The Isaaq (also Isaq, Ishaak, Isaac) (Somali: Reer Sheekh Isaxaaq, Arabic: إسحاق‎) is a Somali clan.[1] It is one of the major Somali clans in the horn of Africa, with a large and densely populated traditional territory.[2]

Ishaaq
إسحاق
Flag of Somaliland.svg Flag of Djibouti.svg Flag of Ethiopia.svgFlag of Kenya.svg
Sheikhisaaqmaydh.jpg
The tomb of Sheikh Ishaaq, the founding father of the Isaaq clan, in Maydh, Sanaag
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Somali
Religion
Islam (Sunni)
Related ethnic groups
Dir, Darod, Hawiye, Rahanweyn, other Somalis

The populations of five major cities in SomalilandHargeisa, Burao,[3] Berbera, Erigavo and Gabiley – are predominantly Isaaq.[4][5]

Overview

 
Portrait of Sultan Abdillahi Sultan Deria, the grand Sultan of Ishaaq clans.

According to some genealogical books and Somali tradition, the Isaaq clan was founded in the 13th or 14th century with the arrival of Sheikh Ishaaq Bin Ahmed Bin Mohammed Al Hashimi (Sheikh Ishaaq) from Arabia, a descendant of Ali ibn Abi Talib in Maydh.[6][7] He settled in the coastal town of Maydh in modern-day northwestern Somaliland, where he married into the local Magaadle clan.[8]

There are also numerous existing hagiologies in Arabic which describe Sheikh Ishaaq's travels, works and overall life in modern Somaliland, as well as his movements in Arabia before his arrival.[9] Besides historical sources, one of the more recent printed biographies of Sheikh Ishaaq is the Amjaad of Sheikh Husseen bin Ahmed Darwiish al-Isaaqi as-Soomaali, which was printed in Aden in 1955.[10]

Sheikh Ishaaq's tomb is in Maydh, and is the scene of frequent pilgrimages.[9] Sheikh Ishaaq's mawlid (birthday) is also celebrated every Thursday with a public reading of his manaaqib (a collection of glorious deeds).[8] His Siyaara or pilgrimage is performed annually both within Somaliland and in the diaspora particularly in the Middle East among Isaaq expatriates.

Distribution

The Isaaq have a very wide and densely populated traditional territory. They live in all 6 regions of Somaliland such as Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sahil, Sanaag and Sool. They have large settlements in the Somali region of Ethiopia, mainly on the eastern side of Somali region also known as the Hawd and formerly Reserve Area which is mainly inhabited by the Isaaq sub-clan members. They also have large settlements in both Kenya and Djibouti, making up a large percentage of the Somali population in these 2 countries respectively.[11]

The Isaaq clan constitute the largest Somali clan in Somaliland. The populations of five major cities in Somaliland – Hargeisa, Burao, Berbera, Erigavo and Gabiley – are all predominantly Isaaq.[12] They exclusively dominate the Woqooyi Galbeed region, and the Togdheer region, and form a majority of the population inhabiting the western and central areas of Sanaag region, including the regional capital Erigavo.[13] The Isaaq also have a large presence in the western and northern parts of Sool region as well,[14] with Habr Je'lo sub-clan of Isaaq living in the Aynabo district whilst the Habr Yunis subclan of Garhajis lives in the eastern part of Xudun district and the very western part of Las Anod district.[15] They also live in the northeast of the Awdal region, with Issa Musse sub-clan of Isaaq being centered around Lughaya and its environs.

Lineage

Sheikh Ishaaq bin Ahmed al-Raduwi was one of the Arabian scholars that crossed the sea from Arabia to the Horn of Africa to spread Islam around 12th to 13th century. It is said that Sheikh Ishaaq is to have been descended of the prohet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima. Thus making the Sheikh belong to the Ashraf.

Some anthropologists specialized in Somali studies dispute this genealogy and place the Isaaq within an indigenous Somali clan framework belonging to either the Dir or Irrir sub-grouping of the Somali clan family.[16][17]

Sheikh Ishaaq married two local women in Somalia that bore him eight sons. The descendants of those eight sons comprise the modern Isaaq clan.

Y-DNA

Forensic genetic testing of Isaaq clan members inhabiting Djibouti found that all of the individuals belonged to the E-V32 subclade of the paternal haplogroup E1b1b1.[18] Most Ishaaq in Djibouti belong to the Habr Awal subclan.[19][20]

History

 
Chieftains of the Isaaq clan in Hargeisa, Somaliland

The Isaaq clan played a prominent role in the Abyssinian-Adal war (1529–1543, referred to as the "Conquest of Abyssinia") in the army of Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi,[21] I. M. Lewis noted that only the Habr Magadle division (Ayoub, Garhajis, Habr Awal and Arap) of the Isaaq were mentioned in chronicles of that war written by Shihab Al-Din Ahmad Al-Gizany known as Futuh Al Habash.[22]

I. M. Lewis states:[23]

The Marrehan and the Habr Magadle [Magādi] also play a very prominent role (...) The text refers to two Ahmads's with the nickname 'Left-handed'. One is regularly presented as 'Ahmad Guray, the Somali' (...) identified as Ahmad Guray Xuseyn, chief of the Habr Magadle. Another reference, however, appears to link the Habr Magadle with the Marrehan. The other Ahmad is simply referred to as 'Imam Ahmad' or simply the 'Imam'.This Ahmad is not qualified by the adjective Somali (...) The two Ahmad's have been conflated into one figure, the heroic Ahmed Guray (...)

The first of the tribes to reach Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi were Habr Magādle of the Isaaq clan with their chieftain Ahmad Gurey Bin Hussain Al-Somali,[24] the Somali commander was noted to be one of Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi's "strongest and most able generals".[25] The Habr Magādle clan were highly appreciated and praised by the leader Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi for their bravery and loyalty.[26]

 
Dervish Commander Haji Sudi on the left with his brother in-law Duale Idris (1892).

Long after the collapse of Adal Sultanate, sub-clans of the Isaaq established successor states known as Garhajis Sultanates. These two Sultanates exerted a somewhat centralized authority (relative to other clans) during its existence, and possessed some of the organs and trappings of a traditional integrated state: a functioning bureaucracy, regular taxation in the form of livestock, as well as an army (chiefly consisting of mounted light cavalry).[27][28][29][30] These sultanates also maintained written records of their activities, which still exist.[31]

The Isaaq clan also played a major role in the Dervish movement, with Sultan Nur Aman of the Habr Yunis being fundamental in the inception of the movement. Sultan Nur was the principle agitator that rallied the dervish behind his anti-French Catholic Mission campaign that would become the cause of the dervish uprise.[32] Haji Sudi of the Habr Je'lo was the highest ranking Dervish after Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, he died valiantly defending the Taleh fort during the RAF bombing campaign.[33][34][35] The Isaaq sub-clans that were highly known for joining the Dervish movement were from the eastern Habr Yunis and Habr Je'lo sub-clans. These two sub-clans were able to purchase advanced weapons and successfully resist both British Empire and Ethiopian Empire for many years.[36]

The Isaaq clan along with other northern Somali tribes were under British Somaliland protectorate administration from 1884 to 1960. On gaining independence, the Somaliland protectorate decided to form a union with Italian Somalia. The Isaaq clan spearheaded the greater Somalia quest from 1960 to 1991.

During the Somali Civil War, the Isaaq were subjected to a genocidal campaign by Siad Barre's troops (mostly Ogaden); the death toll has been estimated to be between 50,000 and 200,000.

After the collapse of the Somali Democratic Republic in 1991 the Isaaq-dominated Somaliland declared independence from Somalia as a separate nation.[37]

Clan tree

 
Sultan Abdurahman Deria of the Habr Awal Isaaq receiving honours from Queen Elizabeth II in Aden

In the Isaaq clan-family, component clans are divided into two uterine divisions, as shown in the genealogy. The first division is between those lineages descended from sons of Sheikh Ishaaq by a Harari woman – the Habr Habuusheed – and those descended from sons of Sheikh Ishaaq by a Somali woman of the Magaadle sub-clan of the Dir – the Habr Magaadle. Indeed, most of the largest clans of the clan-family are in fact uterine alliances hence the matronymic "Habr" which in archaic Somali means "mother".[38] This is illustrated in the following clan structure.[39]

A. Habr Magaadle

  • Ismail (Garhajis)
  • Ayub
  • Muhammad (Arap)
  • Abdirahman (Habr Awal)

B. Habr Habuusheed

  • Ahmed (Tol Je’lo)
  • Muuse (Habr Je'lo)
  • Ibrahiim (Sanbuur)
  • Muhammad (‘Ibraan)

There is clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures that has not changed for centuries the oldest recorded genealogy of a Somali in Western literature was by Sir Richard Burton in 1853 regarding his Isaaq host the Sultan of Zeila Sharmarka Ali Saleh,[40] the most famous nineteenth century Somali.

The following listing is taken from the World Bank's Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics from 2005 and the United Kingdom's Home Office publication, Somalia Assessment 2001.[41][42]

  • Isaaq

One tradition maintains that Isaaq had twin sons: Ahmed or Arap, and Ismail or Gerhajis.[43]

Notable figures

  • Aden Ahmed Dube "Gabay Xoog" circa 1821–1916.[48][49]

References

  1. ^ Lewis, I. M. (1994). Blood and Bone: The Call of Kinship in Somali Society. The Red Sea Press. p. 102. ISBN 9780932415936. isaaq noble.
  2. ^ Ethnic Groups (Map). Somalia Summary Map. Central Intelligence Agency. 2002. Retrieved 30 July 2012. Perry–Castañeda Library Map Collection – N.B. Various authorities indicate that the Isaaq is among the largest Somali clans [1], [2].
  3. ^ Tekle, Amare (1994). Eritrea and Ethiopia: From Conflict to Cooperation. The Red Sea Press. ISBN 9780932415974.
  4. ^ Briggs, Philip (2012). Somaliland: With Addis Ababa & Eastern Ethiopia. ISBN 9781841623719.
  5. ^ Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Somalia: Information on the ethnic composition in Gabiley (Gebiley) in 1987–1988, 1 April 1996, SOM23518.E [accessed 6 October 2009]
  6. ^ Rima Berns McGown, Muslims in the diaspora, (University of Toronto Press: 1999), pp. 27–28
  7. ^ I.M. Lewis, A Modern History of the Somali, fourth edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2002), p. 22
  8. ^ a b I.M. Lewis, A Modern History of the Somali, fourth edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2002), pp. 31 & 42
  9. ^ a b Roland Anthony Oliver, J. D. Fage, Journal of African history, Volume 3 (Cambridge University Press.: 1962), p.45
  10. ^ I. M. Lewis, A pastoral democracy: a study of pastoralism and politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa, (LIT Verlag Münster: 1999), p.131.
  11. ^ Gitonga, By Antony. "Community takes over 'ancestral land'". The Standard. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  12. ^ Somaliland: With Addis Ababa & Eastern Ethiopia By Philip Briggs. Google Books.
  13. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Report on the Fact-finding Mission to Somalia and Kenya (27 October – 7 November 1997)". Refworld. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  14. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 August 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ "EASO Country of Origin Information Report" (PDF). Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  16. ^ J., Abbink (2009). The total Somali clan genealogy. African Studies Centre. OCLC 650591939.
  17. ^ GILKES, P. (1 October 1996). "Blood and Bone: The call of kinship in Somalia society". African Affairs. 95 (381): 628–629. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.afraf.a007787. ISSN 0001-9909.
  18. ^ Iacovacci, Giuseppe; et al. (2017). "Forensic data and microvariant sequence characterization of 27 Y-STR loci analyzed in four Eastern African countries". Forensic Science International: Genetics. 27: 123–131. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2016.12.015. PMID 28068531. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  19. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Pastoral society and transnational refugees: population movements in Somaliland and eastern Ethiopia 1988–2000, Guido Ambroso". UNHCR. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  20. ^ Imbert-Vier, Simon (2011). Tracer des frontières à Djibouti: des territoires et des hommes aux XIXe et XXe siècles (in French). KARTHALA Editions. ISBN 9782811105068.
  21. ^ Lewis, I. M. (1999). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. James Currey Publishers. ISBN 9780852552803.
  22. ^ The Galla in Northern Somaliland, I. M. Lewis, p. //dspace-roma3.caspur.it/bitstream/2307/4913/1/The%20Galla%20in%20northern%20Somaliland.pdf;jsessionid=F28E001218E0DFF229E2CBFF6E361652
  23. ^ Morin, Didier (2004). Dictionnaire historique afar: 1288–1982 (in French). KARTHALA Editions. ISBN 9782845864924.
  24. ^ a b c "مخطوطات > بهجة الزمان > الصفحة رقم 17". makhtota.ksu.edu.sa. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  25. ^ Lewis, I. M. (1999). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. James Currey Publishers. ISBN 9780852552803.
  26. ^ "مخطوطات > بهجة الزمان > الصفحة رقم 16". makhtota.ksu.edu.sa. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  27. ^ Horn of Africa, Volume 15, Issues 1–4, (Horn of Africa Journal: 1997), p.130.
  28. ^ Michigan State University. African Studies Center, Northeast African studies, Volumes 11–12, (Michigan State University Press: 1989), p.32.
  29. ^ The Journal of The anthropological institute of Great Britain and Ireland| Vol.21 p. 161
  30. ^ Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society: Official Publication of the Coryndon Memorial Museum Vol.17 p. 76
  31. ^ Sub-Saharan Africa Report, Issues 57–67. Foreign Broadcast Information Service. 1986. p. 34.
  32. ^ Foreign Department-External-B, August 1899, N. 33-234, NAI, New Delhi, Inclosure 2 in No. 1. And inclosure 3 in No. 1.
  33. ^ Sun, Sand and Somals – Leaves from the Note-Book of a District Commissioner.By H. Rayne,
  34. ^ Correspondence respecting the Rising of Mullah Muhammed Abdullah in Somaliland, and consequent military operations,1899–1901.pp.4–5.
  35. ^ Official history of the operations in Somaliland, 1901–04 by Great Britain. War Office. General Staff Published 1907.p.56
  36. ^ Official History of the Operations in Somaliland, Volume 1. p. 41
  37. ^ "History". Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  38. ^ Lewis, I. M. (1999). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. ISBN 9783825830847.
  39. ^ I. M. Lewis, A pastoral democracy: a study of pastoralism and politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa, (LIT Verlag Münster: 1999), p. 157.
  40. ^ "From fine to a failed state". Africa Review. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  41. ^ Worldbank, Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p. 55 Figure A-1
  42. ^ Country Information and Policy Unit, Home Office, Great Britain, Somalia Assessment 2001, Annex B: Somali Clan Structure Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, p. 43
  43. ^ Laurence, Margaret (1970). A Tree for Poverty: Somali Poetry and Prose. Hamilton: McMaster University. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-55022-177-0. Then Magado, the wife of Ishaak had only two children, baby twin sons, and their names were Ahmed, nick-named Arap, and Ismail, nick-named Garaxijis .
  44. ^ The Visit of Frederick Forbes to the Somali Coast in 1833 R Bridges. Int J Afr Hist Stud 19 (4), 679–691. 1986.
  45. ^ Travels in Southern Abyssinia Through The Country of Adal to the Kingdom of Shoa. by Charles Johnston, Volume 1. 1844
  46. ^ First footsteps in East Africa : or, An exploration of Harar by Burton, Richard Francis, Sir, 1821–1890; Burton, Isabel, Lady, Published 1894
  47. ^ Marston, Thomas E. Britain's Imperial Role in the Red Sea Area, 1800–1878. Hamden: Conn., Shoe String Press, 1961.
  48. ^ Bollettino della Società geografica italiana By Società geografica italiana. 1893.
  49. ^ Somalia e Benadir: viaggio di esplorazione nell'Africa orientale. Prima traversata della Somalia, compiuta per incarico della Societá geografica italiana. Luigi Robecchi Bricchetti. 1899. The Somalis in general have a great inclination to poetry; a particular passion for the stories, the stories and songs of love.
  50. ^ Bollettino della Società geografica italiana. ... 1893 (ser.3, vol. 5). p.372
  51. ^ http://www.somalilandinformer.com/somaliland/somaliland-prominent-somali-journalist-ahmed-hasan-awke-passes-away-in-jigjiga/
  52. ^ http://www.somalilandinformer.com/somaliland/breaking-ibrahim-dheere-tycoon-passes-away-in-djibouti/
  53. ^ Mohamed Yusuf Hassan, Roberto Balducci (ed.) (1993). Somalia: le radici del futuro. Il passaggio. p. 33. Retrieved 22 September 2014.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  54. ^ "Mo Farah's family cheers him on from Somaliland village". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  55. ^ "Somali Entrepreneurs". Salaan Media. 15 June 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  56. ^ "Somalia: Education in Transition".