "Plan du Parc". PSG.fr. Archived from the original on 3 March 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
- "1973–1978 : Naissance d'une ferveur". Paris United. 25 November 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- "Période 1978 – 1991 : l'ambiance du Parc". Paris United. 7 December 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- "Histoire des Supporters du Paris Saint-Germain Football Club 1904/2010 (saison par saison)". Ultras Paris!. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- "L'histoire du PSG période 1991–1998 : L'émergence des groupes de supporters". Paris United. 26 December 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- "L'histoire du PSG 1998–2006 : chaud le Parc !". Paris United. 4 January 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- "Histoire du PSG période 2006 – 2011, les tribunes : VA-KOB, à la vie à la mort". Paris United. 22 February 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- "Why the return of Paris Saint-Germain's ultras is such a big deal". ESPN FC. 12 November 2016. Archived from the original on 23 November 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- "Des groupes contestataires créent le « collectif ultras Paris »". La Grinta. 23 February 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- "Incidents face à l'Etoile Rouge : qui sont les ultras du PSG ?". Le Parisien. 5 October 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
- "PSG : au Parc de Princes, les ultras tentent de s'imposer côté Boulogne". Le Parisien. 24 September 2019. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
- "Joey Barton puts the "punch" back into the Marseille-PSG rivalry". Bleacher Report. 4 September 2012. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- "Du Classico au Classique ?". CulturePSG. 26 October 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
- "The top 50 football derbies on the world 20–11". Mirror Online. 13 April 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
- "Anecdotes autour du Tournoi de Paris". PSG.fr. 12 July 2010. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- "Le Paris SG va relancer le Tournoi de Paris en juillet". Le Point. 24 December 2009. Archived from the original on 26 December 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2010.
- "Football – Tournoi de Paris : Bordeaux maître dans la capitale". RTL.fr. 1 August 2010. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- "Le PSG relance le Tournoi de Paris dès 2010". PSG MAG. 24 December 2009. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- "PSG-Barcelone 2–2 : une soirée pleine de promesses". Le Parisien. 4 August 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- "Há 60 anos, Vasco derrotava o Real Madrid de Di Stéfano em Paris". Globo Esporte. 14 June 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- "Tournoi Indoor de Paris-Bercy". RSSSF. 5 October 2003. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "6 interesting facts you should know about Paris Saint Germain". Discover Walks Blog. 20 August 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
- "Political and Organizational Factors of PSG". Sports and Leisure in France. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- "Paris Saint-Germain: Can world's richest club rule Europe?". The Independent. 7 August 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "PSG v Manchester City emblematic of how Gulf rivals are fuelling football". The Guardian. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "PSG's Qatari owners tap Neymar to promote QNB". SportsPro Media. 10 December 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- "Al-Thani, Al-Khelaïfi, Blanc, Henrique : qui dirige vraiment le PSG ?". Le Parisien. 5 May 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- "Profile: Qatar Emir, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani". BBC News. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- "Football Leaks : les contrats surévalués du PSG version qatarie". Le Monde. 2 November 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "Deloitte Football Money League 2014" (PDF). Deloitte. 17 January 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
- "Sponsors". PSG.fr. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "Why Paris Saint-Germain's Financial Statements Qualify As Fiction". Forbes. 21 July 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- "Le PSG a cumulé 300 M€ de déficit depuis 1998". PSG MAG. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Paris S-G: Histoire du club dans chaque compétition". Footballdatabase.eu. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
- "Défense parfaite en Coupe de France : et de 3 pour le PSG !". Histoire du #PSG. 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Les records collectifs". Histoire du #PSG. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- "Les records individuels". Histoire du #PSG. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- "Le PSG reste au sommet". LFP.fr. 1 April 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- "Le PSG en Coupe de France : 4 à la suite, record national !". LFP.fr. 8 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- "PSG come from behind to beat Rennes in French Super Cup". The Guardian. 3 August 2019. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- "Man City 15 games from the quadruple – can they do it?". BBC Sport. 29 March 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "le match du jour, 8 mai 1996 : PSG-Rapid Vienne, Paris sur le toit de l'Europe". Paris.canal-historique. 8 May 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- "Présidents du Psg". ParisStats. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "Football : le PSG se sépare officiellement de son entraîneur Laurent Blanc". France 24. 27 June 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
- "Le classement des matchs officiels joués au PSG". Histoire du #PSG. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
- "Le classement historique des buteurs du PSG". Histoire du #PSG. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Le classement historique des passeurs du PSG". Histoire du #PSG. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Les records individuels". Histoire du #PSG. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- "Thiago Silva devient le capitaine le plus capé de l'histoire du PSG". CulturePSG. 30 April 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- "Iconic Weah a true great". FIFA.com. 19 February 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
- "Le PSG dévoile son Hall of Fame". Histoire du #PSG. 4 July 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "Équipe Première". PSG.fr. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
- "Tuchel donne ses cinq capitaines du PSG". CulturePSG. 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- "PSG : l'arrivée de Leonardo bousculerait l'organigramme du club". Le Parisien. 7 June 2019. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
- "Victoriano Melero officiellement secrétaire général du PSG". CulturePSG. 8 September 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
- "Angelo Castellazzi revient au PSG comme adjoint de Leonardo (L'E)". CulturePSG. 1 July 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paris Saint-Germain Football Club.|