List of genocides by death toll

This list of genocides by death toll includes estimates of all deaths which were directly or indirectly caused by genocide, as it is defined by the UN Convention on Genocide. It excludes other mass killings, which may be referred to as genocide by some scholars and are variously also called mass murder, crimes against humanity, politicide, classicide, or war crimes, such as the Thirty Years War (7.5 million deaths), Japanese war crimes (3 to 14 million deaths), the Red Terror (100,000 to 1.3 million deaths), the Atrocities in the Congo Free State (1 to 15 million deaths), the Great Purge (0.6 to 1.75 million deaths) or the Great Leap Forward and the famine which followed it (15 to 55 million deaths). A broader list of genocides, ethnic cleansing and related mass persecution is available. Genocides in history include cases where there is less consensus among scholars as to whether they constituted genocide.

Definition

The United Nations Genocide Convention defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group".[1]

List of genocides

Listed in descending order of lowest estimate.

Event Location From To Lowest
estimate
Highest
estimate
Proportion of group killed
The Holocaust[N 1]   German-occupied Europe 1941 1945 5,750,000
[3]
6,000,000
[4]
Around 2/3 of the Jewish population of Europe.[5]
Nazi genocide of ethnic Poles[6][7]   German-occupied Europe 1939 1945 1,800,000
[8]
1,900,000
[8]
In addition, 3 million Polish Jews were killed during the Holocaust in Poland.[8]
Cambodian genocide[N 2]   Democratic Kampuchea 1975 1979 1,386,734
[17][18]
3,000,000
[12][19]
15–33% of total population of Cambodia killed[20][21] including:

99% of Cambodian Viets
50% of Cambodian Chinese and Cham
40% of Cambodian Lao and Thai
25% of Urban Khmer
16% of Rural Khmer

Armenian genocide[N 3]   Ottoman Empire
(territories of present-day Turkey, Syria and Iraq)
1915 1922 700,000
[27]
1,800,000
[28]
At least 50% of Armenians in Turkey killed[27]
Rwandan genocide[N 4]   Rwanda 1994 491,000
[29]
800,000
[30]
60–70% of Tutsis in Rwanda killed[29]
7% of Rwanda's total population killed[29]
Greek genocide including the Pontic genocide[N 5]   Ottoman Empire
(territories of present-day Turkey)
1914 1922 300,000
[31]
700,000
[31]
At least 25% of Greeks in Anatolia (Turkey) killed[citation needed]
Dzungar genocide[N 6] Qing Dynasty (Dzungaria) 1755 1758 480,000
[35]
600,000
[35]
80% of 600,000 Zungharian Oirats killed
Genocide in Bangladesh[N 7]   East Pakistan (territories of present-day   Bangladesh) 1971 300,000
[42]
3,000,000
[43][44]
2%[45] to 4% of the population of East Pakistan[46]
Assyrian genocide ܣܝܦܐ (Seyfo, "Sword")[N 8]   Ottoman Empire

territories of present-day Turkey, Syria and Iraq)

1915 1923 200,000
[47]
750,000
[48]
Genocide by the Ustaše including the Serbian genocide[N 9]   Independent State of Croatia (territories of present-day Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Syrmia) 1941 1945 200,000
[50][51]
500,000
[50][51][52]
13% to 21% of the Serbian population within the NDH was killed.[45]
Massacres of Hutus during the First Congo War[N 10]   Zaire 1996 1997 200,000
[55]
232,000
[56]
Romani genocide[N 11]   German-occupied Europe 1935[59] 1945 130,000
[60]
500,000
[61][62]
25% of Romani people in Europe killed
Polish Operation of the NKVD (Polish genocide)[N 12]   Soviet Union 1937 1938 111,091
[70]
250,000
[71]
22% of the Polish population of the USSR was "sentenced" by the operation (140,000 people)[72]
Aardakh[N 13]
(Soviet deportation of Chechens and other Vainakh populations)
  Soviet Union (North Caucasus) 1944 1948 100,000
[79]
400,000
[80]
23.5% to almost 50% of total Chechen population killed[81]

[73][page needed][74][75][82]

Genocide of Acholi and Lango people under Idi Amin[N 14]   Uganda 1972 1978 100,000
[83]
300,000
[83]
Darfur genocide[N 15]   Darfur, Sudan

2003

Present

98,000
[86]
500,000
[87]
East Timor genocide[N 16]   East Timor, Indonesia 1975 1999 85,320
[92]
196,720
[93]
13% to 44% of East Timor's total population killed
(See death toll of East Timor genocide)
Ikiza[N 17]   Burundi 1972 80,000
[94][95]
300,000
[96]
As much as 10% to 15% of the Hutu population of Burundi killed[96]
Bambuti genocide[N 18]   North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2002 2003 60,000
[99][97]
70,000
[99]
40% of the Eastern Congo's Pygmy population killed[N 19]|-
Anfal genocide[N 20]   Iraq 1986 1989 50,000[103] 182,000[104]
Genocide of Isaaqs[N 21]   Somalia 1988 1991 50,000
[120][110]
200,000
[121]
Genocide against Bosniaks and Croats by the Chetniks[N 22]   Occupied Yugoslavia (territories of present-day Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,and Sandžak) 1941 1945 47,000
[125]
65,000
[125]
Tamil Genocide[N 23]   Tamil Eelam, Sri Lanka 1956 2009 40,000[129][130] 140,000+[129] Between 10% and 35% of the Eelam Tamil population living in the de facto state of Tamil Eelam, controlled by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.[131]
Deportation of the Crimean Tatars[N 24]   Soviet Union (  Crimean ASSR) 1944 1948 34,000
[136]
195,471
[137]
The deportation and following exile reduced the Crimean Tatar population by between 18%[136] and 46%.[138]
Genocide in German South West Africa[N 25]   German South-West Africa 1904 1908 34,000
[139]
110,000
[140][141]
60% (24,000 out of 40,000[139]) to 81.25% (65,000[142][143] out of 80,000[144]) of total Herero and 50%[139] of Nama population killed.
Guatemalan genocide[N 26]   Guatemala 1962 1996 32,632
[149]
166,000
[150]
40% of the Maya population (24,000 people) of Guatemala's Ixil and Rabinal regions where killed[45]
California genocide[N 27]   California, United States

1846

1873

9,492–16,094
[151][152][155]

120,000
[152][156]

Amerindian population in California declined by 80% during the period
Queensland Aboriginal genocide[N 28]   Queensland, Australia

1840

1897

10,000
[161]
65,180
[162]
3.3% to over 50% of the aboriginal population was killed
(10,000[161] to 65,180[162] killed out of 125,600)[clarification needed]
Rohingya genocide[N 29]   Myanmar

2017

Present

9,000–13,700
[169]

43,000
[170]

Before the 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis and the military crackdown in 2016 and 2017, the Rohingya population in Myanmar was around 1.0 to 1.3 million, chiefly in the northern Rakhine townships, which were 80–98% Rohingya. Since 2015, over 900,000 Rohingya refugees have fled to south-eastern Bangladesh alone, and more to other surrounding countries, and major Muslim nations. More than 100,000 Rohingyas in Myanmar are confined in camps for internally displaced persons.
Bosnian genocide[N 30]   Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992 1995 Just over 8,000
[175]
31,10739,199
[176][177]
More than 3% of the Bosniak population of Bosnia and Herzegovina perished during the Bosnian War.[178]
1804 Haiti massacre[N 31]   Haiti 1804 1804 3,000[181] 5,000[181]
Selk'nam genocide[N 32]   Chile, Tierra del Fuego Late 19th century Early 20th century 2,500
[182]
4,000
[183]
84%
The genocide reduced their numbers from around 3,000 to about 500 people. (Now pure Selk'nam are considered extinct.)[184][185]
Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL[N 33]   Islamic State-controlled territory in northern Iraq and Syria 2014 2019 2,100–4,400
[188]
10,000
[189]
Genocide of the Moriori[N 34]   Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1835 1863 1,900
[191][192]
1,900 95% of the Moriori population was eradicated by the invasion from Taranaki, a group of Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama people from the Māori tribe.[193][194] All were enslaved and many were cannibalized.[195] They were not permitted to mix with their race.[196] The Moriori language is now extinct.[190][197] There are no Moriori of unmixed ancestry left.[192]
Black War
(Genocide of Aboriginal Tasmanians)[N 35]
  Van Diemen's Land, Australia Mid 1820s 1832 400
[200]
1,000
[200]

Gallery

See also

Political extermination campaigns

Notes

  1. ^ 'Initially it was carried out in German-occupied Eastern Europe by paramilitary death squads (Einsatzgruppen) by shooting or, less frequently, using ad hoc built gassing vans, and later in extermination camps by gassing.[2]
  2. ^ The Cambodian genocide is the commonly used term for the atrocities of the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot[9] that forced the urban population to relocate savagely to the countryside, among torture, mass executions, forced labor, and starvation.[10][11][12] Up to 20,000 mass graves, the infamous Killing Fields, were uncovered,[13] where at least 1,386,734 murdered victims found their final resting place.[14] The Khmer Rouge Tribunal found that targeting of Vietnamese and Cham minorities constituted a genocide under the UN Convention.[15][16]
  3. ^ The Armenian Genocide,[22][23] carried out by the Young Turks, included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, and mass starvation. It occurred concurrently with the Assyrian and Greek genocides; some scholars consider these to form a broader genocide targeting all of the Christians in Anatolia.[24][25] Overall, about 2 million Christians were killed in Anatolia between 1894 and 1924, 40 percent of the original population.[26]
  4. ^ Some 50 perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide have been found guilty by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, but most others have not been charged due to lack of witness accounts. Another 120,000 were arrested by Rwanda; of these, 60,000 were tried and convicted in the Gacaca court system. Perpetrators who fled into Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo) were used as a justification when Rwanda and Uganda invaded Zaire (First and Second Congo Wars). It is recognized by the international community as a genocide.
  5. ^ For the Greek genocide other sources give 500,000-1,200,000 casualties between Pontic, Cappadocian and Ionians Greeks. The genocide, instigated by the Ottoman government, included massacres, forced deportations involving death marches, summary expulsions, arbitrary executions, and destruction of Greek Orthodox cultural, historical and religious monuments.
  6. ^ Dzungar genocide. The Manchu Qianlong Emperor of Qing China issued his orders for his Manchu Bannermen to carry out the genocide and eradication of the Dzungar nation, ordering the massacre of all the Dzungar men and enslaving Dzungar women and children.[32] The Qianlong Emperor moved the remaining Zunghar people to the mainland and ordered the generals to kill all the men in Barkol or Suzhou, and divided their wives and children to Qing soldiers.[33][34] The Qing soldiers who massacred the Dzungars were Manchu Bannermen and Khalkha Mongols. In an account of the war, Wei Yuan wrote that about 40% of the Dzungar households were killed by smallpox, 20% fled to Russia or the Kazakh Khanate, and 30% were killed by the army, leaving no yurts in an area of several thousands of Chinese miles except those of the surrendered.[35][36][37] Clarke wrote 80%, or between 480,000 and 600,000 people, were killed between 1755 and 1758 in what "amounted to the complete destruction of not only the Zunghar state but of the Zunghars as a people."[35][38] Historian Peter Perdue has shown that the decimation of the Dzungars was the result of an explicit policy of extermination launched by the Qianlong Emperor.[35] Although this "deliberate use of massacre" has been largely ignored by modern scholars,[35] Mark Levene, a historian whose recent research interests focus on genocide, has stated that the extermination of the Dzungars was "arguably the eighteenth century genocide par excellence".[39]
  7. ^ Genocide in Bangladesh. Massacres, killings, rape, arson and systematic elimination of religious minorities (particularly Hindus), political dissidents and the members of the liberation forces of Bangladesh were conducted by the Pakistan Army with support from paramilitary militias—the Razakars, Al-Badr and Al-Shams—formed by the radical Islamist Jamaat-e-Islami party.[40] Although Bengali Hindus were specifically targeted, the majority of victims were Muslim.[41]
  8. ^ The Assyrian genocide is commonly known as "Seyfo" (which means sword in Assyrian). It occurred concurrently with the Armenian and Greek genocides.
  9. ^ Genocide by the Ustaše including the Serbian Genocide. German-Italian installed puppet state , the Independent State of Croatia murdered Serbs, Jews, Romani, and anti-Ustashe Croats and Bosniaks inside its borders, many in concentration camps, most notably Jasenovac camp. Ante Pavelić, the leader of the Ustaše, enacted racial laws similar to those of Nazi Germany, declaring Jews, Romani, and Serbs "enemies of the people of Croatia". He escaped to Spain after the war with the assistance of the Roman Catholic Church and fatally injured there some years later in an assassination attempt.[49]
  10. ^ During the First Congo War, troops of the Rwanda-backed Alliance des Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Congo-Zaïre (AFDL) attacked refugee camps in Eastern DRC, home to 527,000 and 718,000 Hutu refugees in South-Kivu and North-Kivu respectively.[53] Elements of the AFDL and, more so, of the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) systematically shelled numerous camps and committed massacres with light weapons. These early attacks cost the lives of 6,800-8,000 refugees and forced the repatriation of 500,000 - 700,000 refugees back to Rwanda.[54] As survivors fled westward of the DRC, the AFDL units hunted them down and attacked their makeshift camps, killing thousands more.[55] These attacks and killings continued to intensify as refugees moved westward as far as 1,800 km away. The report of the United Nations Joint Commission reported 134 sites where such atrocities were committed. On 8 July 1997, the acting UN High Commissioner for Human Rights stated that "about 200,000 Hutu refugees could well have been massacred".[55]
  11. ^ Porajmos (Romani pronunciation: IPA: [pʰoɽajˈmos]), or Samudaripen ("Mass killing"), the Romani genocide or Romani Holocaust, was the planned and attempted effort by the government of Nazi Germany and its allies to exterminate part of the Romani people of Europe. On 26 November 1935, a supplementary decree to the Nuremberg Laws stripping Jews of their German citizenship expanded the category "enemies of the race-based state" to include Romani, the same category as the Jews, and in some ways they had similar fates.[57][58]
  12. ^ The Polish Operation of the NKVD was a mass murder specifically aimed at the Polish ethnic group in the USSR by the orders of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. Historian Michael Ellman asserts that the 'national operations', particularly the 'Polish operation', may constitute genocide as defined by the UN convention.[63] His opinion is shared by Simon Sebag Montefiore, who calls the Polish operation of the NKVD 'a mini-genocide.'[64] Historian Timothy Snyder called the Polish Operation genocidal: "It is hard not to see the Soviet "Polish Operation" of 1937-38 as genocidal, as more than 100,000 innocent people were killed on the spurious grounds that theirs was a disloyal ethnicity and since Stalin spoke of "Polish filth"."[65] Norman Naimark called Stalin's policy towards Poles in the 1930s "genocidal"[66] but did not consider the entire Great Purge genocidal since it targeted political opponents as well.[66] Polish writer and commentator, Dr Tomasz Sommer, also refers to the operation as a genocide.[67][68][69]
  13. ^ Aardakh also known as Operation Lentil (Russian: Чечевица, Chechevitsa; Chechen: Вайнах махкахбахар Vaynax Maxkaxbaxar) was the Soviet expulsion of the whole of the Vainakh (Chechen and Ingush) populations of the North Caucasus to Central Asia during World War II. The expulsion, preceded by the 1940–1944 insurgency in Chechnya, was ordered on 23 February 1944 by NKVD chief Lavrentiy Beria after approval by Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, as a part of Soviet forced settlement program and population transfer that affected several million members of non-Russian Soviet ethnic minorities between the 1930s and the 1950s.
    The deportation encompassed their entire nations, well over 500,000 people, as well as the complete liquidation of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Hundreds of thousands[73][page needed][74][75][76] of Chechens and Ingushes died or were killed during the round-ups and transportation, and during their early years in exile. The survivors would not return to their native lands until 1957. Many in Chechnya and Ingushetia classify it as an act of genocide, as did the European Parliament in 2004.[77][78]
  14. ^ After Idi Amin Dada overthrow the regime of Milton Obote in 1971, he declared the Acholi and Lango tribes enemies, as Obote was a Lango and he saw the fact that they dominated the army as a threat.[83] In January 1972, Amin issued an order to the Ugandan army ordering that they assemble and kill all Acholi or Lango soldiers, and then commanded that all Acholi and Lango be rounded up and confined within army barracks, where they were either slaughtered by the soldiers or killed when the Ugandan air force bombed the barracks.[83]
  15. ^ The Darfur genocide refer to the war crimes and crimes against humanity such as massacre and genocidal rape that occurred within the Darfur region during the War in Darfur perpetrated by Janjaweed militias and the Sudanese government. These atrocities have been called the first genocide of the 21st century.[84] Sudan's president Omar al-Bashir has been indicted for his role in the genocide by the United Nations.[85]
  16. ^ The East Timor genocide refers to the "pacification campaigns" of state sponsored terror by the Indonesian government during their occupation of East Timor. Oxford University held an academic consensus calling the Indonesian Occupation of East Timor genocide and Yale university teaches it as part of their "Genocide Studies" program.[88][89] Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000.[90] The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings.[91]
  17. ^ Burundian genocide. In the long sequence of civil fights that occurred between Tutsi and Hutu since Burundi's independence in 1962, the 1972 mass killings of Hutu by the Tutsi and the 1993 mass killings of Tutsis by the majority-Hutu populace are both described as genocide in the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi presented to the United Nations Security Council in 1996.
  18. ^ Effacer le tableau ("erasing the board") is the operational name given to the systematic extermination of the Bambuti pygmies by rebel forces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The primary objective of Effacer le tableau was the territorial conquest of the North Kivu province of the DRC and ethnic cleansing of Pygmies from the Congo's eastern region whose population numbered 90,000 by 2004.[97] [98]
  19. ^ Eastern Pygmy population was reduced to 90,000 after a campaign that killed 60,000[99] implying a 40% decline
  20. ^ On 5 December 2012, Sweden's parliament, the Riksdag, adopted a resolution by the Green party to officially recognize Anfal as genocide. The resolution was passed by all 349 members of parliament.[100][disputed ] On 28 February 2013, the British House of Commons formally recognized the Anfal as genocide following a campaign led by Conservative MP Nadhim Zahawi, who is of Kurdish descent.[101] South Korea recognized the Anfal as genocide on June 13 of 2013.[102]
  21. ^ The Genocide of Isaaqs or "Hargeisa Holocaust"[105][106] was the systematic, state-sponsored massacre of Isaaq civilians between 1988 and 1991 by the Somali Democratic Republic under the dictatorship of Siad Barre.[107] The number of civilian deaths in this massacre is estimated to be between 50,000–100,000 according to various sources,[108][109][110] while local reports estimate the total civilian deaths to be upwards of 200,000 Isaaq civilians.[111] This included the leveling and complete destruction of the second and third largest cities in Somalia, Hargeisa (90 per cent destroyed)[112] and Burao (70 per cent destroyed) respectively,[113] and had caused 400,000[114][115] Somalis (primarily of the Isaaq clan) to flee their land and cross the border to Hartasheikh in Ethiopia as refugees, creating the world's largest refugee camp then (1988),[116] with another 400,000 being internally displaced.[117][118][119] In 2001, the United Nations commissioned an investigation on past human rights violations in Somalia,[107] specifically to find out if "crimes of international jurisdiction (i.e. war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide) had been perpetrated during the country's civil war". The investigation was commissioned jointly by the United Nations Co-ordination Unit (UNCU) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. The investigation concluded with a report confirming the crime of genocide to have taken place against the Isaaqs in Somalia.[107]
  22. ^ Massacres of ethnic Croats and Muslims by Serbian Chetniks across large areas of Occupied Yugoslavia (modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Sandžak) during World War II in Yugoslavia. Genocidal characteristics of the massacres can be seen through the Moljević plan ("On Our State and Its Borders") and the 1941 'Instructions' issued by Chetnik leader, Draža Mihailović, concerning the cleansing of non-Serbs on the basis of creating a post-war Greater Serbia.[122][123][124] Death toll by ethnicity is estimated to be between 18,000-32,000 Croats and between 29,000-33,000 Muslims.[125][126][127][128]
  23. ^ Massacres of ethnic Tamils across Sri Lanka, but especially in the North-East of the island, claimed as the Tamil homeland, have occurred repeatedly since 1956. Tens of thousands of Tamils were killed over the years. Tamils have made allegations of genocide since the 80s and in 2015 the Northern Provincial Council passed a resolution on the Tamil Genocide, seeking a UN inquiry. The Canadian Parliament in 2019 also called for an investigation into genocide allegations. Sri Lanka has strongly denied the accusations of genocide.
  24. ^ The deportation of the Crimean Tatars (Crimean Tatar Qırımtatar halqınıñ sürgünligi; Ukrainian Депортація кримських татар; Russian Депортация крымских татар) was the ethnic cleansing of at least 191,044 Crimean Tatars or, according to the other sources, 423,100 of them (89,2 % were women, children and elderly people) in 18–20 May 1944; one of the crimes of the Soviet totalitarian regime. It was carried out by Lavrentiy Beria, head of the Soviet state security and secret police, acting on behalf of Joseph Stalin. Within three days, Beria's NKVD used cattle trains to deport women, children, the elderly, even Communists and members of the Red Army, to the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan, several thousand kilometres away. They were one of the ten ethnicities who were encompassed by Stalin's policy of population transfer in the Soviet Union. The deportation is recognized as a genocide by the countries of Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, and Canada respectively; as well as various scholars. Professor Lyman H. Legters argued that the Soviet penal system, combined with its resettlement policies, should count as genocidal since the sentences were borne most heavily specifically on certain ethnic groups, and that a relocation of these ethnic groups, whose survivial depends on ties to its particular homeland, "had a genocidal effect remediable only by restoration of the group to its homeland".[132] Soviet dissidents Ilya Gabay[133] and Pyotr Grigorenko[134] both classified the event as a genocide. Historian Timothy Snyder included it in a list of Soviet policies that "meet the standard of genocide."[135]
  25. ^ The Genocide in German South West Africa was the campaign to exterminate the Herero and Nama people that the German Empire undertook in German South-West Africa (modern-day Namibia). It is considered one of the first genocides of the 20th century.
  26. ^ Guatemalan genocide. The government forces of Guatemala and allied paramilitary groups have been condemned by the Historical Clarification Commission for committing genocide against the Maya population[145][146] and for widespread human rights violations against civilians during the civil war fought against various leftist rebel groups. At least an estimated 200,000 persons lost their lives by arbitrary executions, forced disappearances and other human rights violations.[147] A quarter of the direct victims of human rights violations and acts of violence were women.[148]
  27. ^ The California genocide[151][152] refers to the destruction of individual tribes like the Yuki people during the Round Valley Settler Massacres of 1856–1859,[153] general massacres perpetrated by settlers chasing the gold rush against Indians like the Bloody Island Massacre, or Klamath River "War of Extermination"[154] along with the overall decline of the Indian population of California due to disease and starvation exacerbated by the massacres.
  28. ^ Queensland represents the single bloodiest colonial frontier in Australia. Thus the records of Queensland document the most frequent reports of shootings and massacres of indigenous people, the three deadliest massacres on white settlers, the most disreputable frontier police force, and the highest number of white victims to frontier violence on record in any Australian colony.[157] Thus some sources have characterized these events as a Queensland Aboriginal genocide.[158][159][160][161]
  29. ^ The Rohingya genocide[163][164][165][166] against the Rohingya ethnic minority in Myanmar (Burma) by the Myanmar military and Buddhist extremists. The violence began on 25 August 2017 and has continued since, reaching its peak during the months of August and September in 2017. The Rohingya people are a largely Muslim ethnic minority in Myanmar who have faced widespread persecution and discrimination for several decades. They are denied citizenship under the 1982 Myanmar nationality law, and are falsely regarded as Bengali immigrants by much of Myanmar's Bamar majority, to the extent that the government refuses to acknowledge the Rohingya's existence as a valid ethnic group.[167] The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) is a Rohingya insurgent group that was founded in 2013 to "liberate [the Rohingya] people from dehumanising oppression".[168] On 25 August 2017, ARSA claimed responsibility for coordinated attacks on police posts that reportedly killed twelve security forces. Myanmar's military forces immediately launched a series of retaliatory attacks against Rohingya civilians, and were joined by local Buddhist extremists. Together they burnt down hundreds of Rohingya villages, killed thousands of Rohingya men, women, and children, tortured countless others, and sexually assaulted countless Rohingya women and girls. Several Rohingya refugees say they were forced to witness soldiers throwing their babies into burning houses to die in the fire. Numerous Rohingya refugee women and girls have provided accounts of being brutally gang raped. The violence has resulted in a refugee crisis, with an estimated 693,000 Rohingya fleeing to overcrowded refugee camps in the neighboring country of Bangladesh.
  30. ^ The Bosnian genocide comprises localized, in time and place, massacres like in Srebrenica[171] and in Žepa committed by Bosnian Serb forces in 1995, as well as the scattered ethnic cleansing campaign throughout areas controlled by the Army of Republika Srpska[172] during the 1992–95 Bosnian War.[173] Srebrenica marked the most recent act of genocide committed in Europe and was the only theater of that war that fulfilled the definition of genocide as set by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). On 31 March 2010, the Serbian Parliament passed a resolution condemning the Srebrenica massacre and apologizing to the families of Srebrenica for the deaths of Bosniaks ("Bosnian Muslims").[174]
  31. ^ The 1804 Haiti massacre is considered to be a genocide by many scholars[179][180], as it was intended to destroy the Franco-Haitian population following the Haitian Revolution. The massacre was ordered by King Jean-Jacques Dessalines to remove the remainder of the white population from Haiti, and lasted from January to 22 April 1804. During the massacre, entire families were tortured and killed, and by the end of it, Haiti's white population was virtually non-existent.
  32. ^ The Selk'nam Genocide was the genocide of the Selk'nam people, indigenous inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego in South America, from the second half of the 19th to the early 20th century. Spanning a period of between ten and fifteen years the Selk'nam, which had an estimated population of some three thousand, saw their numbers reduced to 500.[182]
  33. ^ The Genocide of Yazidis ' by ISIS includes mass killing, rape and enslavement of girls and women, forced abduction, indoctrination and recruitment of Yazidis boys (aged 7 to 15) to be used in armed conflicts, forced conversion to Islam and expulsion from their ancestral land. The United Nations' Commission of Inquiry on Syria officially declared in its report that ISIS is committing genocide against the Yazidis population.[186] It is difficult to assess a precise figure for the killings[187] but it is known that some thousand of Yazidis men and boys are still unaccounted for and ISIS genocidal actions against Yazidis people are still ongoing, as stated by the International Commission in June 2016.
    See also: 2007 Yazidi communities bombings.
  34. ^ The genocide of the Moriori began in the fall of 1835. The invasions of the Chatham Islands left the Moriori people and their culture to die off. Those who survived were either kept as slaves or eaten and Moriori were not sanctioned to marry other Moriori or have children within their race. This caused their people and their language to be endangered. There were only 101 Moriori people left out of 2000 who had survived in 1863.[190]
  35. ^ The extinction of Aboriginal Tasmanians was called an archetypal case of genocide by Rafael Lemkin[198] (coiner of the word genocide) among other historians, a view supported by more recent genocide scholars like Ben Kiernan who covered it in his book Blood and Soil: A History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. This extinction also includes the Black War, which would make the war an act of genocide.[199] Historians like Keith Windschuttle among other historians disagree with this interpretation in discourse known as the History wars.

References

  1. ^ "ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK: Genocide" (PDF). Office of the UN Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide (OSAPG). United Nations. p. 1. Retrieved 2019-01-02.
  2. ^ For a listing of the number of murdered Jews, detailed by country, see Dawidowicz, Lucy (2010). The War Against the Jews: 1933-1945. Open Road Media. Appendix A. ISBN 978-1453203064.
  3. ^ Rosenfeld, Alvin H. (2008). "The Americanization of the Holocaust". In Moore, Deborah D. (ed.). American Jewish Identity Politics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-02464-3.
  4. ^ "Documenting Numbers of Victims of the Holocaust and Nazi Persecution". Holocaust Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2018-12-06.
  5. ^ Berenbaum, Michael (2006). The World Must Know: The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. ISBN 978-0-8018-8358-3.
  6. ^ David Furber and Wendy Lower (2008). "Colonialism and genocide in Nazi-occupied Poland and Ukraine". In Moses, A. Dirk (ed.). Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History. Berghahn Books. p. 393. ISBN 978-1-78238-214-0.
  7. ^ Yehuda Bauer Comparison of Genocides. Studies in Comparative Genocide,1999 31–43.According to Polish sources, about three million ethnic Poles lost their lives during the war, or about 10 per cent of the Polish nation(...) large numbers were murdered, or died as a result of direct German actions such as denying food or medical treatment to Poles, or incarceration in concentration camps. There is no way of estimating the exact proportions, but I believe it would be difficult to deny that we have here a case of mass murder directed against Poles.German plans regarding Poles talked about denationalizing the Polish people, or in other words, making them into individuals who would no longer have any national identity(...)This is a case of genocide - a purposeful attempt toeliminate an ethnicity or a nation, accompanied by the murder of large numbers of the targeted group.''
  8. ^ a b c "Polish Victims". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 30 October 2020. It is estimated that the Germans killed between 1.8 and 1.9 million non-Jewish Polish civilians during World War II. In addition, the Germans murdered at least 3 million Jewish citizens of Poland.
  9. ^ Frey, Rebecca Joyce (2009). Genocide and International Justice. Facts On File. p. 83. ISBN 978-0816073108.
  10. ^ The CGP, 1994–2008 Cambodian Genocide Program, Yale University.
  11. ^ Terry, Fiona (2002). Condemned to Repeat?: The Paradox of Humanitarian Action. Cornell University Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0801487965.
  12. ^ a b Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia". In Reed, Holly E.; Keely, Charles B. (eds.). Forced Migration and Mortality. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  13. ^ DeMello, Margo (2013). Body Studies: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 86. ISBN 978-0415699303.
  14. ^ "Mapping of mass graves". Documentation Center of Cambodia.
  15. ^ Kiernan, Ben (2019). "Genocidal targeting: Two groups of victims in Pol Pot's Cambodia". In Bushnell, P. Timothy; Shlapentokh, Vladimir; Vanderpool, Christopher; Sundram, Jeyaratnam (eds.). State Organized Terror: The Case Of Violent Internal Repression. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-000-31305-5.
  16. ^ Ellis-Petersen, Hannah (16 November 2018). "Khmer Rouge leaders found guilty of genocide in Cambodia's 'Nuremberg' moment". the Guardian. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  17. ^ "Documentation Center of Cambodia (DC-Cam)". www.d.dccam.org.
  18. ^ "Welcome | Genocide Studies Program". gsp.yale.edu.
  19. ^ The Quality of Mercy: Cambodia, Holocaust, and Modern Conscience. Touchstone. 1985. p. 115–16.
  20. ^ Etcheson, Craig (2005). After the Killing Fields: Lessons from the Cambodian Genocide. Greenwood. p. 119. ISBN 978-0275985134.
  21. ^ Heuveline, Patrick (1998). "'Between One and Three Million': Towards the Demographic Reconstruction of a Decade of Cambodian History (1970–79)". Population Studies. 52 (1): 49–65. doi:10.1080/0032472031000150176. JSTOR 2584763. PMID 11619945.
  22. ^ Robertson, Geoffrey (2016). "Armenia and the G-word: The Law and the Politics". The Armenian Genocide Legacy. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 69–83. ISBN 978-1-137-56163-3. Put another way – if these same events occurred today, there can be no doubt that prosecutions before the ICC of Talaat and other CUP officials for genocide, for persecution and for other crimes against humanity would succeed. Turkey would be held responsible for genocide and for persecution by the ICJ and would be required to make reparation.14 That Court would also hold Germany responsible for complicity with the genocide and persecution, since it had full knowledge of the massacres and deportations and decided not to use its power and influence over the Ottomans to stop them. But to the overarching legal question that troubles the international community today, namely whether the killings of Armenians in 1915 can properly be described as a genocide, the analysis in this chapter returns are sounding affirmative answer.
  23. ^ Lattanzi, Flavia (2018). "The Armenian Massacres as the Murder of a Nation?". The Armenian Massacres of 1915–1916 a Hundred Years Later: Open Questions and Tentative Answers in International Law. Springer International Publishing. pp. 27–104. ISBN 978-3-319-78169-3. Starting from the claim by the Armenian community and the majority of historians that the 1915–1916 Armenian massacres and deportations constitute genocide as well as Turkey’s fierce opposition to such a qualification, this paper investigates the possibility of identifying those massacres and deportations as the destruction of a nation. On the basis of a thorough analysis of the facts and the required mental element, the author shows that a deliberate destruction, in a substantial part, of the Armenian Christian nation as such, took place in those years. To come to this conclusion, this paper borrows the very same determinants as those used in the case-law of the Military Tribunals in occupied Germany, the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda in genocide cases.
  24. ^ "The Armenian Genocide (1915-16): In Depth". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 30 October 2020. Although the term genocide was not coined until 1944, most scholars agree that the mass murder of Armenians fits this definition. The CUP government systematically used an emergency military situation to effect a long-term population policy aimed at strengthening Muslim Turkish elements in Anatolia at the expense of the Christian population (primarily Armenians, but also Christian Assyrians). Ottoman, Armenian, US, British, French, German, and Austrian documents from the time reveal that the CUP leadership intentionally targeted the Armenian population of Anatolia.
  25. ^ Morris, Benny; Ze’evi, Dror (2019). The Thirty-Year Genocide: Turkey's Destruction of Its Christian Minorities, 1894–1924. Harvard University Press. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-0-674-24008-7.
  26. ^ Ze’evi, Dror; Morris, Benny (2020). "Response to Critique: The thirty-year genocide. Turkey's destruction of its Christian minorities, 1894–1924, by Benny Morris and Dror Ze'evi, Cambridge, MA, and London, Harvard University Press, 2019, 672 pp., USD$35.00 (hardcover), ISBN 9780674916456". Journal of Genocide Research. 22 (4): 561–566. doi:10.1080/14623528.2020.1735600. S2CID 216395523.
  27. ^ a b Ginsborg, Paul (2014). Family Politics: Domestic Life, Devastation and Survival, 1900-1950. Yale University Press. p. 100. ISBN 9780300211054.
  28. ^ Adalian, Rouben Paul (2004). "Armenian Genocide". Washington, DC: Armenian National Institute. Retrieved August 13, 2016.
  29. ^ a b c McDoom, Omar Shahabudin (2020). "Contested Counting: Toward a Rigorous Estimate of the Death Toll in the Rwandan Genocide". Journal of Genocide Research. 22 (1): 83–93. doi:10.1080/14623528.2019.1703252. S2CID 214032255. If one examines the claims for the overall number killed, at the higher end lies the figure of 1,074,017 Rwandan dead. This number originates with the Rwandan government which conducted a nationwide census in July 2000, six years after the genocide. Toward the lower end lies an estimate from Human Rights Watch, one of the first organizations on the ground to investigate the genocide, of 507,000 Tutsi killed... I have estimated between 491,000 and 522,000 Tutsi, nearly two thirds of Rwanda’s pre-genocide Tutsi population, were killed between 6 April and 19 July 1994. I calculated this death toll by subtracting my estimate of between 278,000 and 309,000 Tutsi survivors from my estimate of a baseline Tutsi population of almost exactly 800,000, or 10.8% of the overall population, on the eve of the genocide... In comparison with estimates at the higher and lower ends, my estimate is significantly lower than the Government of Rwanda’s genocide census figure of 1,006,031 Tutsi killed. I believe this number is not credible.
  30. ^ Guichaoua, André (2020). "Counting the Rwandan Victims of War and Genocide: Concluding Reflections". Journal of Genocide Research. 22 (1): 125–141. doi:10.1080/14623528.2019.1703329. S2CID 213471539.
  31. ^ a b Sjöberg, Erik (2016). The Making of the Greek Genocide: Contested Memories of the Ottoman Greek Catastrophe. Berghahn Books. p. 234. ISBN 978-1-78533-326-2. Activists tend to inflate the overall total of Ottoman Greek deaths, from the cautious estimates between 300,000 to 700,000...
  32. ^ Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3. Retrieved August 13, 2016.
  33. ^ "大清高宗純皇帝實錄, 乾隆二十四年" (in Chinese). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  34. ^ "平定準噶爾方略" (in Chinese). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  35. ^ a b c d e f Perdue, Peter C. (2005). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674016842.
  36. ^ Wei Yuan. "聖武記 Military history of the Qing Dynasty" (in Chinese). 4. 計數十萬戶中,先痘死者十之四,繼竄入俄羅斯哈薩克者十之二,卒殲於大兵者十之三。除婦孺充賞外,至今惟來降受屯之厄鲁特若干戶,編設佐領昂吉,此外數千里間,無瓦剌一氊帳。 Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  37. ^ Lattimore, Owen (1950). Pivot of Asia; Sinkiang and the inner Asian frontiers of China and Russia. Little, Brown. p. 126.
  38. ^ Clarke, Michael Edmund (2004). In the Eye of Power (PDF) (doctoral thesis). Brisbane: Griffith University. p. 37. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 29, 2012.
  39. ^ Moses, A. Dirk (2008). Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1845454524.
  40. ^ "Part 5: Chapter 2, paragraph 33". Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report. 1974. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  41. ^ Jahan, Rounaq (2013). "Genocide in Bangladesh". In Totten, Samuel; Parsons, William Spencer (eds.). Centuries of Genocide: Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. Routledge. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-415-87191-4.
  42. ^ Dummett, Mark (2011-12-16). "How one newspaper report changed world history". BBC News. Retrieved 2020-08-04.
  43. ^ "Bangladesh war: The article that changed history – Asia". BBC. 2010-03-25. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  44. ^ While the official Pakistani government report (Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report 1974) estimated that the Pakistani army was responsible for 26,000 killings in total, other sources have proposed various estimates ranging between 200,000 and 3 million. Indian Professor Sarmila Bose recently expressed the view that a truly impartial study has never been done, while Bangladeshi ambassador Shamsher M. Chowdhury has suggested that a joint Pakistan-Bangladeshi commission be formed to properly investigate the event.
    Chowdury, Bose comments – Dawn Newspapers Online.
    Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the 20th Century: Bangladesh – Matthew White's website.
  45. ^ a b c "GENOCIDES from 1915 to 2006". Archived from the original on 2019-04-14.
  46. ^ R.J. Rummel (January 1997). Death By Government. Routledge. p. 331. ISBN 1560009276. The human death toll over only 267 days was incredible. Just to give for five out of the eighteen districts some incomplete statistics published in Bangladesh newspapers or by an Inquiry Committee, the Pakistani army killed 100,000 Bengalis in Dacca, 150,000 in Khulna, 75,000 in Jessore, 95,000 in Comilla, and 100,000 in Chittagong. For eighteen districts the total is 1,247,000 killed. This was an incomplete toll, and to this day no one really knows the final toll. Some estimates of the democide (i.e. Rummel's 'death by government') are much lower—one is of 300,000 dead—but most range from 1 million to 3 million. ... The Pakistani army and allied paramilitary groups killed about one out of every sixty-one people in Pakistan overall; one out of every twenty-five Bengalis, Hindus, and others in East Pakistan. If the rate of killing for all of Pakistan is annualized over the years the Yahya martial law regime was in power (March 1969 to December 1971), then this one regime was more lethal than that of the Soviet Union, China under the communists, or Japan under the military (even through World War II).
  47. ^ Travis, Hannibal (December 2006). Native Christians Massacred': The Ottoman Genocide of the Assyrians During World War I. Genocide Studies and Prevention. 1. pp. 327–371.
  48. ^ "Assyrian Genocide". Lexicorient.
  49. ^ Fischer, Bernd J., ed. (2007). Balkan Strongmen: Dictators and Authoritarian Rulers of South-Eastern Europe. Purdue University Press. pp. 207–10. ISBN 978-1557534552.
  50. ^ a b Excluding the Jews and Roma people sent to the German extermination camps.
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  52. ^ Other sources give higher numbers for Serbian deaths, as in Ball, Howard (2011). Genocide: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-59884-488-7. Retrieved August 13, 2016.
  53. ^ Report of the Mapping Exercise Documenting the Most Serious Violations of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law Committed Within the Territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Between March 1993 and June 2003 (PDF) (Report). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2010.
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  57. ^ Milton, Sybil (February 1992). "Nazi Policies towards Roma and Sinti 1933-1945". Journal of Gypsy Lore Society. 5. 2 (1): 1–18. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
  58. ^ "Holocaust Encyclopedia - Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies), 1939-1945". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM). Retrieved August 9, 2011.
  59. ^ König, Ulrich (1989). Sinti und Roma unter dem Nationalsozialismus (in German). Bochum: Brockmeyer. ISBN 9783883397054. The count of half a million Sinti and Roma murdered between 1939 and 1945 is too low to be tenable.
  60. ^ Niewyk, Donald L.; Nicosia, Francis R. (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-231-50590-1. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  61. ^ "Germany unveils Roma Holocaust memorial: Memorial commemorates the 500,000 Roma victims of the Nazi Holocaust during World War II". aljazeera.com. October 25, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
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  63. ^ Ellman, Michael (June 2007). "Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932–33 Revisited". Europe-Asia Studies. 59 (4): 663–693. doi:10.1080/09668130701291899. JSTOR 20451381. S2CID 53655536. Lay summary (PDF).
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    Almost all victims of the NKVD shootings were men, wrote Michał Jasiński, most with families. Their wives and children were dealt with by the NKVD Order No. 00486. The women were generally sentenced to deportation to Kazakhstan for an average of 5 to 10 years. Orphaned children without relatives willing to take them were put in orphanages to be brought up as Soviet, with no knowledge of their origins. All possessions of the accused were confiscated. The parents of the executed men – as well as their in-laws – were left with nothing to live on, which usually sealed their fate as well. Statistical extrapolation, wrote Jasiński, increases the number of Polish victims in 1937–1938 to around 200–250,000 depending on size of their families.
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  92. ^ Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000. The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings.
    *This estimates comes from taking the minimum killed violently applying the 70% violent death responsibility given to Indonesian military combined with the minimum starved.
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    "The CAVR Report". Archived from the original on 2012-05-13.
  93. ^ Precise estimates of the death toll are difficult to determine. The 2005 report of the UN's Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR) reports an estimated minimum number of conflict-related deaths of 102,800 (+/− 12,000). Of these, the report says that approximately 18,600 (+/− 1,000) were either killed or disappeared, and that approximately 84,000 (+/− 11,000) died from hunger or illness in excess of what would have been expected due to peacetime mortality. These figures represent a minimum conservative estimate that CAVR says is its scientifically-based principal finding. The report did not provide an upper bound, however, CAVR speculated that the total number of deaths due to conflict-related hunger and illness could have been as high as 183,000. The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings:*This estimates comes from taking the maximum killed violently applying the 70% violent death responsibility given to Indonesian military combined with the maximum starved.
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  99. ^ a b c "Between October 2002 and January 2003, two the rebel groups, the MLC and RCD-N in the East of the Congo launched a premeditated, systematic genocide against the local tribes and Pygmies nicknamed operation "Effacer le Tableau" ("erase the board"). During their offensive against the civilian population of the Ituri region, the rebel groups left more than 60,000 dead and over 100,000 displaced. The rebels even engaged in slavery and cannibalism. Human Rights Reports state that this was due to the fact that rebel groups, often far away from their bases of supply and desperate for food, enslaved the Pygmies on captured farms to grow provisions for their militias or when times get really tough simply slaughter them like animals and devour their flesh which some believe gives them magical powers. 11. Fatality Level of Dispute (military and civilian fatalities): 70,000 estimated" see: Raja Seshadri (7 November 2005). "Pygmies in the Congo Basin and Conflict". Case Study 163. The Inventory of Conflict & Environment, American University. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
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Bibliography