This list of genocides includes estimates of all deaths which were directly or indirectly caused by genocide, as it is defined by the UN Convention on Genocide. It excludes mass killings which may be referred to as genocide by some scholars and are variously also called mass murder, crimes against humanity, politicide, classicide, or war crimes, such as the Thirty Years' War (7.5 million deaths), Japanese war crimes (3 to 14 million deaths), the Red Terror (100,000 to 1.3 million deaths), the Atrocities in the Congo Free State (1 to 15 million deaths), the Great Purge (0.6 to 1.75 million deaths), the Great Leap Forward and the famine which followed it (15 to 55 million deaths).[1] A broader list of genocides, ethnic cleansing and related mass persecution is available. Genocides in history include cases where there is less consensus among scholars as to whether they constituted genocide.


The United Nations Genocide Convention defines genocide as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group".[2]

List of genocides

The term genocide is contentious and as a result its definition varies. This list only considers acts which are recognised in significant scholarship as genocides by the legal definition of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.

List of genocides in reverse chronological order
Event Location Period Estimate Proportion of group killed
From To Lowest Highest
Rohingya genocide[N 1] Rakhine State
2016 Present 9,00013,700
Before the 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis and the military crackdown in 2016 and 2017, the Rohingya population in Myanmar was around 1.0 to 1.3 million, chiefly in the northern Rakhine townships, which were 80–98% Rohingya. Since 2015, over 900,000 Rohingya refugees have fled to south-eastern Bangladesh alone, and more to other surrounding countries, and major Muslim nations. More than 100,000 Rohingyas in Myanmar are confined in camps for internally displaced persons.
Uyghur genocide[11][12][13][14] Xinjiang, China 2014 Present
Genocide of Yazidis by the Islamic State[N 2] Islamic State-controlled territory in northern Iraq and Syria 2014 2019 2,100
Darfur genocide[N 3] Darfur, Sudan 2003 Present 98,000
Effacer le tableau[N 4] North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2002 2003 60,000
40% of the Eastern Congo's Pygmy population killed[N 5]
Massacres of Hutus during the First Congo War[N 6] Kivu, Zaire (now the DRC) 1996 1997 200,000
Rwandan genocide[N 7] Rwanda 1994 491,000
60–70% of Tutsis in Rwanda killed[30]
7% of Rwanda's total population killed[30]
Bosnian genocide[N 8] Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992 1995 31,107[36] 156,500[37] More than 3% of the Bosniak population of Bosnia and Herzegovina died during the Bosnian War.[38]
Isaaq genocide[N 9] Somaliland, Somalia 1987 1989 50,000
Anfal genocide[N 10] Kurdistan Region during Ba'athist Iraq 1986 1989 50,000
Gukurahundi[N 11] Matabeleland, Zimbabwe 1983 1987 8,000
Cambodian genocide[N 12] Democratic Kampuchea, Cambodia 1975 1979 1,386,734
15–33% of total population of Cambodia killed[75][76] including:

99% of Cambodian Viets
50% of Cambodian Chinese and Cham
40% of Cambodian Lao and Thai
25% of Urban Khmer
16% of Rural Khmer

East Timor genocide[N 13] East Timor, Indonesia 1974 1999 85,320
13% to 44% of East Timor's total population killed
(See death toll of East Timor genocide)
Genocide of Acholi and Lango people under Idi Amin[N 14] Uganda 1972 1978 100,000
Ikiza[N 15] Burundi 1972 80,000
As much as 10% to 15% of the Hutu population of Burundi killed[86]
Bangladesh genocide[N 16] East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) 1971 300,000
2%[citation needed] to 4% of the population of East Pakistan[92]
Guatemalan genocide[N 17] Guatemala 1962 1996 166,000
40% of the Maya population (24,000 people) of Guatemala's Ixil and Rabinal regions were killed[citation needed]
Deportation of the Chechens and Ingush[N 18] Soviet Union (now Russia) 1944 1948 100,000
23.5% to almost 50% of total Chechen population killed[107]

[99][page needed][100][101][108]

Deportation of the Crimean Tatars[N 19] Crimean ASSR, in the Soviet Union (now Russia) 1944 1948 34,000
The deportation and following exile reduced the Crimean Tatar population by between 18%[113] and 46%.[115] Unlike other deported peoples who were acknowledged to be distinct ethnic groups and given their national republics back under Khrushchev, the Crimean Tatars were not given the right of return for decades, and in addition were stripped of recognition as a distinct ethnic group as part of a wider campaign pushing for their assimilation in the Fergana valley.[116]
The Holocaust[N 20] Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe 1941 1945 4,204,000
Around 2/3 of the Jewish population of Europe.[122][123]
German atrocities committed against Soviet prisoners of war,[124][125] part of the Generalplan Ost and Hunger Plan German-occupied Europe 1941 1945 3,300,000
During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in a policy of deliberate maltreatment of Soviet prisoners of war (POWs), in contrast to their treatment of British and American POWs. This policy, which amounted to deliberately starving and working to death Soviet POWs, was grounded in Nazi racial theory, which depicted Slavs as sub-humans (Untermenschen).[128][125]
The Holocaust in Croatia including the Serbian genocide[N 21] Independent State of Croatia
(now Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia)
1941 1945 200,000
[N 22][130]
[N 22][130]
Genocide against Bosniaks and Croats by the Chetniks[N 23] Occupied Yugoslavia
(now Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro)
1941 1945 50,000
Nazi crimes against the Polish nation,[136][137] part of the Generalplan Ost German-occupied Europe 1939 1945 1,800,000
From 6% to 10% of the total Polish gentile population. In addition, 3 million Polish Jews were killed during the Holocaust in Poland (90% of Polish Jews).[138]
Polish Operation of the NKVD[N 24] Soviet Union (now Ukraine, Belarus and Russia) 1937 1938 111,091
22% of the Polish population of the USSR was "sentenced" by the operation (140,000 people)[147]
Parsley massacre[N 25] Dominican Republic 1937 1937 12,000 40,000[153] Details of the casualties are still hard to gather.
Romani genocide[N 26] German-occupied Europe 1935[156] 1945 130,000
25% to 80% of Romani people in Europe killed
Holodomor[N 27] Ukraine and the heavily Ukrainian-populated northern Kuban,[163] in the Soviet Union 1932 1933 3,000,000[164] 5,000,000[164] In the Ukrainian SSR, an estimated 3–3.5 million people died of starvation and disease (from malnutrition), with total demographic losses, including famine-derived decrease in fertility, 4.5–4.8 million.[165] Total population was about 32.3 million in 1932. The classification as a genocide is debated, see Holodomor genocide question.
Pacification of Libya[N 28] Italian Libya (now Libya) 1923 1932 80,000
25% of Cyrenaican population killed[170]
Armenian genocide[N 29] Ottoman Empire (now Turkey, Syria and Iraq) 1915 1917 600,000
90% of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire killed[185] The share of Christians in area within Turkey's current borders declined from 20-22% in 1914, or about 3.3.–3.6 million people, to around 3% in 1927.[186]
Assyrian genocide Ottoman Empire (now Turkey, Syria and Iraq) 1915 1919 200,000
Greek genocide
Pontic genocide[N 30]
Ottoman Empire (now Turkey) 1914 1922 300,000
At least 25% of Greeks in Anatolia (Turkey) killed[citation needed]
Herero and Namaqua genocide[N 31] German South West Africa (now Namibia) 1904 1908 34,000
60% (24,000 out of 40,000[191]) to 81.25% (65,000[194][195] out of 80,000[196]) of total Herero and 50%[191] of Nama population killed.
Armenian massacres of 1894–1896[N 32] Ottoman Empire, Six Vilayets (now Turkey) 1894 1896 200,000
Selk'nam genocide[N 33] Tierra del Fuego, Chile, Argentina 1880 1910 2,500
The genocide reduced their numbers from around 3,000 to about 500 people. (Now pure Selk'nam are considered extinct.)[205][206]
Circassian genocide[N 34] Russian Empire-occupied Circassia 1864[N 35] 1867 400,000
95%–97% of total Circassian population killed or deported by the Russian forces.[220][221] Only a small percentage who accepted to convert to Christianity, Russify and resettle within the Russian Empire were spared. The remaining Circassian populations who refused were thus forcefully dispersed, deported or killed. Today, most Circassians live in exile.[222]
California genocide[N 36] California, United States 1846 1873 9,492–16,094
[223][224][N 37]
[224][N 38]
Amerindian population in California declined by 80% during the period
Queensland Aboriginal genocide[N 39] Queensland (now Australia)



3.3% to over 50% of the aboriginal population was killed
(10,000[231] to 65,180[232] killed out of 125,600)[clarification needed]
Moriori genocide[N 40] Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1835 1863 1,900
1,900 95% of the Moriori population was eradicated by the invasion from Taranaki, a group of people from the Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama iwi.[236][237] All were enslaved and many were cannibalised.[238] The Moriori language is now extinct.[233][239]
Massacre of Salsipuedes[N 41] Uruguay 1831 1831 40
Black War
(Genocide of Aboriginal Tasmanians)[N 42]
Van Diemen's Land (now Australia) Mid 1820s 1832 400
1804 Haiti massacre[N 43] Haiti 1804 1804 3,000
Dzungar genocide[N 44] Dzungaria, during Qing-dynasty
(now China)
1755 1758 480,000
80% of 600,000 Zungharian Oirats killed
Taíno genocide[N 45] Hispaniola (now Dominican Republic and Haiti) 1492 1514 68,000
68% to over 96% of the Taíno population perished under Spanish rule.[261]
Albigensian Crusade
(Cathar genocide)[N 46]
Languedoc (now France) 1209 1229 200,000

See also

Political extermination campaigns


  1. ^ The Rohingya genocide[3][4][5][6] against the Rohingya ethnic minority in Myanmar (Burma) by the Myanmar military and Buddhist extremists. The violence began on 25 August 2017 and has continued since, reaching its peak during the months of August and September in 2017. The Rohingya people are a largely Muslim ethnic minority in Myanmar who have faced widespread persecution and discrimination for several decades. They are denied citizenship under the 1982 Myanmar nationality law, and are falsely regarded as Bengali immigrants by much of Myanmar's Bamar majority, to the extent that the government refuses to acknowledge the Rohingya's existence as a valid ethnic group.[7] The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) is a Rohingya insurgent group that was founded in 2013 to "liberate [the Rohingya] people from dehumanising oppression".[8] On 25 August 2017, ARSA claimed responsibility for coordinated attacks on police posts that reportedly killed twelve security forces. Myanmar's military forces immediately launched a series of retaliatory attacks against Rohingya civilians, and were joined by local Buddhist extremists. Together they burnt down hundreds of Rohingya villages, killed thousands of Rohingya men, women, and children, tortured countless others, and sexually assaulted countless Rohingya women and girls. Several Rohingya refugees say they were forced to witness soldiers throwing their babies into burning houses to die in the fire. Numerous Rohingya refugee women and girls have provided accounts of being brutally gang raped. The violence has resulted in a refugee crisis, with an estimated 693,000 Rohingya fleeing to overcrowded refugee camps in the neighboring country of Bangladesh.
  2. ^ The Genocide of Yazidis ' by ISIS included mass killing, rape and enslavement of girls and women, forced abduction, indoctrination and recruitment of Yazidis boys (aged 7 to 15) to be used in armed conflicts, forced conversion to Islam and expulsion from their ancestral land. The United Nations' Commission of Inquiry on Syria officially declared in its report that ISIS was committing genocide against the Yazidis population.[15] It is difficult to assess a precise figure for the killings[16] but it is known that some thousand of Yazidis men and boys were still unaccounted for and ISIS genocidal actions against Yazidis people were still ongoing, as stated by the International Commission in June 2016.
    See also: 2007 Yazidi communities bombings.
  3. ^ The Darfur genocide refer to the war crimes and crimes against humanity such as massacre and genocidal rape that occurred within the Darfur region during the War in Darfur perpetrated by Janjaweed militias and the Sudanese government. These atrocities have been called the first genocide of the 21st century.[19] Sudan's president Omar al-Bashir has been indicted for his role in the genocide by the United Nations.[20]
  4. ^ Effacer le tableau ("erasing the board") is the operational name given to the systematic extermination of the Bambuti pygmies by rebel forces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The primary objective of Effacer le tableau was the territorial conquest of the North Kivu province of the DRC and ethnic cleansing of Pygmies from the Congo's eastern region whose population numbered 90,000 by 2004.[23][24]
  5. ^ Eastern Pygmy population was reduced to 90,000 after a campaign that killed 60,000[25] implying a 40% decline
  6. ^ During the First Congo War, troops of the Rwanda-backed Alliance des Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Congo-Zaïre (AFDL) attacked refugee camps in Eastern DRC, home to 527,000 and 718,000 Hutu refugees in South-Kivu and North-Kivu respectively.[26] Elements of the AFDL and, more so, of the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) systematically shelled numerous camps and committed massacres with light weapons. These early attacks cost the lives of 6,800–8,000 refugees and forced the repatriation of 500,000 – 700,000 refugees back to Rwanda.[27] As survivors fled westward of the DRC, the AFDL units hunted them down and attacked their makeshift camps, killing thousands more.[28] These attacks and killings continued to intensify as refugees moved westward as far as 1,800 km away. The report of the United Nations Joint Commission reported 134 sites where such atrocities were committed. On 8 July 1997, the acting UN High Commissioner for Human Rights stated that "about 200,000 Hutu refugees could well have been massacred".[28]
  7. ^ Some 50 perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide have been found guilty by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, but most others have not been charged due to lack of witness accounts. Another 120,000 were arrested by Rwanda; of these, 60,000 were tried and convicted in the Gacaca court system. Perpetrators who fled into Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo) were used as a justification when Rwanda and Uganda invaded Zaire (First and Second Congo Wars). It is recognised by the international community as a genocide.
  8. ^ The Bosnian genocide comprises localised, in time and place, massacres like in Srebrenica[32] and in Žepa committed by Bosnian Serb forces in 1995, as well as the scattered ethnic cleansing campaign throughout areas controlled by the Army of Republika Srpska[33] during the 1992–95 Bosnian War.[34] On 31 March 2010, the Serbian Parliament passed a resolution condemning the Srebrenica massacre and apologising to the families of Srebrenica for the deaths of Bosniaks ("Bosnian Muslims").[35]
  9. ^ The Genocide of Isaaqs or "Hargeisa Holocaust"[39][40] was the systematic, state-sponsored massacre of Isaaq civilians between 1988 and 1991 by the Somali Democratic Republic under the dictatorship of Siad Barre.[41] The number of civilian deaths in this massacre is estimated to be between 50,000 and 100,000 according to various sources,[42][43][44] while local reports estimate the total civilian deaths to be upwards of 200,000 Isaaq civilians.[45] This included the leveling and complete destruction of the second and third largest cities in Somalia, Hargeisa (90 per cent destroyed)[46] and Burao (70 per cent destroyed) respectively,[47] and had caused 400,000[48][49] Somalis (primarily of the Isaaq clan) to flee their land and cross the border to Hartasheikh in Ethiopia as refugees, creating the world's largest refugee camp then (1988),[50] with another 400,000 being internally displaced.[48][51][52] In 2001, the United Nations commissioned an investigation on past human rights violations in Somalia,[41] specifically to find out if "crimes of international jurisdiction (i.e. war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide) had been perpetrated during the country's civil war". The investigation was commissioned jointly by the United Nations Co-ordination Unit (UNCU) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. The investigation concluded with a report confirming the crime of genocide to have taken place against the Isaaqs in Somalia.[41]
  10. ^ On 5 December 2012, Sweden's parliament, the Riksdag, adopted a resolution by the Green party to officially recognise Anfal as genocide. The resolution was passed by all 349 members of parliament.[55][disputed ] On 28 February 2013, the British House of Commons formally recognised the Anfal as genocide following a campaign led by Conservative MP Nadhim Zahawi, who is of Kurdish descent.[56] South Korea recognised the Anfal as genocide on June 13 of 2013.[57]
  11. ^ The Gukurahundi, the systematic massacre of the Ndebele people by Robert Mugabe's ZANU-PF party, is classified as a genocide by the International Association of Genocide Scholars.[60] The Gukurahundi was initiated because the ZAPU party, the main Zimbabwean opposition party, found the majority of its support among the Ndebele people, leading Mugabe to conclude that they must be exterminated in order to eliminate support for the ZAPU.[61] The Gukurahundi was initiated in 1983, and continued until the signing of the 1987 Unity Accords, during which time about 20, 000 Ndebele were killed and sent to re-education camps.
  12. ^ The Cambodian genocide is the commonly used term for the atrocities of the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot[64] that forced the urban population to relocate savagely to the countryside, among torture, mass executions, forced labour, and starvation.[65][66][67] Up to 20,000 mass graves, the infamous Killing Fields, were uncovered,[68] where at least 1,386,734 murdered victims found their final resting place.[69] The Khmer Rouge Tribunal found that targeting of Vietnamese and Cham minorities constituted a genocide under the UN Convention.[70][71]
  13. ^ The East Timor genocide refers to the "pacification campaigns" of state sponsored terror by the Indonesian government during their occupation of East Timor. Oxford University held an academic consensus calling the Indonesian Occupation of East Timor genocide and Yale university teaches it as part of their "Genocide Studies" program.[77][78] Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000.[79] The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings.[80]
  14. ^ After Idi Amin Dada overthrow the regime of Milton Obote in 1971, he declared the Acholi and Lango tribes enemies, as Obote was a Lango and he saw the fact that they dominated the army as a threat.[83] In January 1972, Amin issued an order to the Ugandan army ordering that they assemble and kill all Acholi or Lango soldiers, and then commanded that all Acholi and Lango be rounded up and confined within army barracks, where they were either slaughtered by the soldiers or killed when the Ugandan air force bombed the barracks.[83]
  15. ^ Burundian genocide. In the long sequence of civil fights that occurred between Tutsi and Hutu since Burundi's independence in 1962, the 1972 mass killings of Hutu by the Tutsi and the 1993 mass killings of Tutsis by the majority-Hutu populace are both described as genocide in the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi presented to the United Nations Security Council in 1996.
  16. ^ Genocide in Bangladesh. Massacres, killings, rape, arson and systematic elimination of religious minorities (particularly Hindus), political dissidents and the members of the liberation forces of Bangladesh were conducted by the Pakistan Army with support from paramilitary militias—the Razakars, Al-Badr and Al-Shams—formed by the radical Islamist Jamaat-e-Islami party.[87] Although Bengali Hindus were specifically targeted, the majority of victims were Muslim.[88]
  17. ^ Guatemalan genocide. The government forces of Guatemala and allied paramilitary groups have been condemned by the Historical Clarification Commission for committing genocide against the Maya population[93][94] and for widespread human rights violations against civilians during the civil war fought against various leftist rebel groups. At least an estimated 200,000 persons died by arbitrary executions, forced disappearances and other human rights violations.[95] A quarter of the direct victims of human rights violations and acts of violence were women.[96]
  18. ^ Aardakh also known as Operation Lentil (Russian: Чечевица, Chechevitsa; Chechen: Вайнах махкахбахар Vaynax Maxkaxbaxar) was the Soviet expulsion of the whole of the Vainakh (Chechen and Ingush) populations of the North Caucasus to Central Asia during World War II. The expulsion, preceded by the 1940–1944 insurgency in Chechnya, was ordered on 23 February 1944 by NKVD chief Lavrentiy Beria after approval by Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, as a part of Soviet forced settlement program and population transfer that affected several million members of non-Russian Soviet ethnic minorities between the 1930s and the 1950s.
    The deportation encompassed their entire nations, well over 500,000 people, as well as the complete liquidation of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Hundreds of thousands[99][page needed][100][101][102] of Chechens and Ingushes died or were killed during the round-ups and transportation, and during their early years in exile. The survivors would not return to their native lands until 1957. Many in Chechnya and Ingushetia classify it as an act of genocide, as did the European Parliament in 2004.[103][104]
  19. ^ The deportation of the Crimean Tatars (Crimean Tatar Qırımtatar halqınıñ sürgünligi; Ukrainian Депортація кримських татар; Russian Депортация крымских татар) was the ethnic cleansing of at least 191,044 Crimean Tatars or, according to the other sources, 423,100 of them (89,2 % were women, children and elderly people) in 18–20 May 1944; one of the crimes of the Soviet totalitarian regime. It was carried out by Lavrentiy Beria, head of the Soviet state security and secret police, acting on behalf of Joseph Stalin. Within three days, Beria's NKVD used cattle trains to deport women, children, the elderly, even Communists and members of the Red Army, to the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan, several thousand kilometres away. They were one of the ten ethnicities who were encompassed by Stalin's policy of population transfer in the Soviet Union. The deportation is recognised as a genocide by the countries of Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, and Canada respectively; as well as various scholars. Professor Lyman H. Legters argued that the Soviet penal system, combined with its resettlement policies, should count as genocidal since the sentences were borne most heavily specifically on certain ethnic groups, and that a relocation of these ethnic groups, whose survival depends on ties to its particular homeland, "had a genocidal effect remediable only by restoration of the group to its homeland".[109] Soviet dissidents Ilya Gabay[110] and Pyotr Grigorenko[111] both classified the event as a genocide. Historian Timothy Snyder included it in a list of Soviet policies that "meet the standard of genocide."[112]
  20. ^ Initially it was carried out in German-occupied Eastern Europe by paramilitary death squads (Einsatzgruppen) by shooting or, less frequently, using ad hoc built gassing vans, and later in extermination camps by gassing.[117]
  21. ^ Genocide by the Ustaše including the Serbian Genocide. German-Italian installed puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia murdered Serbs, Jews, Romani, and anti-Ustashe Croats and Bosniaks inside its borders, many in concentration camps, most notably Jasenovac camp. Ante Pavelić, the leader of the Ustaše, enacted racial laws similar to those of Nazi Germany, declaring Jews, Romani, and Serbs "enemies of the people of Croatia". He escaped to Spain after the war with the assistance of the Roman Catholic Church and fatally injured there some years later in an assassination attempt.[129]
  22. ^ a b Excluding the Jews and Roma people sent to the German extermination camps.
  23. ^ Genocidal massacres and ethnic cleansing of ethnic Muslims and Croats by Yugoslav royalists and nationalists Chetniks across large areas of Occupied Yugoslavia (modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia) during World War II in Yugoslavia, on the basis of creating a post-war Greater Serbia.[131][132][133][134] The Moljević plan ("On Our State and Its Borders") and the 1941 'Instructions' issued by Chetnik leader, Draža Mihailović, advocated for the cleansing of non-Serbs. Death toll by ethnicity is estimated to be between 18,000 and 32,000 Croats and between 29,000 and 33,000 Muslims.[135]
  24. ^ The Polish Operation of the NKVD was a mass murder specifically aimed at the Polish ethnic group in the USSR by the orders of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. Historian Michael Ellman asserts that the 'national operations', particularly the 'Polish operation', may constitute genocide as defined by the UN convention.[141] His opinion is shared by Simon Sebag Montefiore, who calls the Polish operation of the NKVD 'a mini-genocide.'[142] Historian Timothy Snyder called the Polish Operation genocidal: "It is hard not to see the Soviet "Polish Operation" of 1937–38 as genocidal, as more than 100,000 innocent people were killed on the spurious grounds that theirs was a disloyal ethnicity and since Stalin spoke of "Polish filth"."[143] Norman Naimark called Stalin's policy towards Poles in the 1930s "genocidal"[144] but did not consider the entire Great Purge genocidal since it targeted political opponents as well.[144]
  25. ^ The Parsley massacre was the 1937 mass killing of Haitians in the Dominican Republic on the direct orders of President Rafael Trujillo in order to cleanse Dominica of Haitian migration. After reports of Haitians stealing crops from Dominican residents along the Northern border, Trujillo gave the order to his troops to exterminate all Haitians living in the country's Northern region. The Dominican army then interrogated thousands of civilians demanding that each victim say the word "parsley". If the accused could not pronounce the word to the interrogators satisfaction, they were deemed to be Haitians and shot.[148] These armed forces killed Haitians with rifles, machetes, shovels, knives, and bayonets. Haitian children were reportedly thrown in the air and caught by soldiers' bayonets, then thrown on their mothers' corpses.[149] Some died while trying to flee to Haiti across the Artibonite River, which has often been the site of bloody conflict between the two nations.[150] Survivors who managed to cross the border and return to Haiti told stories of family members being hacked with machetes and strangled by the soldiers, and children bashed against rocks and tree trunks.[151] The use of military units from outside the region was not always enough to expedite soldiers' killings of Haitians. U.S. legation informants reported that many soldiers "confessed that in order to perform such ghastly slaughter they had to get 'blind' drunk."[152]: 167  Several months later, a barrage of killings and repatriations of Haitians occurred in the southern frontier.
  26. ^ Porajmos (Romani pronunciation: IPA: [pʰoɽajˈmos]), or Samudaripen ("Mass killing"), the Romani genocide or Romani Holocaust, was the planned and attempted effort by the government of Nazi Germany and its allies to exterminate part of the Romani people of Europe. On 26 November 1935, a supplementary decree to the Nuremberg Laws stripping Jews of their German citizenship expanded the category "enemies of the race-based state" to include Romani, the same category as the Jews, and in some ways they had similar fates.[154][155]
  27. ^ Human-made famine,[160][161] concurrent with extermination of national elite, liquidation of the Ukrainian church, and forcible population transfers.[162]
  28. ^ The Pacification of Libya,[166] also known as the Libyan Genocide[167][168][169][170] or Second Italo-Senussi War,[171] was a prolonged conflict in Italian Libya between Italian military forces and indigenous rebels associated with the Senussi Order that lasted from 1923 until 1932,[172][173] when the principal Senussi leader, Omar Mukhtar, was captured and executed.[174] The pacification resulted in mass deaths of the indigenous people in Cyrenaica—one quarter of Cyrenaica's population of 225,000 people died during the conflict.[167] Italy committed major war crimes during the conflict; including the use of chemical weapons, episodes of refusing to take prisoners of war and instead executing surrendering combatants, and mass executions of civilians.[170] Italian authorities committed ethnic cleansing by forcibly expelling 100,000 Bedouin Cyrenaicans, half the population of Cyrenaica, from their settlements that were slated to be given to Italian settlers.[166][175] Italy apologized in 2008 for its killing, destruction and repression of the Libyan people during the period of colonial rule, and went on to say that this was a "complete and moral acknowledgement of the damage inflicted on Libya by Italy during the colonial era."[176]
  29. ^ The Armenian genocide,[178][179] carried out by the Young Turks, included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, and mass starvation. It occurred concurrently with the Assyrian and Greek genocides; some scholars consider these to form a broader genocide targeting all of the Christians in Anatolia.[180][181] Overall, about 2 million Christians were killed in Anatolia between 1894 and 1924, 40 percent of the original population.[182]
  30. ^ For the Greek genocide other sources give 500,000–1,200,000 casualties between Pontic, Cappadocian and Ionians Greeks. The genocide, instigated by the Ottoman government, included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, summary expulsions, arbitrary executions, and destruction of Greek Orthodox cultural, historical and religious monuments.
  31. ^ The Genocide in German South West Africa was the campaign to exterminate the Herero and Nama people that the German Empire undertook in German South-West Africa (modern-day Namibia). It is considered one of the first genocides of the 20th century.
  32. ^ The Hamidian massacres (Armenian: Համիդյան ջարդեր, Turkish: Hamidiye Katliamı, French: Massacres hamidiens), also referred to as the Armenian Massacres of 1894–1896[197] and Armenian genocide,[197] were massacres of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire that took place in the mid-1890s. It was estimated casualties ranged from 80,000 to 300,000,[198] resulting in 50,000 orphaned children.[199] The massacres are named after Sultan Abdul Hamid II, who, in his efforts to maintain the imperial domain of the collapsing Ottoman Empire, reasserted Pan-Islamism as a state ideology.[200] Although the massacres were aimed mainly at the Armenians, they turned into indiscriminate anti-Christian pogroms in some cases, such as the Diyarbekir massacre, where, at least according to one contemporary source, up to 25,000 Assyrians were also killed.[201] The massacres began in the Ottoman interior in 1894, before becoming more widespread in the following years. Between 1894 and 1896 was when the majority of the murders took place. The massacres began tapering off in 1897, following international condemnation of Abdul Hamid. The harshest measures were directed against the long persecuted Armenian community as calls for civil reform and better treatment from the government went ignored. The Ottomans made no allowances for the victims' age or gender, and massacred all with brutal force.[202] This occurred at a time when the telegraph could spread news around the world, and the massacres received extensive coverage in the media of Western Europe and North America.
  33. ^ The Selk'nam Genocide was the genocide of the Selk'nam people, indigenous inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego in South America, from the second half of the 19th to the early 20th century. Spanning a period of between ten and fifteen years the Selk'nam, which had an estimated population of some three thousand, saw their numbers reduced to 500.[203]
  34. ^ The Circassian genocide refers to the ethnic cleansing, massive annihilation, displacement,[207] destruction and expulsion of the majority of the indigenous Circassians from historical Circassia, which roughly encompassed the major part of the North Caucasus and the northeast shore of the Black Sea. This occurred in the aftermath of the Caucasian War in the last quarter of the 19th century.[208] The displaced people moved primarily to the Ottoman Empire. Former Russian President Boris Yeltsin's May 1994 statement admitted that resistance to the tsarist forces was legitimate, but he did not recognise "the guilt of the tsarist government for the genocide."[209] In 1997 and 1998, the leaders of Kabardino-Balkaria and of Adygea sent appeals to the Duma to reconsider the situation and to issue the needed apology; to date, there has been no response from Moscow. In October 2006, the Adygeyan public organizations of Russia, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, Syria, the United States, Belgium, Canada and Germany have sent the president of the European Parliament a letter with the request to recognise the genocide against Adygean (Circassian) people.[210] On May 21, 2011, the Parliament of Georgia passed a resolution, stating that "pre-planned" mass killings of Circassians by Imperial Russia, accompanied by "deliberate famine and epidemics", should be recognised as "genocide" and those deported during those events from their homeland, should be recognised as "refugees". Georgia, which has poor relations with Russia, has made outreach efforts to North Caucasian ethnic groups since the 2008 Russo-Georgian War.[211] Following a consultation with academics, human rights activists and Circassian diaspora groups and parliamentary discussions in Tbilisi in 2010 and 2011, Georgia became the first country to use the word "genocide" to refer to the events.[211][212][213] On 20 May 2011 the parliament of the Republic of Georgia declared in its resolution[214] that the mass annihilation of the Cherkess (Adyghe) people during the Russian-Caucasian war and thereafter constituted genocide as defined in the Hague Convention of 1907 and the UN Convention of 1948.
  35. ^ Although ethnic cleanings and massacres started in early 1800s, especially under the command of Grigory Zass, the mass deportation and murder where most deaths took place started in 1864.
  36. ^ The California genocide[223][224] refers to the destruction of individual tribes like the Yuki people during the Round Valley Settler Massacres of 1856–1859,[225] general massacres perpetrated by settlers chasing the gold rush against Indians like the Bloodsland massacre, or Klamath River "War of Extermination"[226] along with the overall decline of the Indian population of California due to disease and starvation exacerbated by the massacres.
  37. ^ Only the range of deaths caused by massacred
  38. ^ The total population decline of the period overall
  39. ^ Queensland represents the single bloodiest colonial frontier in Australia. Thus the records of Queensland document the most frequent reports of shootings and massacres of indigenous people, the three deadliest massacres on white settlers, the most disreputable frontier police force, and the highest number of white victims to frontier violence on record in any Australian colony.[227] Thus some sources have characterized these events as a Queensland Aboriginal genocide.[228][229][230][231]
  40. ^ The genocide of the Moriori began in the fall of 1835. The invasions of the Chatham Islands by Maori from New Zealand left the Moriori people and their culture to die off. Those who survived were either kept as slaves or eaten and Moriori were not sanctioned to marry other Moriori or have children within their race. This caused their people and their language to be endangered. There were only 101 Moriori people left out of 2000 who had survived in 1863.[233]
  41. ^ [240][241]
  42. ^ The extinction of Aboriginal Tasmanians was called an archetypal case of genocide by Rafael Lemkin[243] (coiner of the word genocide) among other historians, a view supported by more recent genocide scholars like Ben Kiernan who covered it in his book Blood and Soil: A History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. This extinction also includes the Black War, which would make the war an act of genocide.[244] Historians like Keith Windschuttle among other historians disagree with this interpretation in discourse known as the History wars.
  43. ^ The 1804 Haiti massacre is considered to be a genocide by many scholars,[246][247] as it was intended to destroy the Franco-Haitian population following the Haitian Revolution. The massacre was ordered by King Jean-Jacques Dessalines to remove the remainder of the white population from Haiti, and lasted from January to 22 April 1804. During the massacre, entire families were tortured and killed, and by the end of it, Haiti's white population was virtually non-existent.[248][249]
  44. ^ Dzungar genocide. The Manchu Qianlong Emperor of Qing China issued his orders for his Manchu Bannermen to carry out the genocide and eradication of the Dzungar nation, ordering the massacre of all the Dzungar men and enslaving Dzungar women and children.[251] The Qianlong Emperor moved the remaining Zunghar people to the mainland and ordered the generals to kill all the men in Barkol or Suzhou, and divided their wives and children to Qing soldiers.[252][253] The Qing soldiers who massacred the Dzungars were Manchu Bannermen and Khalkha Mongols. In an account of the war, Wei Yuan wrote that about 40% of the Dzungar households were killed by smallpox, 20% fled to Russia or the Kazakh Khanate, and 30% were killed by the army, leaving no yurts in an area of several thousands of Chinese miles except those of the surrendered.[254][255][256] Clarke wrote 80%, or between 480,000 and 600,000 people, were killed between 1755 and 1758 in what "amounted to the complete destruction of not only the Zunghar state but of the Zunghars as a people."[254][257] Historian Peter Perdue has shown that the decimation of the Dzungars was the result of an explicit policy of extermination launched by the Qianlong Emperor.[254] Although this "deliberate use of massacre" has been largely ignored by modern scholars,[254] Mark Levene, a historian whose recent research interests focus on genocide, has stated that the extermination of the Dzungars was "arguably the eighteenth century genocide par excellence".[258]
  45. ^ The Taíno genocide refers to the decimation of the indigenous population of Hispaniola due to forced labor and exploitation by the Spanish. Raphael Lemkin (coiner of the term genocide) considers Spain's abuses of the native population of the Americas to constitute cultural and even outright genocide including the abuses of the Encomienda system. He described slavery as "cultural genocide par excellence" noting "it is the most effective and thorough method of destroying culture, of desocializing human beings." He considers colonist guilty due to failing to halt the abuses of the system despite royal orders. He also notes the sexual abuse of Spanish colonizers of Native women as acts of "biological genocide."[259] University of Hawaii historian David Stannard describes the encomienda as a genocidal system which "had driven many millions of native peoples in Central and South America to early and agonizing deaths."[260] Yale University's genocide studies program supports this view regarding abuses in Hispaniola.[261] Andrés Reséndez argues that even though the Spanish were aware of the spread of smallpox, they made no mention of it until 1519, a quarter century after Columbus arrived in Hispaniola.[262] Instead he contends that enslavement in gold and silver mines was the primary reason why the Native American population of Hispaniola dropped so significantly[263][262] and that even though disease was a factor, the native population would have rebounded the same way Europeans did during the Black Death if it were not for the constant enslavement they were subject to.[262] According to anthropologist Jason Hickel, a third of Arawak workers died every six months from lethal forced labor in the mines.[264]
  46. ^ The Albigensian Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism, a Christian sect, in Languedoc, in southern France. The Catholic Church considered them heretics and ordered that they should be completely eradicated.[265] Raphael Lemkin referred to the Albigensian Crusade as "one of the most conclusive cases of genocide in religious history".[266] Kurt Jonassohn and Karin Solveig Björnson describe it as "the first ideological genocide."[267]


  1. ^ McKenna, Erin, and Scott L. Pratt. 2015. American Philosophy: From Wounded Knee to the Present. Bloomsbury. p. 375.
  2. ^ "ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK: Genocide" (PDF). Office of the UN Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide (OSAPG). United Nations. p. 1. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  3. ^ R.C. (23 May 2018). "The Rohingya crisis bears all the hallmarks of a genocide". The Economist. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  4. ^ Camilla Siazon (8 May 2018). "The Rohingya Crisis and the Meaning of Genocide". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  5. ^ "UN official says Rohingya crisis has 'hallmarks of genocide'". Associated Press. 1 February 2018. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  6. ^ Azeem Ibrahim (23 October 2017). "There's only one conclusion on the Rohingya in Myanmar: It's genocide". CNN. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  7. ^ BBC (24 April 2018). "Myanmar Rohingya: What you need to know about the crisis". BBC. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  8. ^ BenarNews (23 August 2017). "Southeast Asia's Newest Rebel Group Calls Bangladesh 'Great Neighbor'". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  9. ^ James Bennett (14 December 2017). "Rohingya death toll likely above 10,000, MSF says amid exodus". ABC. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  10. ^ Barron, Laignee (8 March 2018). "More Than 43,000 Rohingya Parents May Be Missing. Experts Fear They Are Dead". Time. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  11. ^ Withnall, Adam (2019-07-05). "'Cultural genocide': China separating thousands of Muslim children from parents for 'thought education'". The Independent. Retrieved 2023-08-09.
  12. ^ Finnegan, Ciara (2020-01-11). "The Uyghur Minority in China: A Case Study of Cultural Genocide, Minority Rights and the Insufficiency of the International Legal Framework in Preventing State-Imposed Extinction". Laws. 9 (1): 1. doi:10.3390/laws9010001. ISSN 2075-471X.
  13. ^ Piotrowicz, Ryszard (2020-07-14). "Legal expert: forced birth control of Uighur women is genocide – can China be put on trial?". The Conversation. Retrieved 2023-08-09.
  14. ^ Landale, James (2021-02-08). "Uighurs: 'Credible case' China carrying out genocide". BBC News. Retrieved 2023-08-09.
  15. ^ "UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria: ISIS is committing genocide against the Yazidis". United Nations – Human Rights – Office of the High Commissioner. 16 June 2016. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021.
  16. ^ HRC (2016). They came to destroy: ISIS Crimes Against the Yazidis (PDF). Human Rights Council Thirty-second session Agenda item 4. pp. 8–9, 21, 36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2020.
  17. ^ Spencer, Richard (14 October 2014). "Isil carried out massacres and mass sexual enslavement of Yazidis, UN confirms". Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  18. ^ Taylor, Lin (9 May 2017). "Nearly 10,000 Yazidis killed, kidnapped by Islamic State in 2014, study finds". Reuters. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  19. ^ Williams 2012, p. 192.
  20. ^ Elhag 2014, p. 210.
  21. ^ Guha-Sapir, Debarati; Degomme, Olivier (2005). "Darfur: counting the deaths (2). What are the trends?". Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. hdl:2078.1/179717.
  22. ^ Reeves, Eric (28 April 2006). "Quantifying Genocide in Darfur". Sudan - Research, Analysis, and Advocacy.
  23. ^ a b Penketh, Anne (7 July 2004). "Extermination of the pygmies". The Independent. Archived from the original on 21 December 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  24. ^ Penketh 2004.
  25. ^ a b c "Between October 2002 and January 2003, two the rebel groups, the MLC and RCD-N in the East of the Congo launched a premeditated, systematic genocide against the local tribes and Pygmies nicknamed operation "Effacer le Tableau" ("erase the board"). During their offensive against the civilian population of the Ituri region, the rebel groups left more than 60,000 dead and over 100,000 displaced. The rebels even engaged in slavery and cannibalism. Human Rights Reports state that this was due to the fact that rebel groups, often far away from their bases of supply and desperate for food, enslaved the Pygmies on captured farms to grow provisions for their militias or when times get really tough simply slaughter them like animals and devour their flesh which some believe gives them magical powers. 11. Fatality Level of Dispute (military and civilian fatalities): 70,000 estimated" see: Seshadri, Raja (7 November 2005). "Pygmies in the Congo Basin and Conflict". Case Study 163. The Inventory of Conflict & Environment, American University. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  26. ^ Report of the Mapping Exercise Documenting the Most Serious Violations of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law Committed Within the Territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Between March 1993 and June 2003 (PDF) (Report). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2010.
  27. ^ Ezimet, Kisangani (2000). "The Massacre of Refugees in Congo: A Case of UN Peacekeeping Failure and International Law". The Journal of Modern African Studies. Cambridge University Press. 38 (2): 163–202. doi:10.1017/S0022278X0000330X. JSTOR 161648. S2CID 154818651.
  28. ^ a b c Reyntjens, Filip (2009). The Great African War: Congo and Regional Geopolitics, 1996–2006 (PDF). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  29. ^ F. Emizet, Kisangani N. (July 2000). "The Massacre of Refugees in Congo: A Case of UN Peacekeeping Failure and International Law". The Journal of Modern African Studies. 38 (2): 163–202. doi:10.1017/S0022278X0000330X. JSTOR 161648. S2CID 154818651.
  30. ^ a b c McDoom, Omar Shahabudin (2020). "Contested Counting: Toward a Rigorous Estimate of the Death Toll in the Rwandan Genocide" (PDF). Journal of Genocide Research. 22 (1): 83–93. doi:10.1080/14623528.2019.1703252. S2CID 214032255. If one examines the claims for the overall number killed, at the higher end lies the figure of 1,074,017 Rwandan dead. This number originates with the Rwandan government which conducted a nationwide census in July 2000, six years after the genocide. Toward the lower end lies an estimate from Human Rights Watch, one of the first organizations on the ground to investigate the genocide, of 507,000 Tutsi killed... I have estimated between 491,000 and 522,000 Tutsi, nearly two thirds of Rwanda's pre-genocide Tutsi population, were killed between 6 April and 19 July 1994. I calculated this death toll by subtracting my estimate of between 278,000 and 309,000 Tutsi survivors from my estimate of a baseline Tutsi population of almost exactly 800,000, or 10.8% of the overall population, on the eve of the genocide... In comparison with estimates at the higher and lower ends, my estimate is significantly lower than the Government of Rwanda's genocide census figure of 1,006,031 Tutsi killed. I believe this number is not credible.
  31. ^ Guichaoua, André (2020). "Counting the Rwandan Victims of War and Genocide: Concluding Reflections". Journal of Genocide Research. 22 (1): 125–141. doi:10.1080/14623528.2019.1703329. S2CID 213471539.
  32. ^ Irwin, Rachel (13 December 2012). "Genocide Conviction for Serb General Tolimir". Institute for War and Peace Reporting. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  33. ^ Gutman, Roy (1993). A Witness to Genocide. Lisa Drew Books. ISBN 978-0020329954.
  34. ^ Thackrah, John Richard (2008). Routledge Companion to Military Conflict since 1945. Taylor & Francis. pp. 81–82. ISBN 978-0-203-01470-7 – via Google Books.
  35. ^ "Serbian MPs offer apology for Srebrenica massacre". BBC News. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  36. ^ Calic, Marie–Janine (2012). "Ethnic Cleansing and War Crimes, 1991–1995". In Ingrao, Charles W.; Emmert, Thomas A. (eds.). Confronting the Yugoslav Controversies: A Scholars' Initiative. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. pp. 139–40. ISBN 978-1-55753-617-4 – via Google Books. Footnotes in source identify numbers as June 2012.
  37. ^ Burg, Steven L.; Shoup, Paul S. (2015). Ethnic Conflict and International Intervention: Crisis in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1990-93. Taylor & Francis. p. 169. ISBN 9781317471028. A November 1995 unclassified CIA memorandum estimated 156,500 civilian deaths in the country (all but 10,000 of them in Muslim- or Croat-held territories), not including the 8,000 to 10,000 then still missing from the Srebrenica and Žepa enclaves.
  38. ^ Zwierzchowski, Jan; Tabeau, Ewa (1 February 2010). "The 1992–95 War in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Census-Based Multiple System Estimation of Casualties' Undercount" (PDF). Conference Paper for the International Research Workshop on 'The Global Costs of Conflict'. The Households in Conflict Network (HiCN) and The German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin) 1–2 February 2010, Berlin: 15.
  39. ^ Ingiriis, Mohamed Haji (2 July 2016). ""We Swallowed the State as the State Swallowed Us": The Genesis, Genealogies, and Geographies of Genocides in Somalia". African Security. 9 (3): 237–58. doi:10.1080/19392206.2016.1208475. ISSN 1939-2206. S2CID 148145948.
  40. ^ Mullin, Chris (1 October 2010). A View From The Foothills: The Diaries of Chris Mullin. Profile Books. ISBN 978-1847651860 – via Google Books.
  41. ^ a b c Mburu, Chris; United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights; United Nations Development Programme Somalia Country Office (1 January 2002). Past human rights abuses in Somalia: report of a preliminary study conducted for the United Nations (OHCHR/UNDP-Somalia) – via Google Books.
  42. ^ Peifer, Douglas C. (1 May 2009). Stopping Mass Killings in Africa: Genocide, Airpower, and Intervention. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 9781437912814 – via Google Books.
  43. ^ Straus, Scott (24 March 2015). Making and Unmaking Nations: The Origins and Dynamics of Genocide in Contemporary Africa. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801455674 – via Google Books.
  44. ^ a b Jones, Adam (22 January 2017). Genocide, war crimes and the West: history and complicity. Zed Books. ISBN 9781842771914 – via Google Books.
  45. ^ "Investigating genocide in Somaliland". Al Jazeera. February 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  46. ^ Somaliland: Time for African Union Leadership (PDF). International Crisis Group. 2006. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-02-02. Retrieved 2017-06-21.
  47. ^ Tekle, Amare (1 January 1994). Eritrea and Ethiopia: From Conflict to Cooperation. The Red Sea Press. ISBN 9780932415974 – via Google Books.
  48. ^ a b "Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics" (PDF). World Bank. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2005.
  49. ^ Press, Robert M. (1 January 1999). The New Africa: Dispatches from a Changing Continent. University Press of Florida. ISBN 9780813017044 – via Google Books.
  50. ^ Lindley, Anna (15 January 2013). The Early Morning Phonecall: Somali Refugees' Remittances. Berghahn Books. ISBN 9781782383284 – via Google Books.
  51. ^ Law, Ian (1 January 2010). Racism and Ethnicity: Global Debates, Dilemmas, Directions. Longman. ISBN 9781405859127 – via Google Books.
  52. ^ Africa Watch. 5: 4. 1993. {{cite journal}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  53. ^ Straus, Scott (24 March 2015). Making and Unmaking Nations: The Origins and Dynamics of Genocide in Contemporary Africa. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801455674 – via Google Books.
  54. ^ "Investigating genocide in Somaliland". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  55. ^ "Is Swedish neutrality over?". Pravda. 11 December 2012. Archived from the original on 18 December 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  56. ^ "Historic Debate Secures Parliamentary Recognition of the Kurdish Genocide". Huffington Post. March 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  57. ^ "South Korea recognizes Kurdish genocide". 13 June 2013. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  58. ^ "Genocide in Iraq". Human Rights Watch. 1993.
  59. ^ "The Crimes of Saddam Hussein – 1988 The Anfal Campaign". PBS Frontline. PBS.
  60. ^ "Resolution on State Repression in Zimbabwe" (PDF). International Association of Genocide Scholars. Retrieved 25 November 2021.
  61. ^ Doran, Stuart (19 May 2015). "Zimbabwe: new documents claim to prove Mugabe ordered Gukurahundi killings". The Guardian – via
  62. ^ Anon (April 1999), Breaking the Silence, Building True Peace. A report on the disturbances in Matabeleland and the Midlands 1980–1989 (PDF), Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace in Zimbabwe and the Legal Resources Foundation (Zimbabwe), archived from the original (PDF) on 11 February 2009
  63. ^ Hill, Geoff (2005) [2003]. The Battle for Zimbabwe: The Final Countdown. Johannesburg: Struik. ISBN 978-1-86872-652-3.
  64. ^ Frey, Rebecca Joyce (2009). Genocide and International Justice. Facts On File. p. 83. ISBN 978-0816073108.
  65. ^ The CGP, 1994–2008 Cambodian Genocide Program, Yale University.
  66. ^ Terry, Fiona (2002). Condemned to Repeat?: The Paradox of Humanitarian Action. Cornell University Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0801487965.
  67. ^ a b Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia". In Reed, Holly E.; Keely, Charles B. (eds.). Forced Migration and Mortality. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  68. ^ DeMello, Margo (2013). Body Studies: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 86. ISBN 978-0415699303.
  69. ^ "Mapping of mass graves". Documentation Center of Cambodia.
  70. ^ Kiernan, Ben (2019). "Genocidal targeting: Two groups of victims in Pol Pot's Cambodia". In Bushnell, P. Timothy; Shlapentokh, Vladimir; Vanderpool, Christopher; Sundram, Jeyaratnam (eds.). State Organized Terror: The Case Of Violent Internal Repression. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-000-31305-5.
  71. ^ Ellis-Petersen, Hannah (16 November 2018). "Khmer Rouge leaders found guilty of genocide in Cambodia's 'Nuremberg' moment". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  72. ^ "Documentation Center of Cambodia (DC-Cam)".
  73. ^ "Welcome | Genocide Studies Program".
  74. ^ The Quality of Mercy: Cambodia, Holocaust, and Modern Conscience. Touchstone. 1985. pp. 115–16.
  75. ^ Etcheson, Craig (2005). After the Killing Fields: Lessons from the Cambodian Genocide. Greenwood. p. 119. ISBN 978-0275985134.
  76. ^ Heuveline, Patrick (1998). "'Between One and Three Million': Towards the Demographic Reconstruction of a Decade of Cambodian History (1970–79)". Population Studies. 52 (1): 49–65. doi:10.1080/0032472031000150176. JSTOR 2584763. PMID 11619945.
  77. ^ Payaslian, Simon. "20th Century Genocides". Oxford bibliographies. Archived from the original on 28 May 2023.
  78. ^ "Genocide Studies Program: East Timor". Yale University. Archived from the original on 26 March 2022.
  79. ^ "Conflict-related Deaths in Timor Leste, 1954–1999. The Findings of the CAVR Report Chega!" (PDF).
  80. ^ "Chega! The CAVR Report". Archived from the original on 13 May 2012.
  81. ^ Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000. The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings.
    * This estimates comes from taking the minimum killed violently applying the 70% violent death responsibility given to Indonesian military combined with the minimum starved.
    "Conflict-related Deaths in Timor Leste, 1954–1999. The Findings of the CAVR Report" (PDF).
    "The CAVR Report". Archived from the original on 13 May 2012.
  82. ^ Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000. The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings:*This estimates comes from taking the maximum killed violently applying the 70% violent death responsibility given to Indonesian military combined with the maximum starved.
    "Conflict-related Deaths in Timor Leste, 1954–1999. The Findings of the CAVR Report". Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  83. ^ a b c d "HOME". Combatgenocide (in Hebrew). Archived from the original on 27 June 2023.
  84. ^ White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century: C. Burundi (1972–73, primarily Hutu killed by Tutsi) 120,000".
  85. ^ "Fonds AG-062 - United Nations International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi (UNICIB) (1995-1996)". United Nations - Archives and Records Management Section. 2002. p. 20 ¶ 85. The Micombero regime responded with a genocidal repression that is estimated to have caused over a hundred thousand victims and forced several hundred thousand Hutus into exile
  86. ^ a b Krueger, Robert; Krueger, Kathleen Tobin (2007). From Bloodshed to Hope in Burundi: Our Embassy Years During Genocide (PDF). University of Texas Press. ISBN 9780292714861 (PDF). p. 29.
  87. ^ "Part 5: Chapter 2, paragraph 33". Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report. 1974. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  88. ^ Jahan, Rounaq (2013). "Genocide in Bangladesh". In Totten, Samuel; Parsons, William Spencer (eds.). Centuries of Genocide: Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. Routledge. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-415-87191-4 – via Google Books.
  89. ^ Dummett, Mark (16 December 2011). "How one newspaper report changed world history". BBC News. Archived from the original on 16 June 2023. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  90. ^ "Bangladesh war: The article that changed history – Asia". BBC. 25 March 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  91. ^ While the official Pakistani government report (Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report 1974) estimated that the Pakistani army was responsible for 26,000 killings in total, other sources have proposed various estimates ranging between 200,000 and 3 million. Indian Professor Sarmila Bose recently expressed the view that a truly impartial study has never been done, while Bangladeshi ambassador Shamsher M. Chowdhury has suggested that a joint Pakistan-Bangladeshi commission be formed to properly investigate the event.
    Chowdury, Bose comments – Dawn Newspapers Online.
    Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the 20th Century: Bangladesh – Matthew White's website.
  92. ^ Rummel, R.J. (January 1997). Death By Government. Routledge. p. 331. ISBN 1560009276. The human death toll over only 267 days was incredible. Just to give for five out of the eighteen districts some incomplete statistics published in Bangladesh newspapers or by an Inquiry Committee, the Pakistani army killed 100,000 Bengalis in Dacca, 150,000 in Khulna, 75,000 in Jessore, 95,000 in Comilla, and 100,000 in Chittagong. For eighteen districts the total is 1,247,000 killed. This was an incomplete toll, and to this day no one really knows the final toll. Some estimates of the democide (i.e. Rummel's 'death by government') are much lower—one is of 300,000 dead—but most range from 1 million to 3 million. ... The Pakistani army and allied paramilitary groups killed about one out of every sixty-one people in Pakistan overall; one out of every twenty-five Bengalis, Hindus, and others in East Pakistan. If the rate of killing for all of Pakistan is annualised over the years the Yahya martial law regime was in power (March 1969 to December 1971), then this one regime was more lethal than that of the Soviet Union, China under the communists, or Japan under the military (even through World War II).
  93. ^ "Press Briefing: Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission". United Nations. 1 March 1999. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  94. ^ "Guatemala Memory of Silence" (PDF). Commission for Historical Clarification Conclusions and Recommendations. Guatemala City. 1999. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  95. ^ CEH 1999, p. 20.
  96. ^ CEH 1999, p. 23.
  97. ^ Namely the 83% of the "fully identified" 42,275 civilians killed by human rights violations during the Guatemalan Civil War. See CEH 1999, p. 17, and "Press Briefing: Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission". United Nations. 1 March 1999. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  98. ^ Applying the same proportion as for the fully identified victims to the estimated total amount of person killed or disappeared during the Guatemalan civil war (at least 200,000). See CEH 1999, p. 17.
  99. ^ a b Nekrich, Aleksandr. The Punished Peoples.
  100. ^ a b Dunlop. Russia Confronts Chechnya. pp. 62–70.
  101. ^ a b Gammer, Moshe (2006). Lone Wolf and the Bear. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 166–171. ISBN 0822958988.
  102. ^ Rummel, R. J. (1990). Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1-56000-887-3. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  103. ^ "UNPO: Chechnya: European Parliament recognises the genocide of the Chechen People in 1944". Archived from the original on 4 June 2023.
  104. ^ "Press-Release: February 23, World Chechnya Day". Save Chechnya Campaign. Archived from the original on 27 February 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  105. ^ Wong, Tom K. (2015). Rights, Deportation, and Detention in the Age of Immigration Control. Stanford University Press. p. 68. ISBN 9780804794572. LCCN 2014038930. page 68
  106. ^ Chanturiya, Kazbek (23 February 2017). "After 73 years, the memory of Stalin's deportation of Chechens and Ingush still haunts the survivors". OC Media. Archived from the original on 27 November 2019. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
  107. ^ Wood, Tony. Chechnya: the Case for Independence. pp. 37–38.
  108. ^ "Soviet Transit, Camp, and Deportation Death Rates". University of Hawaiʻi. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  109. ^ Legters 1992, p. 104.
  110. ^ Fisher 2014, p. 150.
  111. ^ Allworth 1998, p. 216.
  112. ^ Snyder, Timothy (5 October 2010). "The fatal fact of the Nazi-Soviet pact". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 June 2023. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
  113. ^ a b Buckley, Cynthia J.; Ruble, Blair A.; Hofmann, Erin Trouth (2008). Migration, Homeland, and Belonging in Eurasia. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press. p. 207. ISBN 9780801890758.
  114. ^ Allworth, Edward (1998). The Tatars of Crimea: Return to the Homeland: Studies and Documents. Durham: Duke University Press. p. 6. ISBN 9780822319948. LCCN 97019110. OCLC 610947243.
  115. ^ ""Punished Peoples" of the Soviet Union: The Continuing Legacy of Stalin's Deportations" (PDF). Human Rights Watch 1991. p. 34.
  116. ^ Allworth, Edward; Columbia University Center for the Study of Central Asia (1988). Tatars of the Crimea: Their Struggle for Survival: Original Studies from North America, Unofficial and Official Documents from Czarist and Soviet Sources. Duke University Press. pp. 173, 191–193. ISBN 978-0-8223-0758-7 – via Google Books.
  117. ^ For a listing of the number of murdered Jews, detailed by country, see Dawidowicz, Lucy (2010). The War Against the Jews: 1933–1945. Open Road Media. Appendix A. ISBN 978-1453203064.
  118. ^
  119. ^
    • Mawdsley, Evan (2015) [2005]. Thunder in the East: The Nazi-Soviet War 1941–1945. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 437n30. ISBN 978-1-4725-1008-2 – via Google Books. ... His total death toll for the European Holocaust was 5,100,00
    • Rubinstein, William D. (2014) [2004]. Genocide. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-86995-5 – via Google Books. The number of Jews killed at the hands of the Nazis is invariably given, in shorthand terms at any rate, as 6 million, a figure which has, of course, entered the common consciousness and is endlessly repeated.122 It appears likely, however, that this number is too high by a considerable amount, as some careful Holocaust scholars such as Gerald Reitlinger and Raul Hilberg have pointed out. Reitlinger's early (1953) but carefully argued estimate of between 4,194,000 and 4,581,000 Jewish deaths is certainly the lowest ever offered by a serious historian; Hilberg's more recent, but even more carefully argued estimate of 5,100,000... appears to be the next lowest among reputable scholars... it appears to this historian that Reitlinger's figures are probably most nearly correct, with the figure of Jewish victims of the Holocaust numbering about 4.7 million, although there is a wide margin of imprecision. Given that about 2.7 million Jews perished in the six major extermination camps, a figure of 6 million Jewish dead necessarily means that 3.3 million perished in other ways: this is very difficult to believe and is almost certainly an exaggeration. In demographic terms, there are two ways of approaching this question: to compare the number of Jews in Nazi-occupied countries in September 1939 with those alive in May 1945 (bearing in mind such other factors as the escape of refugees and battle deaths), and to provide an estimate of the number of Jews who perished by method of death in the extermination camps, at the hands of the Einsatzgruppen, etc. Both are fraught with difficulties, especially the former
    • Cesarani, David; Kushner, Tony; Reilly, Jo; Richmond, Colin (2013) [2007]. Belsen in History and Memory. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-25137-6 – via Google Books. ...5.29 million to over six million Jewish victims.
    • Hayes, Peter; Roth, John K. (2012) [2010]. The Oxford Handbook of Holocaust Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-19-165079-6 – via Google Books. Nevertheless, scholarly research, aided by recently opened archives and computerized data processing capacities, has put statistical estimates on a firmer footing than was possible in earlier decades. In previous stages of research, estimates of the Jewish victims ranged from 4,202,000—4,575,400 (Reitlinger 1961: 533–46), to 5.1 million (Hilberg 1961: 767), to 5,820,960 (Robinson 1971'. 889), to 6,093,000 (Lestchinsky 1948:60). At the end of the 1980s two different teams, one headed by a German scholar, another by an Israeli, meticulously reviewed all the available data and arrived at the following numbers for Jewish fatalities during the Holocaust: 5,596,000 to 5,860,149 (Gutman 1990: 1799) and 5.29 million to slightly more than 6 million (Benz 1991: 17). The new Yad Vashem museum, which opened in 2005, mentions 5,786,748 Jewish victims. One can be skeptical of such precision, but the most current research reliably calculates a total number of victims close to the now iconic figure Six Million
  120. ^ Hoffmann, Peter (2011-07-11). Carl Goerdeler and the Jewish Question, 1933–1942. Cambridge University Press. p. xii. ISBN 978-1-139-49944-6 – via Google Books. The SS' own statistic for Jews killed under German authority is 5.1 million
  121. ^ ——— (2020). Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust (Third ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-5381-3015-5.
  122. ^ "Remaining Jewish Population of Europe in 1945". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. According to the American Jewish Yearbook, the Jewish population of Europe was about 9.5 million in 1933. In 1950, the Jewish population of Europe was about 3.5 million.
  123. ^ Berenbaum, Michael (2006). The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. ISBN 978-0-8018-8358-3.
  124. ^ Earl Porter, Thomas (20 November 2018). "Hitler's Rassenkampf in the East: The Forgotten Genocide of Soviet POWs". Nationalities Papers. 37 (6): 839–859. doi:10.1080/00905990903230785. S2CID 162190846.
  125. ^ a b Jones, Adam (2017). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction (3rd ed.). London: Routledge. p. 377. ISBN 9781138823846. 'Next to the Jews in Europe,' wrote Alexander Werth', 'the biggest single German crime was undoubtedly the extermination by hunger, exposure and in other ways of ... Russian war prisoners.' Yet the murder of at least 3.3 million Soviet POWs is one of the least-known of modern genocides; there is still no full-length book on the subject in English. It also stands as one of the most intensive genocides of all time: 'a holocaust that devoured millions,' as Catherine Merridale acknowledges. The large majority of POWs, some 2.8 million, were killed in just eight months of 1941–42, a rate of slaughter matched (to my knowledge) only by the 1994 Rwanda genocide.
  126. ^ Taulbee, James Larry (2017). Genocide, Mass Atrocity, and War Crimes in Modern History: Blood and Conscience [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 124. ISBN 978-1440829857 – via Google Books.
  127. ^ a b Calvocoressi, Peter; Wint, Guy (1989). Total War (Revised ed.). Viking. The total number of prisoners taken by the German armies in the USSR was in the region of 5.5 million. Of these, the astounding number of 3.5 million or more had been lost by the middle of 1944 and the assumption must be that they were either deliberately killed or done to death by criminal negligence. Nearly two million of them died in camps and close on another million disappeared while in military custody either in the USSR or in rear areas; a further quarter of a million disappeared or died in transit between the front and destinations in the rear; another 473,000 died or were killed in military custody in Germany or Poland.
  128. ^ "Nazi persecution of Soviet Prisoners of War". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum — Soviets Viewed as Subhuman Enemies. Archived from the original on 2 July 2020.}
  129. ^ Fischer, Bernd J., ed. (2007). Balkan Strongmen: Dictators and Authoritarian Rulers of South-Eastern Europe. Purdue University Press. pp. 207–10. ISBN 978-1557534552.
  130. ^ a b "Axis Invasion of Yugoslavia – Croatia". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  131. ^ Redžić, Enver (2005). Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Second World War. London; New York: Frank Cass. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-7146-5625-0 – via Google Books.
  132. ^ Klemenčič, Matjaž; Žagar, Mitja (2004). The former Yugoslavia's diverse peoples: a reference sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-57607-294-3 – via Google Books.
  133. ^ Hoare, Marko Attila (2006). Genocide and Resistance in Hitler's Bosnia: The Partisans and the Chetniks, 1941–1943. Oxford University Press. p. 154. ISBN 0197263801 – via Google Books.
  134. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 379, 747.
  135. ^ a b c Geiger, Vladimir (2012). "Human Losses of the Croats in World War II and the Immediate Post-War Period Caused by the Chetniks (Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland) and the Partisans (People's Liberation Army and the Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia/Yugoslav Army) and the Communist Authorities: Numerical Indicators". Revue für Kroatische Geschichte = Revue d'Histoire Croate. VIII (1): 77–121.
  136. ^ Furber, David; Lower, Wendy (2008). "Colonialism and genocide in Nazi-occupied Poland and Ukraine". In Moses, A. Dirk (ed.). Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History. Berghahn Books. p. 393. ISBN 978-1-78238-214-0 – via Google Books.
  137. ^ Yehuda Bauer Comparison of Genocides. Studies in Comparative Genocide, 1999 31–43. "According to Polish sources, about three million ethnic Poles lost their lives during the war, or about 10 per cent of the Polish nation(...) large numbers were murdered, or died as a result of direct German actions such as denying food or medical treatment to Poles, or incarceration in concentration camps. There is no way of estimating the exact proportions, but I believe it would be difficult to deny that we have here a case of mass murder directed against Poles. German plans regarding Poles talked about denationalizing the Polish people, or in other words, making them into individuals who would no longer have any national identity(...)This is a case of genocide – a purposeful attempt toeliminate an ethnicity or a nation, accompanied by the murder of large numbers of the targeted group."
  138. ^ a b "Polish Victims". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 30 October 2020. It is estimated that the Germans killed between 1.8 and 1.9 million non-Jewish Polish civilians during World War II. In addition, the Germans murdered at least 3 million Jewish citizens of Poland.
  139. ^ Cherry, Robert D.; Orla-Bukowska, Annamaria (2007). Rethinking Poles and Jews: Troubled Past, Brighter Future. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-7425-4666-0 – via Google Books. ...and the ruthlessness of German rule in Poland, where three million gentiles also perished and the punishment for hiding a Jew was execution of captured rescuers and their immediate families.
  140. ^ Banki, Judith Herschcopf; Pawlikowski, John (2001). Ethics in the Shadow of the Holocaust: Christian and Jewish Perspectives. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-58051-109-4 – via Google Books. ...Along with those three million Polish Jews, three million Polish civilians were murdered as well....
  141. ^ Ellman, Michael (June 2007). "Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932–33 Revisited". Europe-Asia Studies. 59 (4): 663–693. doi:10.1080/09668130701291899. JSTOR 20451381. S2CID 53655536.
  142. ^ Sebag Montefiore, Simon (2003). Stalin. The Court of the Red Tsar. New York: Vintage Books. p. 229. ISBN 1-4000-7678-1.
  143. ^ Snyder, Timothy (5 October 2010). "The fatal fact of the Nazi-Soviet pact". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
  144. ^ a b Naimark, Norman M. (November 2016). Genocide: A World History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-063772-9.
  145. ^ Goldman, Wendy Z. (2011). Inventing the Enemy: Denunciation and Terror in Stalin's Russia. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-521-19196-8.
  146. ^ Rubenstein, Joshua. "The Devils' Playground". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 April 2011. Rubenstein is the Northeast regional director of Amnesty International USA and a co-editor of The Unknown Black Book: The Holocaust in the German-Occupied Soviet Territories.
    Almost all victims of the NKVD shootings were men, wrote Michał Jasiński, most with families. Their wives and children were dealt with by the NKVD Order No. 00486. The women were generally sentenced to deportation to Kazakhstan for an average of 5 to 10 years. Orphaned children without relatives willing to take them were put in orphanages to be brought up as Soviet, with no knowledge of their origins. All possessions of the accused were confiscated. The parents of the executed men – as well as their in-laws – were left with nothing to live on, which usually sealed their fate as well. Statistical extrapolation, wrote Jasiński, increases the number of Polish victims in 1937–1938 to around 200–250,000 depending on size of their families.
  147. ^ Michael Ellman, Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932–33 Revisited Archived 2007-10-14 at the Wayback Machine PDF file page 686
  148. ^ Cambeira, Alan (1997). Quisqueya la bella (1996 ed.). M.E. Sharpe. p. 182. ISBN 1-56324-936-7.
    anyone of African descent found incapable of pronouncing correctly, that is, to the complete satisfaction of the sadistic examiners, became a condemned individual. This holocaust is recorded as having a death toll reaching thirty thousand innocent souls, Haitians as well as Dominicans.
  149. ^ Paulino, Edward (16 February 2016). Dividing Hispaniola: The Dominican Republic's Border Campaign against Haiti, 1930-1961. University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 9780822981039 – via Google Books.
  150. ^ Turtis, 590.
  151. ^ Galván, Javier A. (2012). Latin American Dictators of the 20th Century: The Lives and Regimes of 15 Rulers. McFarland. p. 53.
  152. ^ Turits, Richard Lee (2004). Foundations of Despotism: Peasants, the Trujillo Regime, and Modernity in Dominican History. Stanford University Press.
  153. ^ Maria Cristina Fumagalli (2015). On the Edge: Writing the Border between Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Liverpool University Press. p. 20. ISBN 9781781387573.
  154. ^ Milton, Sybil (February 1992). "Nazi Policies towards Roma and Sinti 1933–1945". Journal of Gypsy Lore Society. 2 (1): 1–18. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  155. ^ "Holocaust Encyclopedia – Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies), 1939–1945". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM). Retrieved 9 August 2011.
  156. ^ König, Ulrich (1989). Sinti und Roma unter dem Nationalsozialismus [Sinti and Roma under National Socialism] (in German). Bochum: Brockmeyer. ISBN 9783883397054 – via Google Books. The count of half a million Sinti and Roma murdered between 1939 and 1945 is too low to be tenable.
  157. ^ Niewyk, Donald L.; Nicosia, Francis R. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-231-50590-1. Retrieved 5 July 2016 – via Google Books.
  158. ^ Hancock, Ian (2005), "True Romanies and the Holocaust: A Re-evaluation and an overview", The Historiography of the Holocaust, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 383–396, ISBN 978-1-4039-9927-6, archived from the original on 28 September 2011
  159. ^ Ignác, Benjamin (2018-08-02). "Why it is important to remember the Roma Holocaust?". European Roma Rights Centre. Retrieved 2023-08-02.
  160. ^ Payaslian, Simon (27 February 2019). "20th Century Genocides". Oxford Bibliographies. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  161. ^ Naimark 2010, pp. 70–78, 134–35"The Ukrainian killer famine should be considered an act of genocide. There is enough evidence—if not overwhelming evidence—to indicate that Stalin and his lieutenants knew that the widespread famine in the USSR in 1932–33 hit Ukraine particularly hard, and that they were ready to see millions of Ukrainian peasants die as a result. They made no efforts to provide relief; they prevented the peasants from seeking food themselves in the cities or elsewhere in the USSR; and they refused to relax restrictions on grain deliveries until it was too late. Stalin's hostility to the Ukrainians and their attempts to maintain their form of 'home rule' as well as his anger that Ukrainian peasants resisted collectivization fueled the killer famine
  162. ^ Lemkin, Raphael (2008) [1953]. "Soviet Genocide in the Ukraine" (PDF). In Luciuk, Lubomyr; Grekul, Lisa (eds.). Holodomor: Reflections on the Great Famine of 1932–1933 in Soviet Ukraine. Kashtan Press. ISBN 978-1896354330. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 March 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  163. ^ Naimark 2010, p. 70.
  164. ^ a b Naimark 2010, pp. 70, 147.
  165. ^ Naimark 2010, pp. 42, 76note 2
  166. ^ a b Cardoza, Anthony L. (2006). Benito Mussolini: the first fascist. Pearson Longman. p. 109.
  167. ^ a b Mann, Michael (2006). The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge University Press. p. 309. ISBN 9780521538541 – via Google Books.
  168. ^ Ahmida, Ali Abdullatif (23 March 2011). Making of Modern Libya, The: State Formation, Colonization, and Resistance (Second ed.). SUNY Press. p. 146. ISBN 9781438428932 – via Google Books.
  169. ^ Totten, Samuel; Bartrop, Paul Robert (2008). Dictionary of Genocide: A-L. ABC-CLIO. p. 259. ISBN 9780313346422.
  170. ^ a b c d Duggan, Christopher (2007). The Force of Destiny: A History of Italy Since 1796. New York: Houghton Mifflin. p. 497.
  171. ^ Cooper, Tom; Grandolini, Albert (19 January 2015). Libyan Air Wars: Part 1: 1973-1985. Helion and Company. p. 5. ISBN 9781910777510 – via Google Books.
  172. ^ Epton, Nina Consuelo (1953). Oasis Kingdom: The Libyan Story. New York: Roy Publishers. p. 126.
  173. ^ Stewart, C.C. (1986). "Islam" (PDF). The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 7: c. 1905 – c. 1940. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 196.
  174. ^ "Detailed description of some fights" (in Italian). Regioesercito.
  175. ^ Bloxham, Donald; Moses, A. Dirk (2010). The Oxford Handbook of Genocide Studies. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 358.
  176. ^ Oxford Business Group (2008). The Report: Libya 2008. p. 17. {{cite book}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  177. ^ Wright, John (1982). A History of Modern Libya.
  178. ^ Robertson, Geoffrey (2016). "Armenia and the G-word: The Law and the Politics". The Armenian Genocide Legacy. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 69–83. ISBN 978-1-137-56163-3. Put another way – if these same events occurred today, there can be no doubt that prosecutions before the ICC of Talaat and other CUP officials for genocide, for persecution and for other crimes against humanity would succeed. Turkey would be held responsible for genocide and for persecution by the ICJ and would be required to make reparation.14 That Court would also hold Germany responsible for complicity with the genocide and persecution, since it had full knowledge of the massacres and deportations and decided not to use its power and influence over the Ottomans to stop them. But to the overarching legal question that troubles the international community today, namely whether the killings of Armenians in 1915 can properly be described as a genocide, the analysis in this chapter returns are sounding affirmative answer.
  179. ^ Lattanzi, Flavia (2018). "The Armenian Massacres as the Murder of a Nation?". The Armenian Massacres of 1915–1916 a Hundred Years Later: Open Questions and Tentative Answers in International Law. Springer International Publishing. pp. 27–104. ISBN 978-3-319-78169-3. Starting from the claim by the Armenian community and the majority of historians that the 1915–1916 Armenian massacres and deportations constitute genocide as well as Turkey's fierce opposition to such a qualification, this paper investigates the possibility of identifying those massacres and deportations as the destruction of a nation. On the basis of a thorough analysis of the facts and the required mental element, the author shows that a deliberate destruction, in a substantial part, of the Armenian Christian nation as such, took place in those years. To come to this conclusion, this paper borrows the very same determinants as those used in the case-law of the Military Tribunals in occupied Germany, the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda in genocide cases.
  180. ^ "The Armenian Genocide (1915–16): In Depth". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 30 October 2020. Although the term genocide was not coined until 1944, most scholars agree that the mass murder of Armenians fits this definition. The CUP government systematically used an emergency military situation to effect a long-term population policy aimed at strengthening Muslim Turkish elements in Anatolia at the expense of the Christian population (primarily Armenians, but also Christian Assyrians). Ottoman, Armenian, US, British, French, German, and Austrian documents from the time reveal that the CUP leadership intentionally targeted the Armenian population of Anatolia.
  181. ^ Morris, Benny; Ze'evi, Dror (2019). The Thirty-Year Genocide: Turkey's Destruction of Its Christian Minorities, 1894–1924. Harvard University Press. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-0-674-24008-7.
  182. ^ Ze'evi, Dror; Morris, Benny (2020). "Response to Critique: The thirty-year genocide. Turkey's destruction of its Christian minorities, 1894–1924, by Benny Morris and Dror Ze'evi, Cambridge, MA, and London, Harvard University Press, 2019, 672 pp., USD$35.00 (hardcover), ISBN 9780674916456". Journal of Genocide Research. 22 (4): 561–566. doi:10.1080/14623528.2020.1735600. S2CID 216395523.
  183. ^ Bijak, Jakub; Lubman, Sarah (2016). "The Disputed Numbers: In Search of the Demographic Basis for Studies of Armenian Population Losses, 1915–1923". The Armenian Genocide Legacy. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-137-56163-3.
  184. ^ Morris, Benny; Ze'evi, Dror (2019). The Thirty-Year Genocide: Turkey's Destruction of Its Christian Minorities, 1894–1924. Harvard University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-674-91645-6.
  185. ^ Suny, Ronald Grigor (2015). "They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else": A History of the Armenian Genocide. Princeton University Press. p. xxi. ISBN 978-1-4008-6558-1.
  186. ^ Pamuk, Şevket (2018). Uneven Centuries: Economic Development of Turkey since 1820. Princeton University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0691184982.
  187. ^ Travis, Hannibal (December 2006). Native Christians Massacred': The Ottoman Genocide of the Assyrians During World War I. pp. 327–371. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  188. ^ "Assyrian Genocide". Lexicorient.
  189. ^ Sjöberg, Erik (2016). The Making of the Greek Genocide: Contested Memories of the Ottoman Greek Catastrophe. Berghahn Books. p. 234. ISBN 978-1-78533-326-2. Activists tend to inflate the overall total of Ottoman Greek deaths, from the cautious estimates between 300,000 to 700,000...
  190. ^ Jones, Adam (September 13, 2010). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Routledge. p. 166. ISBN 9781136937972. An estimate of the Pontian Greek death toll at all stages of the anti-Christian genocide is about 350,000; for all the Greeks of the Ottoman realm taken together, the toll surely exceeded half a million, and may approach the 900,000 killed that a team of US researchers found in the early postwar period.
  191. ^ a b c Nuhn, Walter (1989). Sturm über Südwest. Der Hereroaufstand von 1904 [Storm over Southwest. The Herero Rebellion of 1904] (in German). Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe. ISBN 978-3-7637-5852-4.
  192. ^ "Revised and Updated Report on the Question of the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide". Whitaker Report. United Nations. According to the 1985 United Nations' Whitaker Report, some 65,000 Herero (80 percent of the total Herero population), and 10,000 Nama (50% of the total Nama population) were killed between 1904 and 1907
  193. ^ Moses 2008, p. 296.
    Sarkin-Hughes, Jeremy (2008). Colonial Genocide and Reparations Claims in the 21st Century: The Socio-Legal Context of Claims under International Law by the Herero against Germany for Genocide in Namibia, 1904–1908. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International. p. 142. ISBN 978-0313362569.
    Schaller, Dominik J. (2008). From Conquest to Genocide: Colonial Rule in German Southwest Africa and German East Africa. NY: Berghahn Books. p. 296. ISBN 978-1-8454-5452-4.
    Friedrichsmeyer, Sara L.; Lennox, Sara; Zantop, Susanne M. (1998). The Imperialist Imagination: German Colonialism and Its Legacy. University of Michigan Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0472096824.
    Nuhn 1989.
    Hoffmann, Anette (2007). Baronian, Marie-Aude; Besser, Stephan; Jansen, Yolande (eds.). Diaspora and Memory: Figures of Displacement in Contemporary Literature, Arts and Politics. Amsterdam: Rodopi. p. 33. ISBN 978-90-420-2129-7. Retrieved 13 August 2016 – via Google Books.
  194. ^ "Germany admits Namibia genocide". BBC. August 14, 2004. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  195. ^ "German minister says sorry for genocide in Namibia". The Guardian. August 16, 2004. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  196. ^ "UN Whitaker Report on Genocide, 1985". Prevent Genocide International. paragraphs 14 to 24, pages 5 to 10
  197. ^ a b Adalian, Rouben Paul (2010). Historical Dictionary of Armenia (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. p. 154..
  198. ^ a b c Akçam, Taner (2006). A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility. New York: Metropolitan Books. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-8050-7932-6.
  199. ^ "Fifty Thousand Orphans Made So by the Turkish Massacres of Armenians". The New York Times. December 18, 1896. The number of Armenian children under twelve years of age made orphans by the massacres of 1895 is estimated by the missionaries at 50.000
  200. ^ Akçam 2006, p. 44.
  201. ^ Angold, Michael (2006). O'Mahony, Anthony (ed.). Cambridge History of Christianity. Vol. 5. Eastern Christianity. Cambridge University Press. p. 512. ISBN 978-0-521-81113-2 – via Google Books.
  202. ^ Cleveland, William L. (2000). A History of the Modern Middle East (2nd ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview. p. 119. ISBN 0-8133-3489-6.
  203. ^ a b Chapman, Anne (2010). European Encounters with the Yamana People of Cape Horn, Before and After Darwin (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-052151379-1.
  204. ^ Adhikari, Mohamed; Carmichael, Cathie; Jones, Adam; Kapila, Shruti; Naimark, Norman; Weitz, Eric D. (2018). "Genocide and Global and/or World History: Reflections". Journal of Genocide Research. 20 (1): 134–153. doi:10.1080/14623528.2017.1363476. S2CID 80081680.
  205. ^ Gardini, Walter (1984). "Restoring the Honour of an Indian Tribe-Rescate de una tribu". Anthropos (in German). 79 (4/6): 645–7.
  206. ^ Ray, Leslie (2007). Language of the Land: The Mapuche in Argentina and Chile. Copenhagen: IWGIA (International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs). p. 95. ISBN 978-879156337-9 – via Google Books.
  207. ^ Javakhishvili, Niko (2012-12-20). "Coverage of The tragedy public Thought (later half of the 19th century)". Tbilisi State University. Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  208. ^ Yemelianova, Galina (April 2014). Islam nationalism and state in the Muslim Caucasus. p. 3.
  209. ^ Goble, Paul (15 July 2005). "Circassians demand Russian apology for 19th century genocide". Radio Free Europe. Vol. 8, no. 23. Radio Liberty.
  210. ^ "Circassia: Adygs Ask European Parliament to Recognize Genocide". Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  211. ^ a b "Georgia Says Russia Committed Genocide in 19th Century". New York Times. 21 May 2011.
  212. ^ Hildebrandt, Amber (14 August 2012). "Russia's Sochi Olympics awakens Circassian anger". CBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  213. ^ "Georgia Recognizes 'Circassian Genocide'". Civil Georgia. 20 May 2011. Archived from the original on 18 September 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  214. ^ "Gruziya priznala genotsid cherkesov v tsarskoy Rossii" Грузия признала геноцид черкесов в царской России [Georgia recognized the Circassian genocide in Tsarist Russia]. (in Russian). 20 May 2011.
  215. ^ "Russians won't admit expulsion of Circassians was genocide — but Ukrainians should". Euromaidan Press. 2016-05-21.
  216. ^ a b Richmond, Walter (2013). The Circassian Genocide. Rutgers University Press. back cover. ISBN 978-0-8135-6069-4 – via Google Books.
  217. ^ a b "Adsız Roman 1864–Çerkes Sürgünü ve Soykırımı". D&R (in Turkish). Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  218. ^ a b Genel Komite, HDP (2014). "The Circassian Genocide". (in Turkish). Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  219. ^ Shenfield, Stephen D. (1999). Levine, Mark D.; Roberts, Penny (eds.). The Circassians: A Forgotten Genocide. p. 154. The number who died in the Circassian catastrophe of the 1860s could hardly, therefore, be less than one million, and may well have been closer to one-and-a-half million {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  220. ^ Richmond, Walter. The Circassian Genocide. p. 132. If we assume that Berzhe's middle figure of 50,000 was close to the number who survived to settle in the lowlands, then between 95 percent and 97 percent of all Circassians were killed outright, died during Evdokimov's campaign, or were deported.
  221. ^ Rosser-Owen, Isla. "The First Circassian Exodus to the Ottoman Empire (1858–1867), and the Ottoman Response, based on the accounts of Contemporary British Observers" (PDF). Circassianworld.
  222. ^ King, Charles. The Ghost of Freedom: A History of the Caucasus. p. 95.
  223. ^ a b Madley, Benjamin. An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe, 1846–1873.
  224. ^ a b c "California Genocide". PBS. Archived from the original on 8 July 2007. Retrieved 8 January 2007.
  225. ^ Kiernan, Ben. "8". Blood and Soil A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. pp. 310–363. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  226. ^ Heizer (1993). Crescent City Herald. pp. 35–36. quoted in Sacramento newspaper
  227. ^ Ørsted-Jensen (2011).
  228. ^ Gibbons, Ray. "The Partial Case for Queensland Genocide". Academia.
  229. ^ Baldry, Hannah; McKeon, Alisa; McDougal, Scott. "Queensland's Frontier Killing Times – Facing Up to Genocide". QUT Law Review. 15 (1): 92–113. ISSN 2201-7275.
  230. ^ Palmer, Alison (1998). "Colonial and modern genocide: explanations and categories". Ethnic and Racial Studies. 21: 89–115. doi:10.1080/014198798330115.
  231. ^ a b c Tatz, Colin (2006). Maaka, Roger; Chris Andersen (eds.). "Confronting Australian Genocide". The Indigenous Experience: Global Perspectives. Canadian Scholars Press. 25: 16–36. ISBN 978-1551303000. PMID 19514155.
  232. ^ a b Evans, Raymond; Ørsted–Jensen, Robert (2014-07-09). ""I Cannot Say the Numbers that Were Killed": Assessing Violent Mortality on the Queensland Frontier". AHA (paper). University of Queensland: Social Science Research Network. SSRN 2467836.
  233. ^ a b "The Genocide". Moriori Genocide. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  234. ^ Kopel, Dave; Gallant, Paul; Eisen, Joanne D. (2003-04-11). "A Moriori Lesson: a brief history of pacifism". National Review.
  235. ^ "Tommy Solomon". Archived from the original on 23 January 2016.
  236. ^ King, Michael (2011). The Silence Beyond. Penguin. p. 190. ISBN 978-1459623019.
  237. ^ Davis, Denise; Solomon, Māui (28 October 2008). "Moriori: The impact of new arrivals". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. NZ Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
  238. ^ King, Michael (2000). Moriori: a People Rediscovered (Revised ed.). Viking. pp. 57–58. ISBN 0-14-010391-0.
  239. ^ King, Michael (1989). Moriori: A People Rediscovered. Auckland: Viking. p. 136.
  240. ^ "Pruebas irrefutables demuestran el genocidio de la población charrúa" [Irrefutable evidence demonstrates the genocide of the Charrúa population]. LARED21 (in Spanish). 30 August 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  241. ^ Albarenga, Pablo (10 November 2017). "Where did Uruguay's indigenous population go?". El País. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  242. ^ Nolen, Stephanie. "'We are still here': The fight to be recognized as Indigenous in Uruguay". Globe and Mail. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  243. ^ Reynolds, Henry (2004). Moses, A. Dirk (ed.). Genocide in Tasmania?. p. 128. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  244. ^ a b Clements 2014, p. 4.
  245. ^ a b Clements 2013, pp. 329–331.
  246. ^ Girard. Caribbean genocide: racial war in Haiti, 1802–4.
  247. ^ Robins, Nicholas A.; Jones, Adam (2009). "Introduction: Subaltern Genocide in Theory and Practice.". In Robins, Nicholas A.; Jones, Adam (eds.). Genocides by the Oppressed: Subaltern Genocide in Theory and Practice. Indiana University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780253220776 – via Google Books. The Great Rebellion and the Haitian slave uprising are two examples of what we refer to as "subaltern genocide": cases in which subaltern actors—those objectively oppressed and disempowered—adopt genocidal strategies to vanquish their[...] – Also stated in Jones, Adam (26 June 2013). "11: "Subaltern genocide: Genocides by the oppressed."". The Scourge of Genocide: Essays and Reflections. Routledge. p. 169. ISBN 9781135047153 – via Google Books.
  248. ^ Moses, A. Dirk; Stone, Dan (2013). Colonialism and Genocide. Routledge. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-317-99753-5.
  249. ^ Forde, James (2020). The Early Haitian State and the Question of Political Legitimacy: American and British Representations of Haiti, 1804—1824. Springer. p. 40. ISBN 978-3-030-52608-5.
  250. ^ a b Girard 2011, pp. 319–322.
  251. ^ Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3. Retrieved 13 August 2016 – via Google Books.
  252. ^ 大清高宗純皇帝實錄, 乾隆二十四年 (in Chinese).
  253. ^ 平定準噶爾方略 (in Chinese).
  254. ^ a b c d e f Perdue, Peter C. (2005). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674016842 – via Google Books.
  255. ^ Wei Yuan. 聖武記 Military history of the Qing Dynasty (in Chinese). Vol. 4. 計數十萬戶中,先痘死者十之四,繼竄入俄羅斯哈薩克者十之二,卒殲於大兵者十之三。除婦孺充賞外,至今惟來降受屯之厄鲁特若干戶,編設佐領昂吉,此外數千里間,無瓦剌一氊帳。
  256. ^ Lattimore, Owen (1950). Pivot of Asia; Sinkiang and the inner Asian frontiers of China and Russia. Little, Brown. p. 126.
  257. ^ Clarke, Michael Edmund (2004). In the Eye of Power (PDF) (doctoral thesis). Brisbane: Griffith University. p. 37. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 February 2012.
  258. ^ Moses, A. Dirk (2008). Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1845454524 – via Google Books.
  259. ^ Raphael Lemkin's History of Genocide and Colonialism
    Holocaust Memorial Museum
  260. ^ Stannard, David E. (1993). American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. Oxford University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0195085570 – via Google Books.
  261. ^ a b c d "Hispaniola Case Study: Colonial Genocides". Yale University - Genocide Studies Program. Archived from the original on 9 November 2022. Date range of image: 1492 to 1514
  262. ^ a b c Trever, David. "The new book 'The Other Slavery' will make you rethink American history". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 20 June 2019.
  263. ^ Reséndez, Andrés (2016). The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 17. ISBN 978-0547640983 – via Google Books.
  264. ^ Hickel, Jason (2018). The Divide: A Brief Guide to Global Inequality and its Solutions. Windmill Books. p. 70. ISBN 978-1786090034.
  265. ^ Barber, Malcolm (2010). "The Albigensian Crusade and the Inquisition". In Bloxham, Donald; Moses, A. Dirk (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Genocide Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 407. ISBN 978-0199232116.
  266. ^ Lemkin, Raphael (2012). Jacobs, Steven Leonard (ed.). Lemkin on Genocide. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7391-4526-5 – via Google Books.
  267. ^ Jonassohn, Kurt; Björnson, Karin Solveig (1998). Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations: In Comparative Perspective. Piscataway, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-4128-2445-3 – via Google Books.
  268. ^ Tatz, Colin Martin; Higgins, Winton (2016). The Magnitude of Genocide. ABC-CLIO. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-4408-3161-4 – via Google Books.
  269. ^ Robertson, John M. (1902). A Short History of Christianity. London, UK: Watts & Co. p. 254 – via Google Books.