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List of genocides by death toll

This list of genocides by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by genocide. It does not include non strictly-genocidal mass killing (variously called mass murder, crimes against humanity, politicide, classicide, war crimes) such as the Thirty Years War (7.5 million deaths), Japanese war crimes (3 to 14 million deaths), the Red Terror (100,000 to 1.3 million deaths), the Atrocities in the Congo Free State (1 to 15 million deaths), the Great Purge (0.6 to 1.75 million deaths) or the Great Leap Forward (15 to 55 million deaths).

DefinitionEdit

The United Nations Genocide Convention defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group".[1]

List of genocidesEdit

Event Location From To Lowest
estimate
Highest
estimate
Proportion of group killed
The Holocaust[N 1] German-occupied Europe 1941 1945 5,750,000
[3]
6,000,000
[4]
Around 2/3 of the Jewish population of Europe.[5]
Generalplan Ost[N 1] German-occupied Europe 1941 1945 4,500,000
[6]
13,700,000
[7]
13.7% of the Soviet Union's population died during WWII

Deaths include 1.3 million Jews, which are included in the deaths of 6 million Jews during the Holocaust,[4] as well as the deaths of more than 3 million Soviet POWs.[4]

Holodomor (Голодомор)[N 2]
(Ukrainian genocide which is part of greater Soviet famine of 1932–33)
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic 1932 1933 1,800,000
[19][20][21][22]
7,500,000
[23][24][25][26][27]
Genocide of Ukrainians through artificial starvation by the Soviet regime.[28] At least 10% of Ukraine's population perished.[29] Its characterization as a genocide is disputed by some historians.[30][31][32]
Nazi genocide of Poles[N 1] German-occupied Europe 1939 1945 1,800,000
[4]
3,000,000
[33]
17% of Poland's population was killed or died during World War II
Mongol conquest of Western Xia[N 3] Western Xia 1205 1227 1,500,000 1,500,000 1,500,000 killed in the genocide after the conquest (Half[39] the population of Western Xia (3 million)[40][41][42] was exterminated)
Cambodian genocide[N 4] Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 1,386,734
[51][52]
3,000,000
[46][53]
10–33% of total population of Cambodia killed[54][55] including:

100% of Cambodian Viets
50% of Cambodian Chinese and Cham
40% of Cambodian Lao and Thai
25% of Urban Khmer
16% of Rural Khmer

Kazakh genocide during the Soviet famine of 1932–33[N 5]
Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic 1931 1933 1,300,000
[56]
1,750,000
[57]
Some historians assume that 42% of the entire Kazakh population died in the famine.[57] The two Soviet census show that the number of the Kazakhs in Kazakhstan dropped from 3,637,612 in 1926 to 2,181,520 in 1937.[58]
Armenian genocide Մեծ Եղեռն (Medz Yeghern, "Great Crime")[N 6] Ottoman Empire
(territories of present-day Turkey, Syria and Iraq)
1915 1922 700,000
[59]
1,800,000
[60]
At least 50% of Armenians in Turkey killed[59]
Indonesian genocide[N 7] Indonesia 1965 1966 500,000
[71][67][68]
3,000,000
[69][70]
Some scholars now argue that the Indonesian massacres constitute genocide by the legal definition.[72][62][66][73][74]
Rwandan genocide[N 8] Rwanda 1994 1994 500,000
[75]
1,071,000
[75]
70% of Tutsis in Rwanda killed
1/3 of Twa in Rwanda killed
20% of Rwanda's total population killed
Greek genocide including the Pontic genocide[N 9] Ottoman Empire
(territories of present-day Turkey)
1914 1922 500,000
[76]
900,000
[77][full citation needed]
Zunghar genocide 准噶尔灭族 in the Zunghar Khanate[N 10] Qing Dynasty (Dzungaria) 1755 1758 480,000
[81]
600,000
[81]
80% of 600,000 Zungharian Oirats killed
Circassian genocide[N 11] Circassia, Caucasus 1864 1867 400,000
[94]
1,500,000
.[95]
90% to 97% of total Circassian population perished or deported by the Russian forces.[96][97][98]
Genocide by the Ustaše including the Serbian genocide[N 12] Independent State of Croatia (territories of present-day Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbian Syrmia) 1941 1945 357,000
[100][101]
600,000
[100][101][102]
13% to 21% of the Serbian population within the NDH was killed.[103] Estimates ranging between 500,000 and 1,000,000 Serbs killed by the Ustaše.[104][105][106][107]
(See death toll of Serbian genocide)
Genocide in Bangladesh[N 13] East Pakistan 1971 1971 300,000 3,000,000
[109][110]
2%[103] to 4%[111][112] [113]Over 20% of Bengali Hindus killed[114]
(Using 1 to 3 million deaths figures)
Pacification of Algeria[N 14] French Algeria

1830

1871

300,000
[123]

1,000,000
[124]

10%[125] to 1/3[126][124] of Algeria's population died during the period
Genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil[N 15] Brazil

1900

1985

235,000
[133]
800,000
[134]
87 out of 230 Brazilian tribes went extinct during the period[135]
Albigensian Crusade
(Cathar genocide)[N 16]
Languedoc, France 1209 1229 200,000
[138]
1,000,000
[139]
Assyrian genocide ܣܝܦܐ (Seyfo, "Sword")[N 17] Ottoman Empire
(territories of present-day Turkey, Syria and Iraq)
1915 1923 200,000
[140]
750,000
[141]
Irish genocide[N 18] Ireland 1649 1653 200,000
[145]
618,000
[146]
20-40% of the population of Ireland perished during the Cromwellian conquest[145][146]
Wu Hu genocide[N 19] Northern China 350 351 200,000
[147][full citation needed]
200,000
Genocide of the Tencteri and Usipetes[N 20] Germania 55 BC 55 BC 150,000
[152]
430,000
[153]
Battle of Carthage
(Punic genocide)
[N 21]
Carthage (territories of present-day Tunis, Tunisia) 146 BC 146 BC 150,000
[159][154]
150,000 Population reduced from 500,000 to 55,000. 150,000 died in the fall of Carthage.[159]
Aardakh[N 22]
(Soviet deportation of Chechens and other Vainakh populations)
Soviet Union, North Caucasus 1944 1948 144,704
[166]
200,000
[160][page needed][167][162][168]
23.5% to almost 50% of total Chechen population killed[166][160][page needed][161][162][168]
Romani genocide[N 23] German-occupied Europe 1935[173] 1945 130,000
[174]
500,000
[175][176]
25% of Romani people in Europe killed
Polish Operation of the NKVD (Polish genocide)[N 24] Soviet Union 1937 1938 111,091
[186]
250,000
[187]
22% of the Polish population of the USSR was "sentenced" by the operation (140,000 people)[188]
Darfur genocide[N 25] Darfur, Sudan

2003

Present

98,000
[191]
500,000
[192]
Kurdish genocide[N 26] Iraq 1977 1991 95,500 388,100 8% of the Kurdish population of Iraq was killed.[103]
East Timor genocide[N 27] East Timor 1975 1999 85,320
[212]
196,720
[213]
13% to 44% of East Timor's total population killed
(See death toll of East Timor genocide)
1972 Genocide of Burundian Hutus[N 28] Burundi 1972 1972 80,000
[214][215]
210,000
[214][215]
5% of Burundi's population was killed in the 1972 genocide.[103]
Libyan genocide[N 29] Italian Libya 1923 1932 80,000
[220]
125,000
[227]
25% of Cyrenaican population killed[220]
Bambuti genocide[N 30] North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2002 2003 60,000
[230][228]
70,000
[230]
40% of the Eastern Congo's Pygmy population killed[N 31]
Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia[N 32] Eastern part of pre-war Poland 1943 1945 50,000
[233]
300,000
[234][235][236][237][238]
4% to 20% of the pre-war (1931) Second Polish Republic's total Polish population of Voivodeships: stanisławowskie, tarnopolskie and wołyńskie[239][240] where killed.
Genocide of Isaaqs[N 33] Somalia 1988 1991 50,000
[256][246]
200,000
[257]
Chetnik war crimes[N 34] Independent State of Croatia (territories of present-day Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Sandžak) 1941 1945 47,000
[261]
65,000
[261]
Deportation of the Crimean Tatars[N 35] Crimean Peninsula, Soviet Union 1944 1948 34,000
[268]
195,471
[269]
The deportation and following exile reduced the Crimean Tatar population by between 18%[268] and 46%.[270]
Genocide in German South West Africa[N 36] German South-West Africa 1904 1908 34,000
[271]
110,000
[272][273]
60% (24,000 out of 40,000[271]) to 81.25% (65,000[274][275] out of 80,000[276]) of total Herero and 50%[271] of Nama population killed.
Guatemalan genocide[N 37] Guatemala 1962 1996 32,632
[281]
166,000
[282]
40% of the Maya population (24,000 people) of Guatemala's Ixil and Rabinal regions where killed[103]
Jewish genocide during the Russian White Terror[N 38] what is now Ukraine and Russia 1918 1923 30,000
[287][288]
250,000
[283]
1993 Genocide of Burundian Tutsis[N 28] Burundi 1993 1993 25,000
[289]
50,000
[290]
Genocide of Jews in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by Cossack insurgents[N 39] Zaporozhian Cossacks insurgents on territory of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Ukraine and Belarus 1648 1657 18,000
[292]
100,000
[293][294][295][296] [297]
45-50% of the Jewish population of Ukraine was killed.[292]
Latvian Operation of the NKVD
(Latvian genocide)[N 40]
Soviet Union 1937 1938 16,573
[298]
16,573
[299]
Persecution of Sikhs by India-(1984 anti-Sikh riots & Operation Woodrose)[N 41] Punjab,India 1984 1990 15,350
[N 42]
29,000
[N 42]
California genocide[N 43] California

1846

1873

9,492 - 16,094
[314][315][318]

120,000
[315][319]

Amerindian population in California declined by 80% during the period
Queensland Aboriginal genocide[N 44] Queensland, Australia

1840

1897

10,000
[324]
65,180
[325]
3.3% to over 50% of the aboriginal population was killed
(10,000[324] to 65,180[325] killed out of 125,600 [326] 300,000[326] people)
Rohingya genocide[N 45] Myanmar

2017

Present

9,000 - 13,700
[333]

43,000
[334]

Bosnian genocide[N 46] Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992 1995 8,373
[339]
31,107
39,199
[340]><[341]
More than 3% of the Bosniak population of Bosnia and Herzegovina perished during the Bosnian War.[342]
Decossackization[N 47] Former Russian Empire

1917

1933

fewer than 5,598[350]

1,000,000
[351]

Chittagong Hill Tracts genocide[N 48] Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh 1977 1997 4,406
[360]
13,206
[360]
Selk'nam genocide[N 49] Chile, Tierra del Fuego Late 19th century Early 20th century 2,500
[361]
3,900
[362]
84%
The genocide reduced their numbers from around 3,000 to about 500 people. (Now pure Selk'nam are considered extinct.[362][363]
Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL[N 50] northern Iraq and Syria 2014 Present 2,100 to 4,400
[366]
10,000
[367]
Genocide of the Moriori[N 51] Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1835 1863 1,900
[369][370]
1,900 95% of the Moriori population was eradicated by the invasion from Taranaki, a group of Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama people from the Māori tribe.[371][372] All were enslaved and many were cannibalized.[373] They were not permitted to mix with their race.[374] The Moriori language is now extinct.[368][375] There are no Moriori of unmixed ancestry left.[370]
Conquest of the Desert and Mapuche decline[N 52] Patagonia, modern day Argentina

1870s

1884

1,313
[376]
225,000
[377]
Mapuche population reduced from 250,000 to 25,000.[377]
Black War
(Genocide of Aboriginal Tasmanians)[N 53]
Tasmania, Australia Mid 1820s 1832 400
[380]
1,000
[380]

GalleryEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Ó Gráda, Cormac (2000), "Black '47 and Beyond: The Great Irish Famine in History, Economy, and Memory", Medical History, Princeton University Press, 45 (1): 136–137, ISBN 978-0-691-07015-5, PMC 1044715
  • Donnelly, James S (2005), The Great Irish Potato Famine, Sutton Publishing, ISBN 0-7509-2632-5

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-organized, persecution and murder of approximately 6 million Jews by the German Nazi government and its collaborators. Initially it was carried out in German-occupied Eastern Europe by paramilitary death squads (Einsatzgruppen) by shooting or, less frequently, using ad hoc built gassing vans, and later in extermination camps by gassing.[2]
    By extending its definition the Holocaust may also refer to the other victims of German war crimes during the rule of Nazism, such as the Romani genocide's victims, Poles and other Slavic civilian populations and POWs, victims of Germany's eugenics program, political opponents, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and civil hostages and resisters from all over Europe during World War II.
  2. ^ In 2003 Holodomor, the man-made famine in Ukraine, was recognized by the United Nations as the result of actions and policies of the Soviet government of Joseph Stalin that caused millions of deaths,[8] and in 2008 by the European Parliament as a crime against the Ukrainian people, and against humanity.[9] Holodomor is considered a genocide in Ukraine,[10], Australia,[11] Canada,[12] Colombia,[13] Ecuador,[14] Estonia,[15] Georgia,[15] Hungary,[15] Latvia,[15] Lithuania,[15] Mexico,[15] Paraguay,[15] Peru,[15] Poland,[16] and Vatican City,[15] while the Russian Federation views it as part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932-33.[17] Scholars are divided and their debate is inconclusive on whether the Holodomor falls under the definition of genocide.[18]
  3. ^ The Mongol conquest of Western Xia was a series of conflicts between the Mongol Empire and the Western Xia (Xi Xia) dynasty, also known as the Tangut Empire. Hoping to gain both plunder and a powerful vassal state, Mongol leader Genghis Khan commanded some initial raids against Western Xia before launching a full-scale invasion in 1209. This marked both the first major invasion conducted by Genghis and the beginning of the Mongol invasion of China. Despite a major set-back during a nearly year-long siege of the capital, Yinchuan, when the diverted river accidentally flooded their camp, the Mongols convinced Emperor Li Anquan to surrender in January 1210. For nearly a decade the Western Xia served the Mongols as vassals and aided them in the Mongol–Jin War, but when Genghis invaded the Islamic Khwarazmian dynasty in 1219, Western Xia attempted to break away from the Empire and ally with the Jin and Song dynasties. Angered by this betrayal, in 1225 Genghis Khan sent a second, punitive expedition into Western Xia. Genghis intended to annihilate the entire Western Xia culture, and his campaign systematically destroyed Western Xia cities and the countryside, culminating in the siege of the capital in 1227 along with forays into Jin territory. Near the end of the siege, in August 1227, Genghis Khan died from an uncertain cause, though some accounts say he was killed in action against Western Xia. After his death, Yinchuan fell to the Mongols and most of its population was massacred. The destruction of Western Xia during the second campaign was near total. According to John Man, Western Xia is little known to anyone other than experts in the field precisely because of Genghis Khan's policy calling for their complete eradication. He states that "There is a case to be made that this was the first ever recorded example of attempted genocide. It was certainly very successful ethnocide."[34] However, some members of the Western Xia royal clan emigrated to western Sichuan, northern Tibet, even possibly Northeast India, in some instances becoming local rulers.[35] A small Western Xia state was established in Tibet along the upper reaches of the Yalong River while other Western Xia populations settled in what are now the modern provinces of Henan and Hebei.[36] In China, remnants of the Western Xia persisted into the middle of the Ming dynasty.[37][38]
  4. ^ The Cambodian genocide was carried out by the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot[43] who, planning to create a form of agrarian socialism founded on an extremist ideology coupled with ethnic hostility, forced the urban population to relocate savagely to the countryside, among torture, mass executions, forced labor, and starvation.
    [44][45][46] The genocide ended in 1979 with the Cambodian invasion by the Vietnamese army.[47] Up to 20,000 mass graves, the infamous Killing Fields, were uncovered,[48] where at least 1,386,734 murdered victims found their final resting place.[49] On 7 August 2014, two top leaders, Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan, received life sentences for crimes against humanity.[50]
  5. ^ Genocide of Kazakhs through artificial starvation by the USSR.
  6. ^ The extermination of the Armenians, carried out by the Young Turks, led to the coining of the word "genocide". It included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, mass starvation, and occurred concurrently with the Assyrian and Greek genocides. The State of Turkey denies a genocide ever occurred.
  7. ^ [61][62][63]:4 Indonesian Communist Purge, Indonesian politicide,[64][65] or the 1965 Tragedy) were large-scale killings and civil unrest that occurred in Indonesia over several months, targeting communist sympathizers, ethnic Chinese and alleged leftists, often at the instigation of the armed forces and government. It began as an anti-communist purge following a controversial attempted coup d'état by the 30 September Movement in Indonesia. The most widely published estimates were that 500,000 to more than one million people were killed,[63][66][67][68] with some more recent estimates going as high as two to three million.[69][70] The purge was a pivotal event in the transition to the "New Order" and the elimination of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) as a political force, with impacts on the global Cold War.[citation needed] The upheavals led to the fall of President Sukarno and the commencement of Suharto's three-decade authoritarian presidency.
  8. ^ Some 50 perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide have been found guilty by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, but most others have not been charged due to lack of witness accounts. Another 120,000 were arrested by Rwanda; of these, 60,000 were tried and convicted in the Gacaca court system. Perpetrators who fled into Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo) were used as a justification when Rwanda and Uganda invaded Zaire (First and Second Congo Wars). It is recognized by the international community as a genocide.
  9. ^ For the Greek genocide other sources give 500,000-1,200,000 casualties between Pontic, Cappadocian and Ionians Greeks. The genocide, instigated by the Ottoman government, included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, summary expulsions, arbitrary executions, and destruction of Greek Orthodox cultural, historical and religious monuments.
  10. ^ Zunghar genocide. The Manchu Qianlong Emperor of Qing China issued his orders for his Manchu Bannermen to carry out the genocide and eradication of the Zunghar nation, ordering the massacre of all the Zunghar men and enslaving Zunghar women and children.[78] The Qianlong Emperor moved the remaining Zunghar people to the mainland and ordered the generals to kill all the men in Barkol or Suzhou, and divided their wives and children to Qing soldiers.[79][80] The Qing soldiers who massacred the Zunghars were Manchu Bannermen and Khalkha Mongols. In an account of the war, Wei Yuan wrote that about 40% of the Zunghar households were killed by smallpox, 20% fled to Russia or the Kazakh Khanate, and 30% were killed by the army, leaving no yurts in an area of several thousands of Chinese miles except those of the surrendered.[81][82][83] Clarke wrote 80%, or between 480,000 and 600,000 people, were killed between 1755 and 1758 in what "amounted to the complete destruction of not only the Zunghar state but of the Zunghars as a people."[81][84] Historian Peter Perdue has shown that the decimation of the Dzungars was the result of an explicit policy of extermination launched by the Qianlong Emperor.[81] Although this "deliberate use of massacre" has been largely ignored by modern scholars,[81] Mark Levene, a historian whose recent research interests focus on genocide, has stated that the extermination of the Dzungars was "arguably the eighteenth century genocide par excellence".[85]
  11. ^ The Circassian genocide refers to the ethnic cleansing, massive annihilation, displacement,[86] destruction and expulsion of the majority of the indigenous Circassians from historical Circassia, which roughly encompassed the major part of the North Caucasus and the northeast shore of the Black Sea. This occurred in the aftermath of the Caucasian War in the last quarter of the 19th century.[87] The displaced people moved primarily to the Ottoman Empire. Former Russian President Boris Yeltsin's May 1994 statement admitted that resistance to the tsarist forces was legitimate, but he did not recognize "the guilt of the tsarist government for the genocide."[88] In 1997 and 1998, the leaders of Kabardino-Balkaria and of Adygea sent appeals to the Duma to reconsider the situation and to issue the needed apology; to date, there has been no response from Moscow. In October 2006, the Adygeyan public organizations of Russia, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, Syria, the United States, Belgium, Canada and Germany have sent the president of the European Parliament a letter with the request to recognize the genocide against Adygean (Circassian) people.[89] On May 21, 2011, the Parliament of Georgia passed a resolution, stating that "pre-planned" mass killings of Circassians by Imperial Russia, accompanied by "deliberate famine and epidemics", should be recognized as "genocide" and those deported during those events from their homeland, should be recognized as "refugees". Georgia, which has poor relations with Russia, has made outreach efforts to North Caucasian ethnic groups since the 2008 Russo-Georgian War.[90] Following a consultation with academics, human rights activists and Circassian diaspora groups and parliamentary discussions in Tbilisi in 2010 and 2011, Georgia became the first country to use the word "genocide" to refer to the events.[90][91][92] On 20 May 2011 the parliament of the Republic of Georgia declared in its resolution[93] that the mass annihilation of the Cherkess (Adyghe) people during the Russian-Caucasian war and thereafter constituted genocide as defined in the Hague Convention of 1907 and the UN Convention of 1948.
  12. ^ Genocide by the Ustaše including the Serbian Genocide. The government of the Independent State of Croatia murdered Serbs, Jews, Romani, and some dissident Croats and Bosniaks inside its borders, many in concentration camps, most notably Jasenovac camp. Ante Pavelić, the leader of the Ustaše, enacted racial laws similar to those of Nazi Germany, declaring Jews, Romani, and Serbs "enemies of the people of Croatia". He escaped to Spain after the war with the assistance of the Roman Catholic Church and fatally injured there some years later in an assassination attempt.[99]
  13. ^ Genocide in Bangladesh. Massacres, killings, rape, arson and systematic elimination of religious minorities (particularly Hindus), political dissidents and the members of the liberation forces of Bangladesh were conducted by the Pakistan Army with support from paramilitary militias—the Razakars, Al-Badr and Al-Shams—formed by the radical Islamist Jamaat-e-Islami party.[108]
  14. ^ Over the course of the French conquest of Algeria (especially the Pacification of Algeria) there where a series of demographic catastrophes in Algeria due to a variety of factors. The demographic crisis was such that, in a more than 300 page demographic study, Dr. René Ricoux, head of demographic and medical statistics at the statistical office of the General Government of Algeria, foresaw the simple disappearance of Algerian "natives as a whole."[115] Algerian demographic change can be divided into three phases: an almost constant decline during the conquest period, up until it's most heavy drop from an estimated 2.7 million in 1861 to a brutal fall to 2.1 million in 1871, and finally moving into a gradual arising[116] to a level of three million inhabitants by 1890. Causes range from a series of famines, diseases, emigration;[117] to the violent methods used by the French army during their Pacification of Algeria which Turkey[118][119] and some historians[120] argue to constitute acts of genocide; however other sources contest this.[121][122]
  15. ^ The process that has been described as the genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil began with the Portuguese colonization of the Americas, when Pedro Álvares Cabral made landfall in what is now the country of Brazil in 1500. This started the process that led to the depopulation of the indigenous peoples in Brazil, because of disease and violent treatment by European settlers, and their gradual replacement with colonists from Europe and Africa. Over eighty indigenous tribes were destroyed between 1900 and 1957, and the overall indigenous population declined by over eighty percent, from over one million to around two hundred thousand. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution recognises indigenous peoples' right to pursue their traditional ways of life and to the permanent and exclusive possession of their "traditional lands", which are demarcated as Indigenous Territories.[127] In practice, however, Brazil's indigenous people still face a number of external threats and challenges to their continued existence and cultural heritage.[128] The process of demarcation is slow—often involving protracted legal battles—and FUNAI do not have sufficient resources to enforce the legal protection on indigenous land.[129][128][130][131][132]
  16. ^ The Albigensian Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism, a Christian sect, in Languedoc, in southern France. The Catholic Church considered them heretics and ordered that they should be completely eradicated. Raphael Lemkin referred to the Albigensian Crusade as "one of the most conclusive cases of genocide in religious history".[136] Kurt Jonassohn and Karin Solveig Björnson describe it as "the first ideological genocide."[137]
  17. ^ The Assyrian genocide is commonly known as "Seyfo" (which means sword in Assyrian). It occurred concurrently with the Armenian and Greek genocides.
  18. ^ The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland or Cromwellian war in Ireland (1649–53) refers to the conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Cromwell invaded Ireland with his New Model Army on behalf of England's Rump Parliament in August 1649. Following the Irish Rebellion of 1641, most of Ireland came under the control of the Irish Catholic Confederation. In early 1649, the Confederates allied with the English Royalists, who had been defeated by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War. By May 1652, Cromwell's Parliamentarian army had defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country—bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars (or Eleven Years' War). However, guerrilla warfare continued for a further year. Cromwell passed a series of Penal Laws against Roman Catholics (the vast majority of the population) and confiscated large amounts of their land. During the Interregnum (1651–1660), this policy was enhanced with the passing of the Act of Settlement of Ireland in 1652. Its goal was a further transfer of land from Irish to English hands.[citation needed] The immediate war aims and the longer term policies of the English Parliamentarians resulted in an attempt by the English to transfer the native population to the western fringes to make way for Protestant settlers. This policy was reflected in a phrase attributed to Cromwell: "To Hell or to Connaught" and has been described by historians as genocide.[142] The Biblical account of Joshua and the Battle of Jericho was used by Oliver Cromwell to justify genocide against Catholics.[143]:3[144]
  19. ^ When he heard of the Jie revolt against him, Ran Min issued his famous "extermination order", in which he called on the Chinese to kill all the Wu Hu. The Wu Hu had conquered Ran Wei half a century earlier. The effect of Ran Min's order was immense; some 200,000 Jie were killed in Yecheng (the Wei capital) in a few days, and brutal fighting broke out between Chinese and Wu Hu throughout North China.[147][full citation needed]
  20. ^ In his Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Caesar describes how two tribes, the Tencteri and Usipetes, had been driven from their traditional lands by the Germanic Suebi, whose military dominance had led to constant warfare and neglect of agriculture. This original homeland of the two tribes is not clear but by the time of Caesar the Suebi had settled in a very large wooded area to the east of the Ubii, who at this time lived on the east bank of the Rhine, on the opposite bank from where Cologne is today. It has been argued that the Tencteri and Usipetes specifically may have come from the area of the Weser river to the east of the Sigambri, because it is near to where the two tribes appeared on the Rhine, and Caesar reports the Suevi in this area. It would also explain the apparently friendly relations of the Tencteri and Usipetes with the Sigambri, who might have been their traditional neighbours.[148] (In later Roman times this area inhabited by Caesar's Suebi was inhabited by the Chatti.[149]) Caesar, fearing how the Gauls on the left bank might react, hurried to deal with this threat to his command of the region. He discovered that a number of Gaulish tribes had attempted to pay these Germani generously to leave, but the Tencteri and Usipetes had ranged further, coming to the frontiers of the Condrusi and Eburones, who were both under the protection of the Treveri to their south. Caesar convened a meeting of the Gaulish chiefs, and, pretending he did not know of their attempts at bribery, demanded cavalry and provisions for war against the Tencteri and Usipetes. The Germanic cavalry, although outnumbered by Caesar's Gallic horsemen, made the first attack, forcing the Romans to retreat. Caesar describes a characteristic battle-tactic they used, where a horsemen would leap down to their feet and stab enemy horses in the belly. Accusing them of violating the truce, Caesar refused to accept any more ambassadors, arresting some who came requesting a further truce, and led his full force against the Germanic camp. The Usipetes and Tencteri were thrown into disarray and forced to flee, pursued by Caesar's cavalry, to the confluence of the Rhine and Meuse. Many were killed attempting to cross the rivers.[150][151] They found refuge on the other side of the Rhine amongst the Sicambri. Caesar's campaign against the Tencteri and Usipetes have been characterized a genocidal.[152][153]
  21. ^ The massacre of Carthaginians (Punics) during their defeat by the Roman Republic is considered a genocide by many scholars.[154][155][156][157][158]
  22. ^ Aardakh also known as Operation Lentil (Russian: Чечевица, Chechevitsa; Chechen: Вайнах махкахбахар Vaynax Maxkaxbaxar) was the Soviet expulsion of the whole of the Vainakh (Chechen and Ingush) populations of the North Caucasus to Central Asia during World War II. The expulsion, preceded by the 1940–1944 insurgency in Chechnya, was ordered on 23 February 1944 by NKVD chief Lavrentiy Beria after approval by Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, as a part of Soviet forced settlement program and population transfer that affected several million members of non-Russian Soviet ethnic minorities between the 1930s and the 1950s.
    The deportation encompassed their entire nations, well over 500,000 people, as well as the complete liquidation of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Hundreds of thousands[160][page needed][161][162][163] of Chechens and Ingushes died or were killed during the round-ups and transportation, and during their early years in exile. The survivors would not return to their native lands until 1957. Many in Chechnya and Ingushetia classify it as an act of genocide, as did the European Parliament in 2004.[164][165]
  23. ^ Porajmos (Romani pronunciation: IPA: [pʰoɽajˈmos]), or Samudaripen ("Mass killing"), the Romani genocide or Romani Holocaust, was the planned and attempted effort by the government of Nazi Germany and its allies to exterminate part of the Romani people of Europe. On 26 November 1935, a supplementary decree to the Nuremberg Laws stripping Jews of their German citizenship expanded the category "enemies of the race-based state" to include Romani, the same category as the Jews, and in some ways they had similar fates.[169][170] In 1982, West Germany formally recognized that genocide had been committed against the Romani.[171] In 2011, the Polish Government passed a resolution for the official recognition of 2 August as a day of commemoration of the genocide.[172]
  24. ^ The Polish Operation of the NKVD was a mass murder specifically aimed at the Polish ethnic group in the USSR by the orders of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. Historian Michael Ellman asserts that the 'national operations', particularly the 'Polish operation', may constitute genocide as defined by the UN convention.[177] His opinion is shared by Simon Sebag Montefiore, who calls the Polish operation of the NKVD 'a mini-genocide.'[178] Polish writer and commentator, Dr Tomasz Sommer, also refers to the operation as a genocide, along with Prof. Marek Jan Chodakiewicz among others.[179][180][181][182][183][184][185]
  25. ^ The Darfur genocide refer to the war crimes and crimes against humanity such as massacre and genocidal rape that occurred within the Darfur region during the War in Darfur perpetrated by Janjaweed militias and the Sudanese government. These atrocities have been called the first genocide of the 21at century.[189] Sudan's president Omar al-Bashir has been indicted for his role in the genocide by the United Nations.[190]
  26. ^ Saddam Hussein's campaign against the Kurds including the Al-Anfal campaign and the Feyli Kurds operations have been recognized as genocides: On 5 December 2012, Sweden's parliament, the Riksdag, adopted a resolution by the Green party to officially recognize Anfal as genocide. The resolution was passed by all 349 members of parliament.[193][disputed ] On 28 February 2013, the British House of Commons formally recognized the Anfal as genocide following a campaign led by Conservative MP Nadhim Zahawi, who is of Kurdish descent.[194] South Korea recognized the Anfal as genocide on June 13 of 2013. [195] In 2011, the Iraqi Parliament voted to recognize the 1980 massacre of Feyli Kurds under the regime of Saddam Hussein as genocide.[196] The destruction of Kurdish villages during the Iraqi Arabization campaign refers to villages razed by the Ba'athist Iraqi government during its "Arabization campaign" of areas, excluded from Kurdistan under the Iraqi–Kurdish Autonomy Agreement of 1970. 1.5 to 2 million Kurds were forcibly displaced by Arabization campaigns in Iraq between 1963 and 1987;[197] resulting in 10,000 to 100,000 deaths during the displacements;[197]95,500 to 388,100 Kurds were killed in the destruction of Kurdish villages during the Iraqi Arabization campaign including: 2,500[198] to 12,500[198] in the Ba'athist Arabization campaigns in North Iraq, 15,000[199][200] to 25,000[201][202][clarification needed] were killed during the Feyli Kurds operation, 8,000[203] Kurds were executed in the 1983 Barzani killings, 50,000[204] to 100,000[204] (although Kurdish sources have cited a higher figure of 182,000[205]) more Kurds were massacred in the Anfal genocide, and at least 20,000[206] were killed during the 1991 Iraqi uprising notwithstanding an additional 48,400[207] to 140,600[207] Kurdish refugees that starved to death along the Iranian and Turkish borders.
  27. ^ The East Timor genocide refers to the "pacification campaigns" of state sponsored terror by the Indonesian government during their occupation of East Timor. Oxford University held an academic consensus calling the Indonesian Occupation of East Timor genocide and Yale university teaches it as part of their "Genocide Studies" program.[208][209] Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000.[210] The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings.[211]
  28. ^ a b Burundian genocide. In the long sequence of civil fights that occurred between Tutsi and Hutu since Burundi's independence in 1962, the 1972 mass killings of Hutu by the Tutsi and the 1993 mass killings of Tutsis by the majority-Hutu populace are both described as genocide in the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi presented to the United Nations Security Council in 1996.
  29. ^ The Pacification of Libya,[216] also known as the Libyan Genocide[217][218][219][220] or Second Italo-Senussi War,[221] was a prolonged conflict in Italian Libya between Italian military forces and indigenous rebels associated with the Senussi Order that lasted from 1923 until 1932,[222][223] when the principal Senussi leader, Omar Mukhtar, was captured and executed.[224] The pacification resulted in mass deaths of the indigenous people in Cyrenaica—one quarter of Cyrenaica's population of 225,000 people died during the conflict.[217] Italy committed major war crimes during the conflict; including the use of chemical weapons, episodes of refusing to take prisoners of war and instead executing surrendering combatants, and mass executions of civilians.[220] Italian authorities committed ethnic cleansing by forcibly expelling 100,000 Bedouin Cyrenaicans, half the population of Cyrenaica, from their settlements that were slated to be given to Italian settlers.[216][225] Italy apologized in 2008 for its killing, destruction and repression of the Libyan people during the period of colonial rule, and went on to say that this was a "complete and moral acknowledgement of the damage inflicted on Libya by Italy during the colonial era."[226]
  30. ^ Effacer le tableau ("erasing the board") is the operational name given to the systematic extermination of the Bambuti pygmies by rebel forces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The primary objective of Effacer le tableau was the territorial conquest of the North Kivu province of the DRC and ethnic cleansing of Pygmies from the Congo's eastern region whose population numbered 90,000 by 2004.[228] [229]
  31. ^ Eastern Pygmy population was reduced to 90,000 after a campaign that killed 60,000[230] implying a 40% decline
  32. ^ Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia was a genocide carried out in Nazi German-occupied Poland by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (the UPA) against Poles in the area of Volhynia, Eastern Galicia, parts of Polesia and Lublin region, beginning in 1943 and lasting up to 1945. On 22 July 2016, the Parliament of Poland passed a resolution recognizing the massacres as Genocide[231][232]
  33. ^ The Genocide of Isaaqs or "Hargeisa Holocaust"[241][242] was the systematic, state-sponsored massacre of Isaaq civilians between 1988 and 1991 by the Somali Democratic Republic under the dictatorship of Siad Barre.[243] The number of civilian deaths in this massacre is estimated to be between 50,000–100,000 according to various sources,[244][245][246] while local reports estimate the total civilian deaths to be upwards of 200,000 Isaaq civilians.[247] This included the leveling and complete destruction of the second and third largest cities in Somalia, Hargeisa (90 per cent destroyed)[248] and Burao (70 per cent destroyed) respectively,[249] and had caused 400,000[250][251] Somalis (primarily of the Isaaq clan) to flee their land and cross the border to Hartasheikh in Ethiopia as refugees, creating the world's largest refugee camp then (1988),[252] with another 400,000 being internally displaced.[253][254][255] In 2001, the United Nations commissioned an investigation on past human rights violations in Somalia,[243] specifically to find out if "crimes of international jurisdiction (i.e. war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide) had been perpetrated during the country's civil war". The investigation was commissioned jointly by the United Nations Co-ordination Unit (UNCU) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. The investigation concluded with a report confirming the crime of genocide to have taken place against the Isaaqs in Somalia.[243]
  34. ^ Massacres of ethnic Croats and Muslims by Serbian Chetniks across large areas of the Independent State of Croatia (modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Sandžak) during World War II in Yugoslavia. Genocidal characteristics of the massacres can be seen through the Moljević plan ("On Our State and Its Borders") and the 1941 'Instructions' issued by Chetnik leader, Draža Mihailović, concerning the cleansing of non-Serbs on the basis of creating a post-war Greater Serbia.[258][259][260] Death toll by ethnicity includes between 18,000 and 32,000 Croats and 29,000 to 33,000 Muslims.[261][262][263]
  35. ^ The deportation of the Crimean Tatars (Crimean Tatar Qırımtatar halqınıñ sürgünligi; Ukrainian Депортація кримських татар; Russian Депортация крымских татар) was the ethnic cleansing of at least 191,044 Crimean Tatars or, according to the other sources, 423,100 of them (89,2 % were women, children and elderly people) in 18–20 May 1944; one of the crimes of the Soviet totalitarian regime. It was carried out by Lavrentiy Beria, head of the Soviet state security and secret police, acting on behalf of Joseph Stalin. Within three days, Beria's NKVD used cattle trains to deport women, children, the elderly, even Communists and members of the Red Army, to the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan, several thousand kilometres away. They were one of the ten ethnicities who were encompassed by Stalin's policy of population transfer in the Soviet Union. The deportation is recognized as a genocide by the countries of Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, and Canada respectively; as well as various scholars. Professor Lyman H. Legters argued that the Soviet penal system, combined with its resettlement policies, should count as genocidal since the sentences were borne most heavily specifically on certain ethnic groups, and that a relocation of these ethnic groups, whose survivial depends on ties to its particular homeland, "had a genocidal effect remediable only by restoration of the group to its homeland".[264] Soviet dissidents Ilya Gabay[265] and Pyotr Grigorenko[266] both classified the event as a genocide. Historian Timothy Snyder included it in a list of Soviet policies that "meet the standard of genocide."[267]
  36. ^ The Genocide in German South West Africa was the campaign to exterminate the Herero and Nama people that the German Empire undertook in German South-West Africa (modern-day Namibia). It is considered one of the first genocides of the 20th century.
  37. ^ Guatemalan genocide. The government forces of Guatemala and allied paramilitary groups have been condemned by the Historical Clarification Commission for committing genocide against the Maya population[277][278] and for widespread human rights violations against civilians during the civil war fought against various leftist rebel groups. At least an estimated 200,000 persons lost their lives by arbitrary executions, forced disappearances and other human rights violations.[279] A quarter of the direct victims of human rights violations and acts of violence were women.[280]
  38. ^ The Whitaker Report of the United Nations used the massacre of 100,000 to 250,000 Jews in more than 2,000 pogroms during the White Terror in Russia as an example of genocide.[283] During the Russian Civil War, between 1918 and 1921 a total of 1,236 violent incidents against Jews occurred in 524 towns in Ukraine. The estimates of the number of killed range between 30,000 and 60,000.[284][285] Of the recorded 1,236 pogroms and excesses, 493 were carried out by Ukrainian People's Republic soldiers under command of Symon Petliura, 307 by independent Ukrainian warlords, 213 by Denikin's army, 106 by the Red Army and 32 by the Polish Army.[286]
  39. ^ During the Khmelnytsky Uprising genocidal massacres were perpetrated against Jewish communities in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by Ukrainian Cossacks and Crimean Tatars.[291]
  40. ^ The Latvian Operation refers to mass arrest and execution of Latvians during the Stalinist Great Purge.
  41. ^ The Persecution of Sikhs by India has been characterized as genocidal. Many Indians of different religions made significant efforts to hide and help Sikh families during the rioting.[300] The Sikh Jathedar of Akal Takht declared the events following the death of Indira Gandhi a Sikh "genocide", replacing "anti-Sikh riots" widely used by the Indian government, the media and writers, on 15 July 2010.[301] The decision came soon after a similar motion was raised in the Canadian Parliament by a Sikh MP.[citation needed] Although several political parties and governments have promised compensation for the families of riot victims, compensation has not yet been paid.[302] On 16 April 2015, Assembly Concurrent Resolution 34 (ACR 34) was passed by the California State Assembly. Co-authored by Sacramento-area assembly members Jim Cooper, Kevin McCarty, Jim Gallagher and Ken Cooley, the resolution criticized the Government of participating in and failure to prevent the killings. The assembly called the killings a "genocide", as it "resulted in the intentional destruction of many Sikh families, communities, homes and businesses."[303][304] In April 2017, the Ontario Legislature passed a motion condemning the anti-Sikh riots as "genocide".[305] The Indian government lobbied against the motion and condemned it upon its adoption.[306] In February 2018, American state of Connecticut, passed a bill stating, 30 November of each year to be "Sikh Genocide" Remembrance Day to remember the lives lost on 30 November 1984, during the Sikh Genocide.[307] The Akal Takht, Sikhism's governing body, considers the killings genocide.[308] Operation Woodrose; a military operation carried out by the Indira Gandhi-led Indian government in the months after Operation Blue Star to "prevent the outbreak of widespread public protest" in the state of Punjab[309] has also been characterized as a genocide.[310] The government arrested all prominent members of the largest Sikh political party, the Akali Dal, and banned the All India Sikh Students Federation, a large students' union.[309] In addition, the Indian Army conducted operations in the countryside during which thousands of Sikhs, overwhelmingly young men, were detained for interrogation and subsequently tortured.[309]
  42. ^ a b
  43. ^ The California genocide[314][315] refers to the destruction of individual tribes like the Yuki people during the Round Valley Settler Massacres of 1856 - 1859,[316] general massacres perpetrated by settlers chasing the gold rush against Indians like the Bloody Island Massacre, or Klamath River "War of Extermination"[317] along with the overall decline of the Indian population of California due to disease and starvation exacerbated by the massacres.
  44. ^ Queensland represents the single bloodiest colonial frontier in Australia. Thus the records of Queensland document the most frequent reports of shootings and massacres of indigenous people, the three deadliest massacres on white settlers, the most disreputable frontier police force, and the highest number of white victims to frontier violence on record in any Australian colony.[320] Thus some sources have characterized these events as a Queensland Aboriginal genocide.[321][322][323][324]
  45. ^ The Rohingya genocide[327][328][329][330] against the Rohingya ethnic minority in Myanmar (Burma) by the Myanmar military and Buddhist extremists. The violence began on 25 August 2017 and has continued since, reaching its peak during the months of August and September in 2017. The Rohingya people are a largely Muslim ethnic minority in Myanmar who have faced widespread persecution and discrimination for several decades. They are denied citizenship under the 1982 Myanmar nationality law, and are falsely regarded as Bengali immigrants by much of Myanmar's Bamar majority, to the extent that the government refuses to acknowledge the Rohingya's existence as a valid ethnic group.[331] The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) is a Rohingya insurgent group that was founded in 2013 to "liberate [the Rohingya] people from dehumanising oppression".[332] On 25 August 2017, ARSA claimed responsibility for coordinated attacks on police posts that reportedly killed twelve security forces. Myanmar's military forces immediately launched a series of retaliatory attacks against Rohingya civilians, and were joined by local Buddhist extremists. Together they burnt down hundreds of Rohingya villages, killed thousands of Rohingya men, women, and children, tortured countless others, and sexually assaulted countless Rohingya women and girls. Several Rohingya refugees say they were forced to witness soldiers throwing their babies into burning houses to die in the fire. Numerous Rohingya refugee women and girls have provided accounts of being brutally gang raped. The violence has resulted in a refugee crisis, with an estimated 693,000 Rohingya fleeing to overcrowded refugee camps in the neighboring country of Bangladesh.
  46. ^ The Bosnian genocide comprises localized, in time and place, massacres like in Srebrenica[335] and in Žepa committed by Bosnian Serb forces in 1995, as well as the scattered ethnic cleansing campaign throughout areas controlled by the Army of Republika Srpska[336] during the 1992–95 Bosnian War.[337] Srebrenica marked the most recent act of genocide committed in Europe and was the only theater of that war that fulfilled the definition of genocide as set by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). On 31 March 2010, the Serbian Parliament passed a resolution condemning the Srebrenica massacre and apologizing to the families of Srebrenica for the deaths of Bosniaks ("Bosnian Muslims").[338]
  47. ^ Decossackization (Russian: Расказачивание, Raskazachivaniye) was the Bolshevik policy of systematic repressions against Cossacks of the Russian Empire, especially of the Don and the Kuban, between 1917 and 1933 aimed at the elimination of the Cossacks as a separate ethnic, political, and economic entity.[343] This was the first example of Soviet leaders deciding to "eliminate, exterminate, and deport the population of a whole territory," which they had taken to calling the "Soviet Vendée"[343] Most authors[who?] characterize decossackization as a genocide of the Cossacks,[344][345][346][163][347] a process described by scholar Peter Holquist as part of a "ruthless" and "radical attempt to eliminate undesirable social groups" that showed the Soviet regime's "dedication to social engineering".[348][349]
  48. ^ In Bangladesh, the persecution of the indigenous tribes of the Chittagong Hill Tracts such as the Chakma, Marma, Tripura, Jumma people and others who are mainly Buddhists, Hindus, Christians, and Animists, has been described as genocidal, with Chackmas reportedly the worst affected.[352][full citation needed] [353][full citation needed] [354][full citation needed] [355][full citation needed] [356][full citation needed] The Chittagong Hill Tracts are located bordering India, Myanmar and the Bay of Bengal, and is the home to 500,000 indigenous people. The perpetrators were the Bangladeshi military and the Bengali people of the Chittagong division, who together have burned down Chackma homes, killed many Chakmas, and there were some reports of rape of the indigenous women. There are also accusations of Chakmas being forced to convert to Islam. The conflict started soon after Bangladeshi independence, in 1972 when the Constitution imposed Bengali as the sole official language of the country. Subsequently, the government encouraged and sponsored massive settlement by Bangladeshis in the region, which changed the demographics from 98 percent indigenous in 1972 to fifty percent by 1997. The government allocated a full third of the Bangladeshi military to the region to support Bengali settlers, sparking a protracted guerrilla war between Hill tribes and the military.[353] During this conflict, which officially ended in 1997, a large number of human rights violations against the indigenous peoples have been reported.[357] Amnesty International estimates that up to 90,000 indigenous families were displaced.[358] Following the Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord in 1997, though no further violence have been reported, promised land reforms have only at best been partially fulfilled despite repeated promises by the Bangladeshi government reported Amnesty International in 2013.[358] Chakmas also live in India's Tripura state where a Tripuri separatist movement is going on.[359]
  49. ^ The Selk'nam Genocide was the genocide of the Selk'nam people, indigenous inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego in South America, from the second half of the 19th to the early 20th century. Spanning a period of between ten and fifteen years the Selk'nam, which had an estimated population of some three thousand, saw their numbers reduced to 500.[361]
  50. ^ The Genocide of Yazidis ' by ISIS includes mass killing, rape and enslavement of girls and women, forced abduction, indoctrination and recruitment of Yazidis boys (aged 7 to 15) to be used in armed conflicts, forced conversion to Islam and expulsion from their ancestral land. The United Nations' Commission of Inquiry on Syria officially declared in its report that ISIS is committing genocide against the Yazidis population.[364] It is difficult to assess a precise figure for the killings[365] but it is known that some thousand of Yazidis men and boys are still unaccounted for and ISIS genocidal actions against Yazidis people are still ongoing, as stated by the International Commission in June 2016.
  51. ^ The genocide of the Moriori began in the fall of 1835. The invasions of the Chatham Islands left the Moriori people and their culture to die off. Those who survived were either kept as slaves or eaten and Moriori were not sanctioned to marry other Moriori or have children within their race. This caused their people and their language to be endangered. There were only 101 Moriori people left out of 2000 who had survived in 1863.[368]
  52. ^ The Conquest of the Desert (Spanish: Conquista del desierto) was a military campaign directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870s with the intent to establish Argentine dominance over Patagonia, which was inhabited by indigenous peoples. Under General Roca, the Conquest of the Desert extended Argentine power into Patagonia and ended the possibility of Chilean expansion there. The Conquest is highly controversial. Apologists have described the Conquest as bringing civilisation, while revisionists have labelled it a genocide.
  53. ^ The extinction of Aboriginal Tasmanians was called an archetypal case of genocide by Rafael Lemkin[378] (coiner of the word genocide) among other historians, a view supported by more recent genocide scholars like Ben Kiernan who covered it in his book Blood and Soil: A History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. This extinction also includes the Black War, which would make the war an act of genocide.[379] Historians like Keith Windschuttle among other historians disagree with this interpretation in discourse known as the History wars.


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  24. ^ Наливайченко назвал количество жертв голодомора в Украине [Nalyvaichenko called the number of victims of Holodomor in Ukraine] (in Russian). LB.ua. 14 January 2010. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
  25. ^ Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. London, UK: The Bodley Head. p. 53. ISBN 978-0224081412. One demographic retrojection suggests a figure of 2.5 million famine deaths for Soviet Ukraine. This is too close to the recorded figure of excess deaths, which is about 2.4 million. The latter figure must be substantially low, since many deaths were not recorded. Another demographic calculation, carried out on behalf of the authorities of independent Ukraine, provides the figure of 3.9 million dead. The truth is probably in between these numbers, where most of the estimates of respectable scholars can be found. It seems reasonable to propose a figure of approximately 3.3 million deaths by starvation and hunger-related disease in Soviet Ukraine in 1932–1933.
  26. ^ Marples, David R. (2007). Heroes and Villains: Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine. Central European University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-963-7326-98-1. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  27. ^ "Ukraine - The famine of 1932–33". Encyclopædia Britannica. The Great Famine (Holodomor) of 1932–33—a man-made demographic catastrophe unprecedented in peacetime. Of the estimated six to eight million people who died in the Soviet Union, about four to five million were Ukrainians. ... Its deliberate nature is underscored by the fact that no physical basis for famine existed in Ukraine. ... Soviet authorities set requisition quotas for Ukraine at an impossibly high level. Brigades of special agents were dispatched to Ukraine to assist in procurement, and homes were routinely searched and foodstuffs confiscated... The rural population was left with insufficient food to feed itself.
  28. ^ Brent Bezo; Stefania Maggi (2015). "Living in "survival mode:" Intergenerational transmission of trauma from the Holodomor genocide of 1932–1933 in Ukraine". Social Science & Medicine. 134: 87–94. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.04.009. PMID 25931287.
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  72. ^ Robinson, Geoffrey B. (2018). The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965-66. Princeton University Press. p. 4. ISBN 9781400888863. And while there is still no consensus on the matter, some scholars have described the Indonesian violence as genocide.
  73. ^ McGregor, Katharine; Melvin, Jess; Pohlman, Annie, eds. (2018). The Indonesian Genocide of 1965: Causes, Dynamics and Legacies (Palgrave Studies in the History of Genocide). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-3-319-71454-7.
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  77. ^ Jones 2010, p. 166, An estimate of the Pontian Greek death toll at all stages of the anti-Christian genocide is about 350,000; for all the Greeks of the Ottoman realm taken together, the toll surely exceeded half a million, and may approach the 900,000 killed that a team of US researchers found in the early postwar period. Most surviving Greeks were expelled to Greece as part of the tumultuous 'population exchanges' that set the seal on a heavily 'Turkified' state.".
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  98. ^ Richmond, Walter. The Circassian Genocide. p. 132. If we assume that Berzhe's middle figure of 50,000 was close to the number who survived to settle in the lowlands, then between 95 percent and 97 percent of all Circassians were killed outright, died during Evdokimov's campaign, or were deported.
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  110. ^ While the official Pakistani government report (Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report 1974) estimated that the Pakistani army was responsible for 26,000 killings in total, other sources have proposed various estimates ranging between 200,000 and 3 million. Indian Professor Sarmila Bose recently expressed the view that a truly impartial study has never been done, while Bangladeshi ambassador Shamsher M. Chowdhury has suggested that a joint Pakistan-Bangladeshi commission be formed to properly investigate the event.
    Chowdury, Bose commentsDawn Newspapers Online.
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  112. ^ R.J. Rummel (January 1997). Death By Government. Routledge. p. 331. ISBN 1560009276. The human death toll over only 267 days was incredible. Just to give for five out of the eighteen districts some incomplete statistics published in Bangladesh newspapers or by an Inquiry Committee, the Pakistani army killed 100,000 Bengalis in Dacca, 150,000 in Khulna, 75,000 in Jessore, 95,000 in Comilla, and 100,000 in Chittagong. For eighteen districts the total is 1,247,000 killed. This was an incomplete toll, and to this day no one really knows the final toll. Some estimates of the democide (i.e. Rummel's 'death by government') are much lower—one is of 300,000 dead—but most range from 1 million to 3 million. ... The Pakistani army and allied paramilitary groups killed about one out of every sixty-one people in Pakistan overall; one out of every twenty-five Bengalis, Hindus, and others in East Pakistan. If the rate of killing for all of Pakistan is annualized over the years the Yahya martial law regime was in power (March 1969 to December 1971), then this one regime was more lethal than that of the Soviet Union, China under the communists, or Japan under the military (even through World War II).
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  133. ^ Rudolph Rummel estimates the following Indian deaths:[where?]
    • Under republic (1900-30): 50,000 democides
    • Under Vargas (1930-45): 60,000
    • Under Dutra/Vargas (1945-64): 50,000
    • Under military (1964-85): 75,000
    TOTAL: 235,000
  134. ^ {{cite book | author = Robert Hitchcock | author2 = Tara Twedt | quote = Indian population of Brazil declined from 1.0M to 0.2M between 1900 and 1957, a net loss of 800,000 | title = Century of Genocide | editor = Samuel Totten | year = 1997 | isbn =0415990858))
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  139. ^ Robertson, John M. (1902). A Short History of Christianity. London, UK: Watts & Co. p. 254.
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    • O'Leary, Brendam; McGarry, John (24 November 1995). Albert Breton (ed.). Regulating nations and ethnic communities. Cambridge University Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-521-48098-7. Oliver Cromwell offered the Irish Catholics a choice between genocide and forced mass population transfer. They could go 'To Hell or to Connaught!'
    • Tim Pat Coogan (5 January 2002). The Troubles: Ireland's Ordeal and the Search for Peace. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-312-29418-2. The massacres by Catholics of Protestants, which occurred in the religious wars of the 1640s, were magnified for propagandist purposes to justify Cromwell's subsequent genocide.
    • Peter Berresford Ellis (9 February 2007). Eyewitness to Irish History. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-05312-6. "It was to be the justification for Cromwell's genocidal campaign and settlement."
    • Levene 2005 "[The Act of Settlement of Ireland], and the parliamentary legislation which succeeded it the following year, is the nearest thing on paper in the English, and more broadly British, domestic record, to a programme of state-sanctioned and systematic ethnic cleansing of another people. The fact that it did not include 'total' genocide in its remit, or that it failed to put into practice the vast majority of its proposed expulsions, ultimately, however, says less about the lethal determination of its makers and more about the political, structural and financial weakness of the early modern English state."
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  172. ^ "OSCE human rights chief welcomes declaration of official Roma genocide remembrance day in Poland". OSCE. July 29, 2011. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
  173. ^ König, Ulrich (1989). Sinti und Roma unter dem Nationalsozialismus (in German). Bochum: Brockmeyer. ISBN 9783883397054. The count of half a million Sinti and Roma murdered between 1939 and 1945 is too low to be tenable.
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  177. ^ Ellman, Michael (June 2007). "Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932-33 Revisited". Europe-Asia Studies. 59 (4): 663–693. doi:10.1080/09668130701291899. JSTOR 20451381. Lay summary (PDF).}
  178. ^ Sebag Montefiore, Simon (2003). Stalin. The Court of the Red Tsar. New York: Vintage Books. p. 229. ISBN 1-4000-7678-1.
  179. ^ Prof. Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (2011-01-15). "Nieopłakane ludobójstwo (Genocide Not Mourned)". Rzeczpospolita. Retrieved April 28, 2011. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  180. ^ Franciszek Tyszka. "Tomasz Sommer: Ludobójstwo Polaków z lat 1937-38 to zbrodnia większa niż Katyń (Genocide of Poles in the years 1937-38, a Crime Greater than Katyn)". Super Express. Retrieved April 28, 2011.
  181. ^ "Rozstrzelać Polaków. Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim (To Execute the Poles. Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union)". Historyton. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2011.
  182. ^ Andrzej Macura, Polska Agencja Prasowa (2010-06-24). "Publikacja na temat eksterminacji Polaków w ZSRR w latach 30 (Publication on the Subject of Extermination of Poles in the Soviet Union during the 1930s)". Portal Wiara.pl. Retrieved April 28, 2011.
  183. ^ Prof Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski (22 March 2011). "Rozkaz N.K.W.D.: No. 00485 z dnia 11-VIII-1937, a Polacy". Polish Club Online. Retrieved April 28, 2011. See also, Tomasz Sommer: Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim (Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union), article published by The Polish Review vol. LV, No. 4, 2010.
  184. ^ "Sommer, Tomasz. Book description (Opis)" [Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union]. Rozstrzelać Polaków. Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim w latach 1937-1938. Dokumenty z Centrali (in Polish). Księgarnia Prawnicza, Lublin. Retrieved 2011-04-28.
  185. ^ "Konferencja "Rozstrzelać Polaków – Ludobójstwo Polaków w Związku Sowieckim"" [Conference on Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union), Warsaw] (in Polish). Instytut Globalizacji oraz Press Club Polska in cooperation with Memorial Society. Retrieved 2011-04-28.
  186. ^ Goldman, Wendy Z. (2011). Inventing the Enemy: Denunciation and Terror in Stalin's Russia. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-521-19196-8.
  187. ^ Joshua Rubenstein. "The Devils' Playground". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-04-26. Rubenstein is the Northeast regional director of Amnesty International USA and a co-editor of The Unknown Black Book: The Holocaust in the German-Occupied Soviet Territories.
    Almost all victims of the NKVD shootings were men, wrote Michał Jasiński, most with families. Their wives and children were dealt with by the NKVD Order № 00486. The women were generally sentenced to deportation to Kazakhstan for an average of 5 to 10 years. Orphaned children without relatives willing to take them were put in orphanages to be brought up as Soviet, with no knowledge of their origins. All possessions of the accused were confiscated. The parents of the executed men – as well as their in-laws – were left with nothing to live on, which usually sealed their fate as well. Statistical extrapolation, wrote Jasiński, increases the number of Polish victims in 1937–1938 to around 200–250,000 depending on size of their families.
  188. ^ Michael Ellman, Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932-33 Revisited PDF file page 686
  189. ^ Williams 2012, p. 192.
  190. ^ Elhag 2014, p. 210.
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  192. ^ Reeves, Eric (2006-04-28). "Quantifying Genocide in Darfur". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  193. ^ "Is Swedish neutrality over?". Pravda. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  194. ^ "Historic Debate Secures Parliamentary Recognition of the Kurdish Genocide". Huffingtonpost.co.uk. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  195. ^ "South Korea recognizes Kurdish genocide". 13 June 2013. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  196. ^ "GENOCIDE AGAINST THE KURDS IN IRAQ: IRAQ AND INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION OVER TIME". uk.gov.krd. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  197. ^ a b Rummel, Rudolph J. "Chapter 14 THE HORDE OF CENTI-KILO MURDERERS Estimates, Calculations, And Sources". STATISTICS OF DEMOCIDE Rows 1313, 1314.
  198. ^ a b Routine calculations do not count as original research, provided there is consensus among editors that the result of the calculation is obvious, correct, and a meaningful reflection of the sources. Basic arithmetic, such as adding numbers, converting units, or calculating a person's age are some examples of routine calculations. See also Category:Conversion templates.
    https://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.TAB14.1C.GIF row 1313 and 1314
    1,000,000 and 10,000 to 2,000,000 and 100,000 Kurds were displaced and killed respectively between 1963 and 1987; 250,000 of them in 1977 and 1978. If deaths are proportional to the displacement then 2,500 to 12,500 Kurds would of died during this period depending on the scale of overall displacement and deaths used.
  199. ^ "Scars that won't heal: Iraq recognises Fayli Kurd persecution as 'genocide'". ekurd.net. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  200. ^ Marsh, Robin. "International Recognition of the Kurdish Genocide - Concerning the Faili Kurds". www.uk.upf.org. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  201. ^ Jaffar Al-Faylee, Zaki (2010). Tareekh Al-Kurd Al-Faylyoon. Beirut. pp. 485, 499–501.
  202. ^ Al-Hakeem, Dr. Sahib (2003). Untold stories of more than 4000 women raped killed and tortured in Iraq, the country of mass graves. pp. 489–492.
  203. ^ Jones, Dave. "The Crimes of Saddam Hussein
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  204. ^ a b GENOCIDE IN IRAQ Human Rights Watch, 1993
  205. ^ The Crimes of Saddam Hussein – 1988 The Anfal Campaign PBS Frontline
  206. ^ Zenko, Micah. "Remembering the Iraqi Uprising Twenty-Five Years Ago". Council on Foreign Relations.
  207. ^ a b 1,000 deaths per day in April, May and June along Turkish border a - "Iraqi Deaths from the Gulf War as of April 1992," Greenpeace, Washington, D.C. See also "Aftermath of War: The Persian Gulf War Refugee Crisis," Staff Report to the Senate Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Immigration and Refugee Affairs, May 20, 1991. The figure of nearly 1,000 deaths per day is also given in "Kurdistan in the Time of Saddam Hussein," Staff Report to the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, November 1991, p.14. "hundreds" (100 to 900?) died per day along Iranian border b - Kurdish Refugees Straggle Into Iran, Followed By Tragedy, Associated Press, Apr 13, 1991 1,100 to 1,900 (a + b) deaths per day from at least April 13th (b) up to between May 1st and May 31st (a ); which suggests 44 to 74 days: 1,100(44)= 48,400 1,900(74)= 140,600 Routine calculations Routine calculations do not count as original research, provided there is consensus among editors that the result of the calculation is obvious, correct, and a meaningful reflection of the sources. Basic arithmetic, such as adding numbers, converting units, or calculating a person's age are some examples of routine calculations. See also Category:Conversion templates.
  208. ^ Payaslian, Simon. "20th Century Genocides". Oxford bibliographies.
  209. ^ "Genocide Studies Program: East Timor". Yale.edu.
  210. ^ "Conflict-related Deaths in Timor Leste, 1954–1999. The Findings of the CAVR Report Chega!" (PDF).
  211. ^ "Chega! The CAVR Report". Archived from the original on May 13, 2012.
  212. ^ Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000. The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings.
    *This estimates comes from taking the minimum killed violently applying the 70% violent death responsibility given to Indonesian military combined with the minimum starved.
    "Conflict-related Deaths in Timor Leste, 1954–1999. The Findings of the CAVR Report" (PDF).
    "The CAVR Report".
  213. ^ Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000. The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings:*This estimates comes from taking the maximum killed violently applying the 70% violent death responsibility given to Indonesian military combined with the maximum starved.
    "Conflict-related Deaths in Timor Leste, 1954–1999. The Findings of the CAVR Report". cavr-timorleste.org. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  214. ^ a b White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century: C. Burundi (1972-73, primarily Hutu killed by Tutsi) 120,000".
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  216. ^ a b Cardoza, Anthony L. (2006). Benito Mussolini: the first fascist. Pearson Longman. p. 109.
  217. ^ a b Mann, Michael (2006). The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge University Press. p. 309. ISBN 9780521538541.
  218. ^ Ahmida, Ali Abdullatif (23 March 2011). Making of Modern Libya, The: State Formation, Colonization, and Resistance, Second Edition. SUNY Press. p. 146. ISBN 9781438428932.
  219. ^ Totten, Samuel; Bartrop, Paul Robert (2008). Dictionary of Genocide: A-L. ABC-CLIO. p. 259. ISBN 9780313346422.
  220. ^ a b c d Duggan, Christopher (2007). The Force of Destiny: A History of Italy Since 1796. New York: Houghton Mifflin. p. 497.
  221. ^ Cooper, Tom; Grandolini, Albert (January 19, 2015). Libyan Air Wars: Part 1: 1973-1985. Helion and Company. p. 5. ISBN 9781910777510.
  222. ^ Nina Consuelo Epton (1953). Oasis Kingdom: The Libyan Story. New York: Roy Publishers. p. 126.
  223. ^ Stewart, C.C. (1986). "Islam" (PDF). The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 7: c. 1905 – c. 1940. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 196.
  224. ^ "Detailed description of some fights" (in Italian). Regioesercito.
  225. ^ Bloxham, Donald; Moses, A. Dirk (2010). The Oxford Handbook of Genocide Studies. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 358.
  226. ^ Oxford Business Group (2008). The Report: Libya 2008. p. 17.
  227. ^ Wright, John (1982). A History of Modern Libya.
  228. ^ a b Penketh, Anne (2004-07-07). "Extermination of the pygmies". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2018-12-21. Retrieved 2018-12-21.
  229. ^ Penketh 2004.
  230. ^ a b c "Between October 2002 and January 2003, two the rebel groups, the MLC and RCD-N in the East of the Congo launched a premeditated, systematic genocide against the local tribes and Pygmies nicknamed operation "Effacer le Tableau" ("erase the board"). During their offensive against the civilian population of the Ituri region, the rebel groups left more than 60,000 dead and over 100,000 displaced. The rebels even engaged in slavery and cannibalism. Human Rights Reports state that this was due to the fact that rebel groups, often far away from their bases of supply and desperate for food, enslaved the Pygmies on captured farms to grow provisions for their militias or when times get really tough simply slaughter them like animals and devour their flesh which some believe gives them magical powers. 11. Fatality Level of Dispute (military and civilian fatalities): 70,000 estimated" see: Raja Seshadri (7 November 2005). "Pygmies in the Congo Basin and Conflict". Case Study 163. The Inventory of Conflict & Environment, American University. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  231. ^ "Senate recognizes Volhynia massacre to be genocide".
  232. ^ "Polish MPs adopt resolution calling 1940s massacre genocide". Radio Poland.
  233. ^ Paul Robert Magocsi (1996). A History of Ukraine. p. 681. ISBN 0802078206.
  234. ^ Mikolaj Terles (1993). "Ethnic cleansing of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia, 1942-1946 (ZZWRP)": 61. ISBN 0969802005. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  235. ^ Czesław Partacz. Prawda historyczna na prawda polityczna w badaniach naukowych. Przykład ludobójstwa na Kresach Południowo-Wschodniej Polski w latach 1939-1946 [Historical truth is political truth in scientific research. An example of the genocide of South Eastern Poland in 1939-1946] (in Polish).
  236. ^ Lucyna Kulińska (2009). Dzieci Kresów III (in Polish). Kraków. p. 467.
  237. ^ Józef Turowski; Władysław Siemaszko (1990). Zbrodnie nacjonalistów ukraińskich dokonane na ludności polskiej na Wołyniu 1939–1945. Główna Komisja Badania Zbrodni Hitlerowskich w Polsce – Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Środowisko Żołnierzy 27 Wołyńskiej Dywizji Armii Krajowej w Warszawie
  238. ^ Władysław Siemaszko; Ewa Siemaszko (2000). Ludobójstwo dokonane przez nacjonalistoẃ ukraińskich na ludności polskiej Wołynia, 1939-1945 [Genocide by Ukrainian nationalists against the Polish population of Volhynia, 1939-1945] (in Polish). 2. p. 1056. ISBN 83-87689-34-3.
  239. ^ Grzegorz Hryciuk; Wyd. Adam Marszałek (2005). Przemiany narodowościowe i ludnościowe w Galicji Wschodniej i na Wołyniu w latach 1931–1948 (in Polish). Toruń. p. 139. ISBN 83-7441-121-X.
  240. ^ Robert Potocki (2003). Polityka państwa polskiego wobec zagadnienia ukraińskiego w latach 1930–1939 [The policy of the Polish state towards the Ukrainian issue in 1930-1939]. pp. 47–50. ISBN 83-917615-4-1.
  241. ^ Ingiriis, Mohamed Haji (2016-07-02). ""We Swallowed the State as the State Swallowed Us": The Genesis, Genealogies, and Geographies of Genocides in Somalia". African Security. 9 (3): 237–58. doi:10.1080/19392206.2016.1208475. ISSN 1939-2206.
  242. ^ Mullin, Chris (2010-10-01). A View From The Foothills: The Diaries of Chris Mullin. Profile Books. ISBN 978-1847651860.
  243. ^ a b c Mburu, Chris; Rights, United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human; Office, United Nations Development Programme Somalia Country (2002-01-01). Past human rights abuses in Somalia: report of a preliminary study conducted for the United Nations (OHCHR/UNDP-Somalia).
  244. ^ Peifer, Douglas C. (2009-05-01). Stopping Mass Killings in Africa: Genocide, Airpower, and Intervention. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 9781437912814.
  245. ^ Straus, Scott (2015-03-24). Making and Unmaking Nations: The Origins and Dynamics of Genocide in Contemporary Africa. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801455674.
  246. ^ a b Jones, Adam (2017-01-22). Genocide, war crimes and the West: history and complicity. Zed Books. ISBN 9781842771914.
  247. ^ "Investigating genocide in Somaliland". Al Jazeera. February 2014. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  248. ^ Somaliland: Time for African Union Leadership (PDF). International Crisis Group. 2006. p. 5.
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  250. ^ "Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics" (PDF): 10. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  251. ^ Press, Robert M. (1999-01-01). The New Africa: Dispatches from a Changing Continent. University Press of Florida. ISBN 9780813017044.
  252. ^ Lindley, Anna (2013-01-15). The Early Morning Phonecall: Somali Refugees' Remittances. Berghahn Books. ISBN 9781782383284.
  253. ^ Gajraj, Priya (2005). Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics (PDF). World Bank. p. 10.
  254. ^ Law, Ian (2010-01-01). Racism and Ethnicity: Global Debates, Dilemmas, Directions. Longman. ISBN 9781405859127.
  255. ^ "Africa Watch". Volume 5: 4. 1993.
  256. ^ Straus, Scott (2015-03-24). Making and Unmaking Nations: The Origins and Dynamics of Genocide in Contemporary Africa. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801455674.
  257. ^ "Investigating genocide in Somaliland". Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  258. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 170.
  259. ^ Lerner 1994, p. 105.
  260. ^ Mulaj 2008, p. 42.
  261. ^ a b c Vladimir Geiger (2012). "Human Losses of the Croats in World War II and the Immediate Post-War Period Caused by the Chetniks (Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland) and the Partisans (People's Liberation Army and the Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia/Yugoslav Army) and the Communist Authorities: Numerical Indicators". Revue für Kroatische Geschichte = Revue d'Histoire Croate. VIII (1): 77–121.
  262. ^ Samuel Totten; William S. Parsons (1997). Century of genocide: critical essays and eyewitness accounts. Routledge. p. 430. ISBN 978-0-203-89043-1. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
  263. ^ Redžić, Enver (2005). Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Second World War. New York: Tylor and Francis. p. 84. ISBN 978-0714656250.
  264. ^ Legters 1992, p. 104.
  265. ^ Fisher 2014, p. 150.
  266. ^ Allworth 1998, p. 216.
  267. ^ Snyder, Timothy (2010-10-05). "The fatal fact of the Nazi-Soviet pact". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-08-06.
  268. ^ a b Buckley, Cynthia J.; Ruble, Blair A.; Hofmann, Erin Trouth (2008). Migration, Homeland, and Belonging in Eurasia. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press. p. 207. ISBN 9780801890758.
  269. ^ Allworth, Edward (1998). The Tatars of Crimea: Return to the Homeland: Studies and Documents. Durham: Duke University Press. p. 6. ISBN 9780822319948. LCCN 97019110. OCLC 610947243.
  270. ^ page, 34. ""Punished Peoples" of the Soviet Union: The Continuing Legacy of Stalin's Deportations" (PDF). Human Rights Watch 1991.
  271. ^ a b c Nuhn, Walter (1989). Sturm über Südwest. Der Hereroaufstand von 1904 (in German). Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe. ISBN 978-3-7637-5852-4.
  272. ^ "Revised and Updated Report on thè Question of the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide". Whitaker Report. United Nations. According to the 1985 United Nations' Whitaker Report, some 65,000 Herero (80 percent of the total Herero population), and 10,000 Nama (50% of the total Nama population) were killed between 1904 and 1907
  273. ^ Moses 2008, p. 296.
    Sarkin-Hughes, Jeremy (2008). Colonial Genocide and Reparations Claims in the 21st Century: The Socio-Legal Context of Claims under International Law by the Herero against Germany for Genocide in Namibia, 1904-1908. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International. p. 142. ISBN 978-0313362569.
    Schaller, Dominik J. (2008). From Conquest to Genocide: Colonial Rule in German Southwest Africa and German East Africa. NY: Berghahn Books. p. 296. ISBN 978-1-8454-5452-4.
    Friedrichsmeyer, Sara L.; Lennox, Sara; Zantop, Susanne M. (1998). The Imperialist Imagination: German Colonialism and Its Legacy. University of Michigan Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0472096824.
    Nuhn 1989.
    Hoffmann, Anette (2007). Marie-Aude Baronian; Stephan Besser; Yolande Jansen (eds.). Diaspora and Memory: Figures of Displacement in Contemporary Literature, Arts and Politics. Amsterdam: Rodopi. p. 33. ISBN 978-90-420-2129-7. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  274. ^ "Germany admits Namibia genocide". BBC. August 14, 2004. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  275. ^ "German minister says sorry for genocide in Namibia". The Guardian. August 16, 2004. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  276. ^ "UN Whitaker Report on Genocide, 1985". Prevent Genocide International. paragraphs 14 to 24, pages 5 to 10
  277. ^ "Press Briefing: Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission". United Nations. 1 March 1999. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  278. ^ "Guatemala Memory of Silence" (PDF). Commission for Historical Clarification Conclusions and Recommendations. Guatemala City. 1999. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  279. ^ CEH 1999, p. 20.
  280. ^ CEH 1999, p. 23.
  281. ^ Namely the 83% of the "fully identified" 42,275 civilians killed by human rights violations during the Guatemalan Civil War. See CEH 1999, p. 17, and "Press Briefing: Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission". United Nations. 1 March 1999. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  282. ^ Applying the same proportion as for the fully identified victims to the estimated total amount of person killed or disappeared during the Guatemalan civil war (at least 200.000). See CEH 1999, p. 17.
  283. ^ a b "UN Whitaker Report on Genocide, 1985, paragraphs 14 to 24 pages 5 to 10»". preventgenocideinternational. Archived from the original on 2019-06-13.
  284. ^ "History and Culture of Jews in Ukraine ("«Нариси з історії та культури євреїв України»)«Дух і літера» publ., Kyiv, 2008, с. 128 – 135
  285. ^ D. Vital. Zionism: the crucial phase. Oxford University Press. 1987. p. 359]
  286. ^ R. Pipes. A Concise History of the Russian Revolution. Vintage Books. 1996. p. 262.
  287. ^ "History and Culture of Jews in Ukraine ("«Нариси з історії та культури євреїв України»)«Дух і літера» publ., Kyiv, 2008, с. 128 – 135
  288. ^ D. Vital. Zionism: the crucial phase. Oxford University Press. 1987. p. 359]
  289. ^ Totten, Samuel; Parsons, William S.; Charny, Israel W. (2004). Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. Psychology Press. p. 331. ISBN 9780415944304.
  290. ^ Totten, Samuel; Parsons, William S.; Charny, Israel W. (2004). Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. Routledge. p. 331. ISBN 978-0415944304.
  291. ^ Samuel Totten (2004). Teaching About Genocide: Issues, Approaches, and Resources. Information Age Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 1-59311-074-X. A series of massacres perpetrated by the Ukrainian Cossacks under the leadership of Bogdan Chmielnicki saw the death of up to 100,000 Jews and the destruction of perhaps 700 communities between 1648 and 1654 ... .
  292. ^ a b Stampfer, Shaul (2003). "What Actually Happened to the Jews of Ukraine in 1648?". Jewish History. 17 (2): 165–178. doi:10.1023/A:1022308423637.
  293. ^ Edward H. Flannery (2004). The Anguish of the Jews: Twenty-Three Centuries of Antisemitism. Paulist Press. p. 158. ISBN 0-8091-4324-0. footnote 33, p. 327
  294. ^ Max I. Dimont (2004). Jews, God, and History. Signet Classic. p. 247. ISBN 0-451-52940-5.
  295. ^ Martin Gilbert (1976). Jewish History Atlas. London. p. 530. ISBN 3-11-013715-1. cited in Herbert Arthur Strauss. Hostages of modernization: Studies on Modern Antisemitism 1870–1933/39, Walter de Gruyter, 1993, p. 1013
  296. ^ Other 1960s–1980s estimates of Jews killed:
    • Hannah Vogt (1967). "The Jews: A Chronicle for Christian Conscience". Association Press. p. 72. In 1648, under the leadership of Chmielnicki, they ravaged the land with fire and sword. Their hatred of the Jews was boundless and they rarely attempted to persuade the unfortunate to convert. These persecutions were characterized by hitherto-unknown atrocities. Children were torn apart or thrown into the fire before the eyes of their mothers, women were burned alive, men were skinned and mutilated. People must have thought hell had let loose all the tormenting monsters that medieval painters had portrayed dragging the condemned to eternal punishment. The roads were choked with thousands of refugees trying to escape the murderous hordes. The famous rabbis of the Talmud schools died by the hundreds as martyrs for their faith. The total number of the dead was estimated at about one hundred thousand.
    • Richard L. Rubenstein (1974). Power Struggle: An Autobiographical Confession. Scribner. p. 95. In their revolt, the Ukrainians slaughtered over one hundred thousand Jews.
    • Chaim Bermant (1978). The Jews. Redwood Burn. p. 12. ISBN 0-297-77419-0. Thus, when in 1648, the Ukrainians under Chmielnicki rose against Polish dominion the Jews were to bear the main brunt of their fury. Within eighteen months over three hundred Jewish townships were destroyed and over one hundred thousand Jews—about a fifth of Polish Jewry—perished. It was the greatest calamity the Jews were to experience until the rise of Hitler.
    • David Bamberger (1978). My People: Abba Eban's History of the Jews. Behrman House. pp. 184–185. ISBN 0-87441-263-3. Under the leadership of the barbaric Bogdan Chmielnitski, they exploded in a revolt of terrible violence in which their anger at their Polish lords also turned against Jewish 'infidels,' some of whom had been used by the Poles as tax collectors... In the ten years between 1648 and 1658 no fewer than 100,000 Jews were killed
    • Gertrude Hirschler (1988). Ashkenaz: The German Jewish Heritage. Yeshiva University Museum. p. 64. ... set off bloody massacres, led by Bogdan Chmielnicki (1593–1657), in which nearly 300,000 Eastern European Jews were killed or uprooted
  297. ^ Sources estimating 100,000 Jews killed:
    • "Judaism Timeline 1618–1770". CBS News. Retrieved 2007-05-13. Bogdan Chmelnitzki leads Cossack uprising against Polish rule; 100,000 Jews are killed and hundreds of Jewish communities are destroyed.
    • Oscar Reiss (2004). The Jews in Colonial America. McFarland & Company. pp. 98–99. ISBN 0-7864-1730-7. The peasants of Ukraine rose up in 1648 under a petty aristocrat Bogdan Chmielnicki. ... It is estimated that 100,000 Jews were massacred and 300 of their communities destroyed
    • Manus I. Midlarsky (2005). The Killing Trap: genocide in the twentieth century. Cambridge University Press. p. 352. ISBN 0-521-81545-2. Moreover, Poles must have been keenly aware of the massacre of Jews in 1768 and even more so as the result of the much more widespread massacres (approximately 100,000 dead) of the earlier Chmielnicki pogroms during the preceding century
    • Martin Gilbert (1999). Holocaust Journey: Traveling in Search of the Past. Columbia University Press. p. 219. ISBN 0-231-10965-2. ... as many as 100,000 Jews were murdered throughout the Ukraine by Bogdan Chmielnicki's Cossack soldiers on the rampage
    • Samuel Totten (2004). Teaching About Genocide: Issues, Approaches, and Resources. Information Age Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 1-59311-074-X. A series of massacres perpetrated by the Ukrainian Cossacks under the leadership of Bogdan Chmielnicki saw the death of up to 100,000 Jews and the destruction of perhaps 700 communities between 1648 and 1654 ...
    • Cara Camcastle (2005). The More Moderate Side of Joseph De Maistre: Views on Political Liberty And Political Economy. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 26. ISBN 0-7735-2976-4. In response to Poland having taken control of much of the Ukraine in the early seventeenth century, Ukrainian peasants mobilized as groups of cavalry, and these "cossacks" in the Chmielnicki uprising of 1648 killed an estimated 100,000 Jews
    • Colin Martin Tatz (2003). With Intent to Destroy: Reflections on Genocide. Verso. p. 146. ISBN 1-85984-550-9. Is there not a difference in nature between Hitler's extermination of three million Polish Jews between 1939 and 1945 because he wanted every Jew dead and the mass murder 1648–49 of 100,000 Polish Jews by General Bogdan Chmielnicki because he wanted to end Polish rule in the Ukraine and was prepared to use Cossack terrorism to kill Jews in the process?
    • Mosheh Weiss (2004). A Brief History of the Jewish People. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 193. ISBN 0-7425-4402-8. ... massacring an estimated one hundred thousand Jews as the Ukrainian Bogdan Chmielnicki had done nearly three centuries earlier.
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  300. ^ K. Singh: "Congress (I) is the Most Communal Party", Publik Asia, 16 November 1989.
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  302. ^ "AAP govt to pay Rs 120cr to kin of 1984 riot victims".
  303. ^ PTI (22 April 2015). "California assembly describes 1984 riots as 'genocide'". The Times of India. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  304. ^ "Bill Text". ca.gov.
  305. ^ "Canadians have a right to be 'concerned' about 1984 Sikh massacre, Harjit Sajjan says".
  306. ^ "Ontario's resolution on '84 riots 'unreal', says Jaitley".
  307. ^ "An Act Designating Various Days and Weeks".
  308. ^ "1984 riots were 'Sikh genocide': Akal Takht – Hindustan Times". Hindustan Times. 14 July 2010. Archived from the original on 17 July 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
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  310. ^ Jaijee, Inderjit Singh, 1931- (1999). Politics of genocide : Punjab, 1984-1998. Ajanta Publications. OCLC 606518497.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  311. ^ Bhatnagar, Gaurav Vivek. "What Delhi HC Order On 1984 Anti-Sikh Pogrom Says About 2002 Gujarat Riots". The Wire.
  312. ^ Joseph, Paul (11 October 2016). The SAGE Encyclopedia of War: Social Science Perspectives. SAGE. p. 433. ISBN 978-1483359885.
  313. ^ Punjab militancy: There have been 12,000 deaths. One India.
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  317. ^ Heizer (1993). Crescent City Herald. pp. 35–36. quoted in Sacramento newspaper
  318. ^ Only the range of deaths caused by massacred
  319. ^ The total population decline of the period overall
  320. ^ Ørsted-Jensen (2011).
  321. ^ Ray Gibbons. "The Partial Case for Queensland Genocide". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  322. ^ Hannah Baldry; Alisa McKeon; Scott McDougal. "Queensland's Frontier Killing Times - Facing Up to Genocide". QUT Law Review. 15 (1): 92–113. ISSN 2201-7275.
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  324. ^ a b c Tatz, Colin (2006). Roger Maaka; Chris Andersen (eds.). "Confronting Australian Genocide". The Indigenous Experience: Global Perspectives. Canadian Scholars Press. ISBN 978-1551303000.
  325. ^ a b Evans, Raymond; Ørsted–Jensen, Robert (2014-07-09). "I Cannot Say the Numbers that Were Killed': Assessing Violent Mortality on the Queensland Frontier". AHA (paper). University of Queensland: Social Science Research Network.
  326. ^ a b 40%Ørsted–Jensen, Robert (2011). "Frontier History Revisited – Queensland and the 'History War". Cooparoo, Brisbane: Qld: Lux Mundi Publishing. ISBN 9781466386822. Cite journal requires |journal= (help) ) - of 314,000- Hugo, Graeme (March 2012). "Population Distribution, Migration and Climate Change in Australia: An Exploration". NCCARF. Gough, Myles (11 May 2011). "Prehistoric Australian Aboriginal populations were growing". Cosmos Magazine. to 750,000 - Thomson, Neil (2001). James Jupp (ed.). "Indigenous Australia: Indigenous Health". The Australian people: an encyclopedia of the nation, its people and their Origins. Cambridge University Press: 153. ISBN 978-0-521-80789-0.) people
  327. ^ R.C. (23 May 2018). "The Rohingya crisis bears all the hallmarks of a genocide". The Economist. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  328. ^ Camilla Siazon (8 May 2018). "The Rohingya Crisis and the Meaning of Genocide". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  329. ^ "UN official says Rohingya crisis has 'hallmarks of genocide'". Associated Press. Associated Press. 1 February 2018. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  330. ^ Azeem Ibrahim (23 October 2017). "There's only one conclusion on the Rohingya in Myanmar: It's genocide". Cable News Network. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  331. ^ BBC (24 April 2018). "Myanmar Rohingya: What you need to know about the crisis". BBC. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  332. ^ BenarNews (23 August 2017). "Southeast Asia's Newest Rebel Group Calls Bangladesh 'Great Neighbor'". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  333. ^ James Bennett (14 December 2017). "Rohingya death toll likely above 10,000, MSF says amid exodus". ABC. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  334. ^ Laignee Barron (8 March 2018). "More Than 43,000 Rohingya Parents May Be Missing. Experts Fear They Are Dead". Time. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  335. ^ Irwin, Rachel (13 December 2012). "Genocide Conviction for Serb General Tolimir". Institute for War and Peace Reporting. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  336. ^ Gutman, Roy (1993). A Witness to Genocide. Lisa Drew Books. ISBN 978-0020329954.
  337. ^ Thackrah, John Richard (2008). Routledge Companion to Military Conflict since 1945. Taylor & Francis. pp. 81–82. ISBN 978-0-203-01470-7.
  338. ^ "Serbian MPs offer apology for Srebrenica massacre". BBC News. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  339. ^ The figure considers only the estimated number of killed people in Srebrenica massacre based on the list of missing persons."Preliminary List of Missing Persons from Srebrenica 1995". Potočari Memorial Center. Archived from the original on 18 April 2014. The International Commission on Missing Persons recovered and identified 6,930 remains."Facts and Figures on Srebrenica". icmp.int. 31 July 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  340. ^ Calic, Marie–Janine (2012). "Ethnic Cleansing and War Crimes, 1991–1995". In Ingrao, Charles W.; Emmert, Thomas A. (eds.). Confronting the Yugoslav Controversies: A Scholars' Initiative. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. pp. 139–40. ISBN 978-1-55753-617-4. Footnotes in source identify numbers as June 2012.
  341. ^ The two figures consider all Bosniak civilians killed during the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. For the second figure, see: Ball, Patrick; Tabeau, Ewa; Verwimp, Philip (17 June 2007). "The Bosnian Book of Dead: Assessment of the Database" (PDF). Falmer: The Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  342. ^ Zwierzchowski, Jan; Tabeau, Ewa (1 February 2010). "THE 1992-95 WAR IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: CENSUS-BASED MULTIPLE SYSTEM ESTIMATION OF CASUALTIES' UNDERCOUNT1" (PDF). Conference Paper for the International Research Workshop on 'The Global Costs of Conflict'. The Households in Conflict Network (HiCN) and The German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin) 1–2 February 2010, Berlin: 15.
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  344. ^ Orlando Figes (1998). A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution: 1891–1924. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-024364-X.
  345. ^ Donald Rayfield (2004). Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him. Random House. ISBN 0-375-50632-2.
  346. ^ Mikhail Heller; Aleksandr Nekrich. Utopia in Power: The History of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the Present.
  347. ^ "Soviet order to exterminate Cossacks is unearthed". University of York. 21 January 2003. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
  348. ^ Holquist, Peter (1917-03-08). Making War, Forging Revolution: Russia's Continuum of Crisis, 1914-1921 - Peter Holquist - Google Boeken. ISBN 9780674009073. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
  349. ^ Holquist, Peter. Conduct merciless mass terror": decossackization on the Don, 1919.
  350. ^ Futoryansky L.I. (2003). Cossacks in the flames of the civil war in Russia (1918−1920). Orenburg: GOU OGU. p. 474.
  351. ^ Reshetnikov L.P. (2014). Return to Russia. The third way, or dead ends of hopelessness. M .: FIV. p. 119.
  352. ^ Gray 1994.
  353. ^ a b O'Brien 2004.
  354. ^ Mey 1984.
  355. ^ Moshin 2003.
  356. ^ Roy 2000.
  357. ^ Chakma & Hill 2013.
  358. ^ a b "Bangladesh: Indigenous Peoples engulfed in Chittagong Hill Tracts land conflict". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 2018-10-04.
  359. ^ "Tipraland movement: Autonomy is core to Tripura's tribal politics, but gaining power in state Assembly would be wiser".
  360. ^ a b "Massacres in the CHT". Angelfire. The sum of all dead listed in each massacre of the article"hundreds" or "thousands" will be assumed to equal anywhere from 100 to 900 or 1,000 to 9,000.
  361. ^ a b Chapman, Anne (2010). European Encounters with the Yamana People of Cape Horn, Before and After Darwin (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-052151379-1.
  362. ^ a b Gardini, Walter (1984). "Restoring the Honour of an Indian Tribe-Rescate de una tribu". Anthropos (in German). 79 (4/6): 645–7.
  363. ^ Ray, Leslie (2007). Language of the Land: The Mapuche in Argentina and Chile. Copenhagen: IWGIA (International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs). p. 95. ISBN 978-879156337-9.
  364. ^ "UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria: ISIS is committing genocide against the Yazidis". United Nations - Office of the High Commissioner. 16 June 2016.
  365. ^ HRC (2016). They came to destroy: ISIS Crimes Against the Yazidis (PDF). Human Rights Council Thirty-second session Agenda item 4. pp. 8–9, 21, 36.
  366. ^ Spencer, Richard (2014-10-14). "Isil carried out massacres and mass sexual enslavement of Yazidis, UN confirms". ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2019-10-13.
  367. ^ Boezio, Geraldine. "Four years after Da'esh's attacks on the Sinjar region of Iraq, survivors of sexual violence still await justice – United Nations Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict". Retrieved 2019-10-13.
  368. ^ a b "The Genocide". Moriori Genocide. Retrieved 2018-10-19.
  369. ^ Kopel, Dave; Gallant, Paul; Eisen, Joanne D. (2003-04-11). "A Moriori Lesson: a brief history of pacifism". National Review.
  370. ^ a b "Tommy Solomon". Archived from the original on 2016-01-23.
  371. ^ King, Michael (2011). The Silence Beyond. Penguin. p. 190. ISBN 978-1459623019.
  372. ^ Denise Davis; Māui Solomon (28 Oct 2008). Moriori: The impact of new arrivals. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. NZ Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
  373. ^ King, Michael (2000). Moriori: a People Rediscovered; revised ed. Viking. pp. 57–58. ISBN 0-14-010391-0. Original edition 1989
  374. ^ "Historical Timeline of the Auckland Islands".
  375. ^ King, Michael (1989). "Moriori: A People Rediscovered". Auckland: Viking: 136. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  376. ^ George V. Rauch (1999). The Argentine Military and the Boundary Dispute With Chile, 1870-1902. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 47.
  377. ^ a b Ward Churchill. A Little Matter of Genocide. p. 109.
  378. ^ Reynolds, Henry (2004). A. Dirk Moses (ed.). Genocide in Tasmania?. Genocide and settler society:frontier violence and stolen indigenous children in Australian History. Berghan Books. p. 128.
  379. ^ Clements 2014, p. 4[full citation needed]
  380. ^ a b Clements 2013, pp. 329–331[full citation needed]

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