Open main menu

Neil Gorsuch Supreme Court nomination

Judge Neil Gorsuch, his wife Louise,[1] and Donald Trump during the announcement in the East Room of the White House.

After his nomination on January 31, 2017, Neil Gorsuch was confirmed by the Senate on April 7, 2017.[2] Gorsuch, age 49 at confirmation, is the youngest sitting Supreme Court justice since Clarence Thomas.[3] In February 2016, U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice Antonin Scalia died, leaving a vacancy on the highest federal court in the United States. Article II of the U.S. Constitution requires the president to nominate justices to the Supreme Court, subject to the "advice and consent" of the United States Senate.[4] President Barack Obama, a Democrat, nominated Merrick Garland to fill the vacancy. U.S. Senate majority leader Mitch McConnell, a Republican, arguing that the presidential election cycle having already commenced made the appointment of the next justice a political issue to be decided by voters, refused to bring the Garland nomination to the Senate floor for a vote. McConnell's action held the Supreme Court vacancy open through the end of President Obama's tenure.

On January 31, 2017, newly inaugurated President Donald Trump announced his selection of Judge Neil Gorsuch for the vacant position of Associate Justice, and transmitted this nomination to the Senate the following day. After hearings before the Senate Judiciary Committee, the nomination was sent to the Senate floor on April 4, 2017. When nominated, Gorsuch was serving as an active judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, to which he had been appointed by President George W. Bush and confirmed without opposition in the Senate. Democratic Senators then proceeded to filibuster Gorsuch's nomination, after which Republicans invoked the "nuclear option", eliminating the filibuster with respect to Supreme Court nominees.[5] On April 7, 2017, the Senate confirmed Gorsuch's nomination to the Supreme Court with a 54–45 vote, with three Democrats joining all the Republicans in attendance. Gorsuch took office in a private ceremony on April 7.[6] On April 17, 2017, Gorsuch heard his first case as the 101st associate justice of the Court.[7]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

On February 13, 2016, Associate Justice Antonin Scalia died unexpectedly.[8][9] He was the second Supreme Court justice to die in office this century; the other was Chief Justice William Rehnquist in 2005. Before him, the last incumbent justice to die was Robert H. Jackson in 1954.[10] His death triggered a protracted political battle that did not end until the Senate confirmed Gorsuch's nomination in April 2017.

Scalia's death brought about an unusual situation in which a Democratic president had the opportunity to appoint a Supreme Court justice while the Republicans controlled the United States Senate, a situation had last arisen in 1895, when Grover Cleveland nominated Rufus Wheeler Peckham to the Court.[11] Also, the vacancy occurred during a presidential election year, only the seventh time a seat has become vacant during one since 1900.[12]

Political commentators at the time widely recognized Scalia as one of the most conservative members of the Court, and noted that President Barack Obama had an opportunity to name a more liberal replacement, a move that could alter the Court's ideological balance for many years into the future.[13] The president ultimately nominated Merrick Garland on March 16, 2016. His confirmation would have given Democratic appointees a majority on the Supreme Court for the first time since the 1970s.[14] Because of this, Republican Senate leaders, citing the fact that the vacancy arose during Obama's final year as president, declared that the Senate would not even consider a nomination from the president.

Garland's nomination expired on January 3, 2017, with the end of the 114th Congress, 293 days after it had been submitted to the Senate.[15] Due to the defeat of Garland's nomination, Scalia's seat remained vacant after Donald Trump's January 20, 2017 presidential inauguration.[15]

Many Democrats reacted angrily to the Senate's refusal to consider Garland, with Senator Jeff Merkley describing the vacant seat as a "stolen seat".[16] However, Republicans such Senator Chuck Grassley argued that the Senate was within its rights to refuse to consider a nominee until the inauguration of a new president.[17]

NominationEdit

CandidatesEdit

During the 2016 presidential campaign, while Garland remained before the Senate, Trump released two lists of potential nominees. On May 18, 2016, Trump released a short list of eleven judges for nomination to the Scalia vacancy.[18]

In September 2016, Trump released a second list of ten possible nominees, this time including three minorities.[19] Both lists were assembled by the Federalist Society and the Heritage Foundation.[20] Leonard Leo of the Federalist Society played a major role in the creation of the second list, which included Gorsuch.[21] After winning the presidential election, Trump and White House Counsel Don McGahn interviewed four individuals for the Supreme Court opening, all of whom had appeared on one of the two previously-released lists.[20] The four individuals were federal appellate judges Tom Hardiman, Bill Pryor, and Neil Gorsuch, as well as federal district judge Amul Thapar.[20] All four had been appointed to the federal bench by President George W. Bush. While Pryor had been seen by many as the early front-runner due to the backing of Attorney General Jeff Sessions, many evangelicals expressed resistance to him, and the final decision ultimately came down to Gorsuch or Hardiman.[20] Hardiman had the support of Trump's sister, Judge Maryanne Trump Barry,[20] but Trump instead chose to nominate Gorsuch.[22]

According to The Washington Post, Trump talked about rescinding Gorsuch's nomination, venting angrily to advisers after his Supreme Court pick was critical of the president's escalating attacks on the federal judiciary in private meetings with legislators.[23]

AnnouncementEdit

President Trump announced the nomination of Gorsuch on January 31, 2017. The nomination was formally transmitted to the Senate on February 1, 2017.[24] His nomination was pending before the Senate Judiciary Committee. At age 49, Gorsuch would become the youngest sitting Supreme Court justice since Clarence Thomas. Having clerked for Anthony Kennedy, Gorsuch would also become the first Supreme Court Justice to have previously clerked for a Justice still sitting on the court.[25]

In July 2006, Gorsuch's nomination to the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit had been confirmed in the Senate by a unanimous voice vote.[26] At the time of his nomination to the Supreme Court, Gorsuch was described as solidly conservative, but likely to be confirmed without much difficulty.[27][28][29] Richard Primus of Politico described Gorsuch as "Scalia 2.0" due to ideological similarities,[30] and a report prepared by Lee Epstein, Andrew Martin, and Kevin Quinn predicted that Gorsuch would be a "reliable conservative" similar to Scalia.[31]

Responses to the nominationEdit

 
Protests at the U.S. Supreme Court occurred following Gorsuch's nomination

Norm Eisen, Special Counsel for Ethics and Government Reform in the White House and Ambassador to the Czech Republic, endorsed Gorsuch.[32] Eisen was a classmate of both Gorsuch and Obama at Harvard Law.[32] Neal Katyal, who served as Acting Solicitor General of the United States during the Obama Administration and who is currently a law professor at Georgetown University Law Center, endorsed Gorsuch for approval to the Supreme Court.[33]

The National Rifle Association, the National Shooting Sports Foundation, the Second Amendment Foundation and other gun rights groups endorsed Gorsuch,[34][35][36] while Americans for Responsible Solutions, the Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence and other gun control proponents have opposed his nomination.[37][38] House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) claimed Gorsuch "comes down on the side of felons over gun safety". PolitiFact called her statement misleading and said that Gorsuch's past rulings do not "demonstrate that he thinks more felons should be allowed guns than what is already permitted under the law".[39]

The American Civil Liberties Union raised concerns about Gorsuch's respect for disability rights.[40] The Secular Coalition for America, Freedom from Religion Foundation and Union for Reform Judaism all voiced concerns with Gorsuch's nomination.[41]

The Judicial Crisis Network enthusiastically rallied behind Gorsuch after running a campaign against Merrick Garland, spending a total of $17 million to these ends.[42]

Confirmation hearingsEdit

Gorsuch's nomination was first considered by the Senate Judiciary Committee, which holds hearings on all federal judicial nominations and decides whether or not to send nominations to the full Senate for a final confirmation vote.[43] The committee consists of 11 Republican Senators and 9 Democratic Senators, and is chaired by Republican Chuck Grassley (R-IA). In February 2017, the committee requested the Justice Department to send all documents they had regarding Gorsuch's work in the George W. Bush administration. As of March 9, 2017, the Justice Department had turned over more than 144,000 pages of documents and, according to a White House spokesman, more than 220,000 pages of documents in total had been sent to the committee.[44] Gorsuch's confirmation hearings started on March 20, 2017, and lasted four days.[45][46] On April 3, the Judiciary Committee approved Gorsuch by in an 11–9 in a party-line vote.[47][48]

 
Judge Gorsuch testifying before the Senate Judiciary Committee on March 22, 2017

On the first day of hearings, Senators largely used their opening statements to criticize each other, with Ranking Member Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) complaining of the "unprecedented treatment" of Judge Merrick Garland, while Colorado Senator Michael Bennet (D-CO) felt "two wrongs don't make a right", with Senator Ted Cruz (R-TX) insisting President Trump's nomination now carried "super-legitimacy".[49]

Democratic Senators repeatedly criticized Gorsuch for dissenting in a case where the Tenth Circuit ruled in favor of a truck driver who, after waiting hours for relief, had finally abandoned his unheated truck and trailer in dangerously inclement conditions. Senator Dick Durbin (D-IL) told Gorsuch the weather was "not as cold as your dissent".[49] Durbin also criticized the accuracy of his opinion in the Hobby Lobby case, where Gorsuch contended that contraception "destroys a fertilized egg," and that he had held the Religious Freedom Restoration Act included protection for corporations, rather than just individuals.[50]

In his own 16-minute opening statement, Gorsuch repeated his belief that a judge who likes all his rulings is "probably a pretty bad judge", and noted that his extensive record included many examples where he ruled both for and against disadvantaged groups.[49]

On the second day of hearings Gorsuch responded to questions by committee members. When Chairman Chuck Grassley (R-IA) asked Gorsuch if he would "have any trouble ruling against the president who appointed you", Gorsuch replied, no, and "that's a softball".[51] Senator Cruz used his time to ask Gorsuch about The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, basketball, and mutton busting.[51] When asked by Senator Lindsey Graham (R-SC) how he would have reacted if during his interview at Trump Tower the President had asked him to vote against Roe v. Wade, Gorsuch replied "I would have walked out the door".[51]

Democratic Senators continued to criticize Gorsuch on his dissent in the truck driver case, with Ranking Member Feinstein asking him "will you be for the little men" and Senator Al Franken (D-MN) telling the judge his position was "absurd", going on to say "I had a career in identifying absurdity" (in reference to his former career as a comedian).[51] Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT) used his time to praise Judge Garland, criticize those policies of President George W. Bush that Gorsuch had defended at the Justice Department, and to ask Gorsuch how he would rule in Washington v. Trump. He refused to comment on active litigation, explained that Justice Department lawyers must defend their client, but did say that Garland is "an outstanding judge" and that Gorsuch always reads his opinions with "special care".[51]

On the third day of hearings Gorsuch continued to answer questions by committee members. Senator Orrin Hatch (R-UT) asked Gorsuch if "you think your writings reflect a knee-jerk attitude against common-sense regulations", to which the judge replied "no".[52] In response to Senator Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI)'s question of if the judge would be subject to agency capture by big business, Gorsuch replied "nobody will capture me".[53] Franken laughed out loud after Senator Jeff Flake (R-AZ) asked Gorsuch if he had ever served on a jury; Gorsuch said he had. Flake then asked Gorsuch if he would rather fight "100 duck-sized horses or one horse-size duck", to which Gorsuch avoided giving a firm answer.[52]

Senator Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) told Gorsuch he employed only "selective originalism".[clarification needed][53] He replied to a question by Ranking Member Feinstein on the Equal Protection Clause by saying, "no one is looking to return us to horse and buggy days" and that "it matters not a whit that some of the drafters of the Fourteenth Amendment were racists. Because they were. Or sexists, because they were. The law they drafted promises equal protection of the laws to all persons. That's what they wrote."[53]

During Wednesday's hearings, the Supreme Court unanimously reversed the Tenth Circuit in an Individuals with Disabilities Education Act case Gorsuch had not been involved in, although in 2008 he had written for a unanimous panel applying the same circuit precedent.[53] Still, Senate Minority Leader Charles Schumer (D-NY) said this demonstrated "a continued, troubling pattern of Judge Gorsuch deciding against everyday Americans - even children who require special assistance at school".[53]

Gorsuch confirmation hearing witnesses
Date Name Role
March 20 Michael Bennet, Senator (D-CO) Introducer
Cory Gardner, Senator (R-CO) Introducer
Neal Katyal, former acting U.S. Solicitor General (May 2010 – June 2011) Introducer
March 20–22 Neil Gorsuch Nominee
March 23 Nancy Scott Degan, Chair, American Bar Association Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary Congressional witness
Shannon Edwards, Member, American Bar Association Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary Congressional witness
Deanell Reece Tacha, Pepperdine University School of Law Duane And Kelly Roberts Dean And Professor Of Law, U.S. Court Of Appeals Judge (Retired) Republican witness
Robert Harlan Henry, President of Oklahoma City University, U.S. Court Of Appeals Judge (Retired) Republican witness
John L. Kane Jr., United States federal judge, United States District Court for the District of Colorado Republican witness
Leah Bressack, former law clerk Republican witness
Elisa Massimino, President and CEO, Human Rights First Democratic witness
Jameel Jaffer, Executive Director, Columbia University/Knight First Amendment Institute Democratic witness
Jeff Perkins Democratic witness
Guerino J. Calemine, III, General Counsel, Communication Workers of America Democratic witness
Jeff Lamken, Partner, MoloLamken Republican witness
Lawrence Solum, Carmack Waterhouse Professor Of Law, Georgetown University Law Center Republican witness
Jonathan Turley, J.B. And Maurice C. Shapiro Professor Of Public Interest Law, The George Washington University Law School Republican witness
Karen Harned, Executive Director, National Federation Of Independent Business Small Business Legal Center Republican witness
Heather McGhee, President, Demos Democratic witness
Fatima Goss Graves, Senior Vice President For Program & President-Elect, National Women's Law Center Democratic witness
Patrick Gallagher, Director, Sierra Club Environmental Law Program Democratic witness
Eve Hill, Partner, Brown Goldstein Levy Democratic witness
Peter Kirsanow, Commissioner, U.S. Commission On Civil Rights; Partner, Benesch, Friedlander, Coplan & Aronoff Republican witness
Alice Fisher, Partner, Latham & Watkins Republican witness
Hannah Smith, Senior Counsel, Becket Fund Republican witness
Timothy Meyer, former law clerk Republican witness
Jamil N. Jaffer, former law clerk Republican witness
Kristen Clarke, President & CEO, Lawyers Committee For Civil Rights Under Law Democratic witness
Sarah Warbelow, Legal Director, Human Rights Campaign Democratic witness
Amy Hagstrom Miller, President, CEO, & Founder, Whole Woman's Health Democratic witness
William Marshall, William Rand Kenan Jr. Distinguished Professor Of Law, University Of North Carolina Democratic witness
Sandy Phillips Democratic witness

Plagiarism allegationsEdit

On April 4, BuzzFeed and Politico ran articles highlighting similar language occurring in Gorsuch's book The Future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia and an earlier law review article by Abigail Lawlis Kuzma, Indiana's deputy attorney general. Academic experts contacted by Politico "differed in their assessment of what Gorsuch did, ranging from calling it a clear impropriety to mere sloppiness".[54][55][56][57]

John Finnis, who supervised Gorsuch's Oxford dissertation at Oxford stated, "The allegation is entirely without foundation. The book is meticulous in its citation of primary sources. The allegation that the book is guilty of plagiarism because it does not cite secondary sources which draw on those same primary sources is, frankly, absurd." Kuzma stated, "I have reviewed both passages and do not see an issue here, even though the language is similar. These passages are factual, not analytical in nature, framing both the technical legal and medical circumstances of the 'Baby/Infant Doe' case that occurred in 1982."[55] Noah Feldman, a Harvard Law professor, thought that Gorsuch had committed "minor plagiarism", that deserved "no more punishment than the embarrassment attendant on its revelation".[58]

Senate votesEdit

 
Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell

Judiciary CommitteeEdit

Filibuster and nuclear optionEdit

Gorsuch needed to win a simple majority vote of the full Senate to be confirmed, but the opposition could prevent a vote through a filibuster, which required a 60-vote super-majority to be defeated. At the time of the Gorsuch nomination, Republicans held 52 seats in the 100-seat chamber, as well as the potential tie-breaking vote in Vice President Pence.[59] After nominating Gorsuch, President Trump called on the Senate to use the "nuclear option" and abolish the filibuster for Supreme Court appointments if its continued existence would prevent Gorsuch's confirmation.[60] (The nuclear option was used in 2013 by then Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-NV) to abolish filibusters for all presidential appointments except nominations to the Supreme Court.)

While some Republican Senators such as John McCain (R-AZ) expressed reluctance about abolishing the filibuster for executive appointments, others such as John Cornyn (R-TX) argued that the GOP majority should reserve all options necessary to confirm Gorsuch.[59] Other political commentators have proposed that GOP Senate leadership adopt a strategic use of Standing Rule XIX to avoid the elimination of the filibuster.[61][62]

During the last day of committee hearings, Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-NY) announced from the Senate floor that he would filibuster the nomination.[63] Democratic opposition focused on complaints saying that Scalia's seat should have been filled by President Obama.[64][65] In addition, Democratic Senators Al Franken (D-MN), Bernie Sanders (D/I-VT), Elizabeth Warren (D-MA), and Kamala Harris (D-CA) criticized aspects of Gorsuch's record. Senator Jeff Merkley (D-OR) said he would do "anything in his power"—including the power of filibustering—to oppose Gorsuch's nomination.[66] However, Democratic opposition was not unified, with Senators Joe Manchin (D-WV),[67] Heidi Heitkamp (D-ND),[68] and Joe Donnelly (D-IN) supporting confirmation.[69]

On April 6, 2017, Democrats filibustered (prevented cloture of) the confirmation vote of Gorsuch. The Senate Republicans invoked the so-called nuclear option and changed the Senate rules to end filibusters for Supreme Court nominees. After the change to Senate rules, Senate Republicans along with four Senate Democrats (Joe Manchin (D-WV), Heidi Heitkamp (D-ND), Joe Donnelly (D-IN), and Michael Bennet (D-CO)) agreed to cloture.[5][70]

Full SenateEdit

The swearing-in ceremony of Gorsuch on April 10, 2017, attended by President Donald Trump and Associate Justice Anthony Kennedy

The Senate confirmed Neil Gorsuch to be an associate justice of the Supreme Court on April 7, 2017, by a vote of 54–45. All Republicans present, along with Democrats Joe Manchin, Heidi Heitkamp and Joe Donnelly, voted to confirm him.[71] Republican Johnny Isakson, who had supported the nomination, was absent for the vote because he was recovering from back surgery.[72] Three days later, on April 10, Gorsuch took the prescribed constitutional and judicial (set by federal law) oaths of office, and became the 113th member of the Supreme Court.[73]

Vote to confirm the Gorsuch nomination
April 7, 2017 Party Total votes
Democratic Republican Independent
Yea 03 51 00 54
Nay 43 00 02 45
Roll call vote on the nomination
Senator Party State Vote
Lamar Alexander R Tennessee Yea
Tammy Baldwin D Wisconsin Nay
John Barrasso R Wyoming Yea
Michael Bennet D Colorado Nay
Richard Blumenthal D Connecticut Nay
Roy Blunt R Missouri Yea
Cory Booker D New Jersey Nay
John Boozman R Arkansas Yea
Sherrod Brown D Ohio Nay
Richard Burr R North Carolina Yea
Maria Cantwell D Washington Nay
Shelley Moore Capito R West Virginia Yea
Ben Cardin D Maryland Nay
Tom Carper D Delaware Nay
Bob Casey Jr. D Pennsylvania Nay
Bill Cassidy R Louisiana Yea
Thad Cochran R Mississippi Yea
Susan Collins R Maine Yea
Chris Coons D Delaware Nay
Bob Corker R Tennessee Yea
John Cornyn R Texas Yea
Catherine Cortez Masto D Nevada Nay
Tom Cotton R Arkansas Yea
Mike Crapo R Idaho Yea
Ted Cruz R Texas Yea
Steve Daines R Montana Yea
Joe Donnelly D Indiana Yea
Tammy Duckworth D Illinois Nay
Dick Durbin D Illinois Nay
Mike Enzi R Wyoming Yea
Joni Ernst R Iowa Yea
Dianne Feinstein D California Nay
Deb Fischer R Nebraska Yea
Jeff Flake R Arizona Yea
Al Franken D Minnesota Nay
Cory Gardner R Colorado Yea
Kirsten Gillibrand D New York Nay
Lindsey Graham R South Carolina Yea
Chuck Grassley R Iowa Yea
Kamala Harris D California Nay
Maggie Hassan D New Hampshire Nay
Orrin Hatch R Utah Yea
Martin Heinrich D New Mexico Nay
Heidi Heitkamp D North Dakota Yea
Dean Heller R Nevada Yea
Mazie Hirono D Hawaii Nay
John Hoeven R North Dakota Yea
Jim Inhofe R Oklahoma Yea
Johnny Isakson R Georgia Absent
Ron Johnson R Wisconsin Yea
Tim Kaine D Virginia Nay
John Neely Kennedy R Louisiana Yea
Angus King I Maine Nay
Amy Klobuchar D Minnesota Nay
James Lankford R Oklahoma Yea
Patrick Leahy D Vermont Nay
Mike Lee R Utah Yea
Joe Manchin D West Virginia Yea
Ed Markey D Massachusetts Nay
John McCain R Arizona Yea
Claire McCaskill D Missouri Nay
Mitch McConnell R Kentucky Yea
Bob Menendez D New Jersey Nay
Jeff Merkley D Oregon Nay
Jerry Moran R Kansas Yea
Lisa Murkowski R Alaska Yea
Chris Murphy D Connecticut Nay
Patty Murray D Washington Nay
Bill Nelson D Florida Nay
Rand Paul R Kentucky Yea
David Perdue R Georgia Yea
Gary Peters D Michigan Nay
Rob Portman R Ohio Yea
Jack Reed D Rhode Island Nay
Jim Risch R Idaho Yea
Pat Roberts R Kansas Yea
Mike Rounds R South Dakota Yea
Marco Rubio R Florida Yea
Bernie Sanders I Vermont Nay
Ben Sasse R Nebraska Yea
Brian Schatz D Hawaii Nay
Chuck Schumer D New York Nay
Tim Scott R South Carolina Yea
Jeanne Shaheen D New Hampshire Nay
Richard Shelby R Alabama Yea
Debbie Stabenow D Michigan Nay
Luther Strange R Alabama Yea
Dan Sullivan R Alaska Yea
Jon Tester D Montana Nay
John Thune R South Dakota Yea
Thom Tillis R North Carolina Yea
Pat Toomey R Pennsylvania Yea
Tom Udall D New Mexico Nay
Chris Van Hollen D Maryland Nay
Mark Warner D Virginia Nay
Elizabeth Warren D Massachusetts Nay
Sheldon Whitehouse D Rhode Island Nay
Roger Wicker R Mississippi Yea
Ron Wyden D Oregon Nay
Todd Young R Indiana Yea
Source: [74]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ McBride, Jessica (January 31, 2017). "Louise Gorsuch, Neil Gorsuch's Wife: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know". Retrieved February 2, 2017.
  2. ^ "How Senators Voted on the Gorsuch Confirmation".
  3. ^ VerBruggen, Robert (February 6, 2017). "Boring Neil Gorsuch". The American Conservative. Washington, DC: Jon Basil Utley. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
  4. ^ Denniston, Lyle (February 14, 2016). "Is a recess appointment to the Court an option?". SCOTUSblog. Retrieved February 16, 2016.
  5. ^ a b Killough, Ashley (April 7, 2017). "GOP triggers nuclear option on Neil Gorsuch nomination". CNN. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  6. ^ Totenberg, Nina (April 7, 2017). "Senate Confirms Gorsuch To Supreme Court". NPR. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  7. ^ Liptak, Adam (April 17, 2017). "Bitter Fight Behind Him, Justice Gorsuch Starts Day With Relish". The New York Times.
  8. ^ Liptak, Alan (February 13, 2016). "Justice Antonin Scalia, Who Led a Conservative Renaissance on the Supreme Court, Is Dead at 79". The New York Times. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
  9. ^ Hennessy-Fiske, Molly (February 14, 2016). "Scalia's last moments on a Texas ranch — quail hunting to being found in 'perfect repose'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
  10. ^ Gresko, Jessica (February 14, 2016). "Scalia's death in office a rarity for modern Supreme Court". Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 16, 2016. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
  11. ^ Bomboy, Scott (August 13, 2014). "The facts about Supreme Court nominations and Senate control". Constitution Daily. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: National Constitution Center. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
  12. ^ Howe, Amy (February 13, 2016). "Supreme Court vacancies in presidential election years". SCOTUSblog. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
  13. ^ Helmore, Edward (February 14, 2016). "Republicans and Democrats draw battle lines over supreme court nomination". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
  14. ^ Chemerinsky, Erwin (April 6, 2016). "What If the Supreme Court Were Liberal?". The Atlantic. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
  15. ^ a b Jess Bravin, President Obama’s Supreme Court Nomination of Merrick Garland Expires, The Wall Street Journal (January 3, 2017).
  16. ^ Calfas, Jennifer (January 31, 2017). "Merkley vows to fight Trump's nominee to fill 'stolen' Supreme Court". The Hill. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
  17. ^ Everett, Burgess (October 27, 2016). "Republicans at war over Supreme Court". Politico. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
  18. ^ Rappeport, Alan; Savage, Charlie (May 18, 2016). "Donald Trump Releases List of Possible Supreme Court Picks". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 22, 2016.
  19. ^ Flores, Reena; Garrett, Major (September 23, 2016). "Donald Trump expands list of possible Supreme Court picks". CBS News. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
  20. ^ a b c d e Goldmacher, Shane; Johnson, Eliana; Gerstein, Josh (January 31, 2017). "How Trump got to yes on Gorsuch". Politico. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  21. ^ Eric Lipton; Jeremy W. Peters (March 19, 2017). "In Gorsuch, Conservative Activist Sees Test Case for Reshaping the Judiciary". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved April 8, 2017.
  22. ^ Jackson, David (February 1, 2017). "Why Trump chose Neil Gorsuch as his Supreme Court nominee". USA Today. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
  23. ^ Parker, Ashley; Dawsey, Josh; Barnes, Robert (December 18, 2017). "Trump talked about rescinding Gorsuch's nomination". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  24. ^ "Congressional Record".
  25. ^ Enten, Harry (February 1, 2017). "Trump Picks Super Conservative, Super Qualified Neil Gorsuch For The Supreme Court". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  26. ^ Pres. Nom. 1565, 109th Cong. (2006).
  27. ^ "Trump chooses Neil Gorsuch, a conservative seen as likely to be confirmed, for Supreme Court". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  28. ^ Enten, Harry. "How Conservative A Supreme Court Nominee Can Trump Get Through The Senate?". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  29. ^ Konnikova, Maria. "The 4 Rules That Will Explain Neil Gorsuch's Confirmation Fight". Politico. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  30. ^ Primus, Richard (January 31, 2017). "Trump Picks Scalia 2.0". Politico. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
  31. ^ Parlapano, Alicia; Yourish, Karen (February 1, 2017). "Where Neil Gorsuch Would Fit on the Supreme Court". The New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
  32. ^ a b Clauss, Kyle Scott (February 1, 2017). "Neil Gorsuch, Trump's Supreme Court Pick, Attended Harvard Law with Obama". Boston. Boston, Massachusetts. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
  33. ^ Boyer, Dave (February 1, 2017). "Former Obama official endorses Gorsuch nomination for Supreme Court". The Washington Times. Washington, DC. Retrieved February 3, 2017. I have no doubt that if confirmed, Judge Gorsuch would help to restore confidence in the rule of law," Mr. Katyal wrote in a New York Times op-ed. "His years on the bench reveal a commitment to judicial independence — a record that should give the American people confidence that he will not compromise principle to favor the president who appointed him.
  34. ^ "NRA Applauds Neil Gorsuch's Nomination to the U.S. Supreme Court". NRA-ILA. January 31, 2017.
  35. ^ Beckett, Lois (February 1, 2017). "NRA cheers nomination of Neil Gorsuch, seen as gun rights defender". The Guardian.
  36. ^ "SAF Impressed With Judge Neil Gorsuch For Supreme Court". Yahoo!.
  37. ^ "Opinion - Nancy Pelosi and gun control groups claim that Neil Gorsuch sides with 'felons over gun safety'". The Washington Post.
  38. ^ "Statement from Americans for Responsible Solutions and the Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence on Nomination of Judge Neil Gorsuch to United States Supreme Court". americansforresponsiblesolutions.org. January 31, 2017.
  39. ^ Carroll, Lauren (February 2, 2017). "Does Neil Gorsuch side with 'felons over gun safety,' as Pelosi says?". PolitiFact. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
  40. ^ Center, Claudia (February 2, 2017). "Supreme Court Nominee Neil Gorsuch Has a Troubling History When Ruling on Disability Rights Cases". ACLU.
  41. ^ Zauzmer, Julie (February 1, 2017). "Neil Gorsuch belongs to a notably liberal church — and would be the first Protestant on the Court in years". The Washington Post.
  42. ^ "Gorsuch's Dark-Money Benefactor Attended His White House Swearing-In Ceremony". Slate. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  43. ^ Cowan, Richard (February 1, 2017). "Senate Judiciary Democrat says panel should hold hearings for Gorsuch". Reuters. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
  44. ^ Kim, Seung Min (March 9, 2017). "DOJ sends 144,000 pages of Gorsuch documents to Senate". Politico. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
  45. ^ Kim, Seung Min (February 16, 2017). "Gorsuch confirmation hearing set for March 20". Politico.
  46. ^ "United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary". judiciary.senate.gov. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
  47. ^ Flegenheimer, Matt (April 3, 2017). "Senate Judiciary Committee Approves Gorsuch in Party-Line Vote". The New York Times. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
  48. ^ Berenson, Tessa (April 3, 2017). "Senate Judiciary Committee Just Approved Neil Gorsuch's Nomination". Time. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
  49. ^ a b c Matt Flegenheimer (March 21, 2017). "Gorsuch Tries to Put Himself Above Politics in Confirmation Hearing". The New York Times. p. A20. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
  50. ^ Durbin, Gorsuch spar over Hobby Lobby ruling, Washington Post, Robert Barnes, March 21, 2011. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  51. ^ a b c d e Adam Liptak; Matt Flegenheimer (March 22, 2017). "GORSUCH ASSERTS HE WOULD BE ABLE TO BUCK TRUMP - HAS MADE 'NO PROMISES' - Expansive and Evasive in Sometimes Tense Questioning". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
  52. ^ a b Matt Flegenheimer. "Of Horse v. Duck, Mutton Busting and Other Confirmation Diversions". The New York Times. p. A16. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
  53. ^ a b c d e Adam Liptak; Matt Flegenheimer (March 23, 2017). "Democrats Fail to Move Gorsuch Off Script and Beyond Generalities". The New York Times. p. A17. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
  54. ^ "Analysis | Neil Gorsuch's 11th-hour plagiarism scare". The Washington Post.
  55. ^ a b Bryan Logan (April 4, 2016) Neil Gorsuch is accused of plagiarism amid a heated Supreme Court confirmation fight, Business Insider. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
  56. ^ "Gorsuch's writings borrow from other authors". Politico. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
  57. ^ "A Short Section In Neil Gorsuch's 2006 Book Appears To Be Copied From A Law Review Article". BuzzFeed.
  58. ^ "Gorsuch's Plagiarism Is Worthy of Embarrassment". Bloomberg L.P. April 5, 2017.
  59. ^ a b Everett, Burgess; Bresnahan, John; Min Kim, Seung (February 1, 2017). "GOP won't rule out killing the filibuster for Supreme Court pick". Politico. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
  60. ^ Jackson, David (February 1, 2017). "Trump: Go 'nuclear' and abolish filibuster on Gorsuch vote if needed". USA Today. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
  61. ^ Wallner, James; Corrigan, Ed (January 23, 2017). "A Rules-Based Strategy for Overcoming Minority Obstruction of a Supreme Court Nomination". Heritage Foundation. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
  62. ^ Davis, Sean (February 7, 2017). "Here's How Republicans Can Confirm Supreme Court Nominees Without The Nuclear Option". The Federalist. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
  63. ^ Matt Flegenheimer; Charlie Savage; Adam Liptak (March 24, 2017). "Democrats Plan to Filibuster to Thwart Gorsuch Nomination". The New York Times. p. A17. Retrieved April 8, 2017.
  64. ^ "Trump's Supreme Court Nominee Is Going To Face An Angry, Partisan Senate Battle". NPR. March 30, 2016. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  65. ^ Shear, Michael D.; Liptak, Adam (January 24, 2017). "A Supreme Court Pick Is Promised. A Political Brawl Is Certain". The New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  66. ^ "Facing a 'Massive Revolt', Senate Democrats Move to Block Neil Gorsuch". Vanity Fair. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  67. ^ "Sen. Manchin on Gorsuch: 'Let's give the man a chance'". Politico.
  68. ^ "Schumer searches for SCOTUS strategy". Politico.
  69. ^ Killough, Ashley; Barrett, Ted (April 4, 2017). "Here's how senators plan to vote on Supreme Court nominee Neil Gorsuch". CNN. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
  70. ^ "In big win for Trump, Senate approves his conservative court pick". MSN.
  71. ^ Liptak, Adam; Flegenheimer, Matt (April 7, 2017). "Neil Gorsuch Confirmed by Senate as Supreme Court Justice". The New York Times. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  72. ^ Wolf, Richard; Kelly, Erin (April 7, 2017). "Gorsuch confirmation to have major impact on all three branches of government". USA Today. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  73. ^ Wolf, Richard; Jackson, David (April 10, 2017). "Neil Gorsuch sworn in as 113th Supreme Court justice". USA Today. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  74. ^ "Roll Call Vote 115th Congress – 1st Session (vote number 111)". senate.gov. April 7, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2019.

External linksEdit

Announcement of nominee

Confirmation hearing witness testimony