Hargeisa (hər-GAY-sa; Somali: Hargeysa, Arabic: هرجيسا)[4][5] is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Somaliland. It is located in the Maroodi Jeex region of the Horn of Africa.[6] It succeeded Burco as the capital of the British Somaliland Protectorate in 1941. Hargeisa is the largest city in Somaliland,[7][8] and also served as the capital of the Isaaq Sultanate during the mid-to-late 19th century.

Hargeisa
Hargeysa (Somali)
هرجيسا (Arabic)
Drone view of Hargeisa, Hargeisa downtown, Hargeisa, Street, Naasa Hablood, Hargeisa night view
Flag of Hargeisa
Official logo of Hargeisa
Interactive map outlining Hargeisa
Hargeisa is located in Marodi Jeh
Hargeisa
Hargeisa
Location in Somaliland
Hargeisa is located in Somaliland
Hargeisa
Hargeisa
Hargeisa (Somaliland)
Hargeisa is located in Horn of Africa
Hargeisa
Hargeisa
Hargeisa (Horn of Africa)
Hargeisa is located in Africa
Hargeisa
Hargeisa
Hargeisa (Africa)
Coordinates: 9°33′47″N 44°4′3″E / 9.56306°N 44.06750°E / 9.56306; 44.06750Coordinates: 9°33′47″N 44°4′3″E / 9.56306°N 44.06750°E / 9.56306; 44.06750
Country Somaliland
RegionMaroodi Jeh
DistrictHargeisa District
Government
 • MayorAbdikarim Ahmed Mooge[1][2]
Area
 • Total732 km2 (283 sq mi)
Elevation
1,334 m (4,377 ft)
Population
 (2019)[3]
 • Total1,200,000
 • Density1,600/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Hargeysaawi
هرجيساوي
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
Area code+252
Websitedhhgov.org

Hargeisa was founded as a watering and trading stop between the coast and the interior by the Isaaq Sultanate. Initially it served as a watering Well for the vast livestock of the Eidagale clans that inhabited in that specific region and later were joined by the current clans of Hargeisa. In 1960, the Somaliland Protectorate gained independence from the United Kingdom and as scheduled united days later with the Trust Territory of Somaliland (former Italian Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic on July 1. [9]

Hargeisa is situated in a valley in the Galgodon (Ogo) highlands, and sits at an elevation of 1,334 m (4,377 ft). Home to rock art from the Neolithic period, the city is also a commercial hub for precious stone-cutting, construction, retail services and trading, among other activities.[4]

EtymologyEdit

The town evolved in the latter half of the 1800s as a Qadiriyya settlement established by Sheikh Madar, near a water-stop used by nomadic stock-herders on the way to the town of Harar. It proposes a possible derivation of the name "Hargeisa" from the sobriquet Harar as-sagir, meaning "Harar the little"[10][11] According to historian Norman Bennett, Madar named the settlement Hargeisa or Little Harar since he aspired for it to emulate the city of Harar as a center for Islamic teachings.[12] Another etymological root for Hargeisa's name derives from the towns connection to the skins trade. Hargeisa has been a watering and trading stop between the coast and the interior, and chief amongst the goods traded were the hide skins procured from the interior to be processed in the settlement. In this etymological version, ‘Hargeisa’ is derived from hargageys, which means "place to sell hides and skins” in Somali.[13][14][15]

HistoryEdit

PrehistoryEdit

 
Rock art from the Laas Geel complex on the outskirts of Hargeisa.

Numerous cave paintings from the Neolithic period are found in the Laas Geel complex, on the outskirts of Hargeisa. During November and December 2002, an archaeological survey was carried out in the area by a French team of researchers. The expedition's objective was to search for rock shelters and caves containing stratified archaeological infills capable of documenting the period when production economy appeared in this part of Somaliland (circa 5th and 2nd millennium BCE). During the course of the survey, the French archaeological team discovered the Laas Geel rock art, encompassing an area of ten rock alcoves (caves). In an excellent state of preservation, the paintings show human figures with their hands raised and facing long-horned, humpless cattle.[16]

The rock art had been known to the area's inhabitants for centuries before the French discovery. However, the existence of the site had not been broadcast to the international community. In November 2003, a mission returned to Laas Geel and a team of experts undertook a detailed study of the paintings and their prehistoric context.

Somaliland generally is home to numerous such archaeological sites, with similar rock art and/or ancient edifices such as the Dhambalin rock art. However, many of these old structures have yet to be properly explored, a process which would help shed further light on local history and facilitate their preservation for posterity.[17]

The Big Commune & Sheikh MadarEdit

 
Close-up of an 1885 Royal Geographical Society map, showing Hargeisa (Harrer-es-Sagheer) as well as the Eidagale clan (Eed-a-galleh) residing within and around the town. The Naasa Hablood hills (Nas Hubla) can also be seen in the map
 
Sheikh Madar (right) and Sultan Deria Hassan in Hargeisa 1912

According to traditional poetic (gabay) oral accounts, Hargeisa was founded by the Eidagale clan as a watering and trading stop for passing nomads and caravans. It is also believed that in addition to the Eidagale, the Arap and Habr Yunis subclans were also amongst the early settlers of Hargeisa.[18] Hargeisa continued to grow with the arrival of Sheikh Madar Shirwa, widely considered to be the founder of Hargeisa religious commune and the modern iteration of the settlement.[19][20]

Madar Shirwa was born in Berbera and belonged to the Nuh Ismail subdivision of the Sa’ad Musa Habr Awal clan. Madar arrived in Harar to study the Islamic Sciences under the top ulema of Harar, which consisted of Harari and Somali scholars.[21][22] Sheikh Khalil, one of the ulema of Harar, advised Sheikh Madar to establish a Qadiriyya tariqa commune in present-day Hargeisa and spread the teachings he was taught, which lead Sheikh Madar and his companions to found the Big Commune (Jama’a weyne) of Little Harar (Hargeisa) in circa 1860. Somali pastoralists heavily follow rain and pastures this would change with the agricultural and stationary lifestyle Madar would introduce on the back of large sorghum plantations. This was to maintain self-sufficiency and Sheikh Madar and the other Mullahs would take care of the sick and elderly inhabitants of the growing settlement. Lastly, Sheikh Madar pushed towards a common religious identity rather than identifying solely by tribe. Stone houses and other structures would be built and Hargeisa would develop into a large permanent settlement irrespective of the caravan trade that defined it in decades prior.[23][24][25] Sheikh Madar met with the 4th Isaaq grand sultan Deria Hassan outside Hargeisa in a famous 1870 shir (meeting) to discuss issues regarding the new town of Hargeisa and agreed that poaching and tree cutting in the vicinity should be banned.[26]

H. Swayne, a British soldier and explorer who traversed the Somali peninsula between the 1880-1890s wrote about Hargeisa in his journals:

This town is built some five hundred yards from the right bank of the Aleyadera nala, and at an elevation of thirty or forty feet above it. Round the place is a patch of jowari (sorghum) cultivation, two and a half miles long and a quarter of a mile broad. Quantities of livestock of all kinds graze on the low undulating hills for half a mile from the Aleyadera nala on either bank. Hargeisa is situated on two important caravan routes, one from Ogaden and the other from Harar. There are good direct camel-roads to Berbera and Bulhar. Supplies of rice, tobacco, and dates can sometimes be bought here in the trading season. Some four hundred people are employed looking after the jowari fields, and may be seen sitting on platforms, shouting and throwing stones to scare birds from the crops. There is abundance of good water in the bed of the river, and a masonry well has been built, and is kept in order by an Arab from Aden. The town is full of blind and lame people, who are under the protection of Sheikh Mattar and his mullahs.[27]

British SomalilandEdit

 
Naasa Hablood hills in 1896.
 
Women's market in Hargeisa, British Somaliland protectorate.

In 1888, after signing successive treaties with the then ruling Somali Sultans and chiefs, the British established a protectorate in the region referred to as British Somaliland with Berbera becoming the capital.[28] The British garrisoned the protectorate from Aden in present-day Yemen, and administered it from their British India until 1898. British Somaliland was then administered by the Foreign Office until 1905 and afterwards by the Colonial Office.

The capital was moved from Berbera to Hargeisa, and the city was granted capital status in 1941. During the East African Campaign, the protectorate was invaded by Italy in August 1940, but recaptured by the British in March 1941. In 1945 the British administration had grown weary of the influence wadaads had wielded in the protectorate and moved to arrest several in Hargeisa. They had been deemed nuisances to implementing 'modern education' and agricultural reforms in Somaliland. Following their arrests on June 4, a mob formed and temporarily freed the imprisoned wadaads who were recaptured the next day. Religious leaders motivated the city's inhabitants and a crowd of several thousand rioters marched on the Hargeisa District Headquarters determined to free the imprisoned wadaads. They were fired upon by the District Commissioner's troops with one dying and dozens imprisoned for trying to free the Sheikhs.[29]

The protectorate gained its independence on 26 June 1960 as the State of Somaliland,[30][31] before uniting as planned days later with the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic.[9]

1960–1991Edit

 
Oriental Hotel - Hargeisa in 1984.
 
Hargeisa, 1980.
 
MiG monument in Hargeisa commemorating Somaliland's breakaway from the rest of Somalia during the 1980s.[32]

In the post-independence period, Hargeisa was administered as the capital of the Woqooyi Galbeed province of Somalia. Numerous new development projects were subsequently launched in the city by the Somali government. Among these initiatives was the creation of the Hargeisa Provincial Museum. It was the first museum to be established in Somalia since independence in 1960.[33] The Hargeisa International Airport was also renovated and modernized, with the ultimate aim of equipping the facility to accommodate larger aircraft and offer more flight destinations.[34]

SNM offensiveEdit

On 31 May, at 2:15 a.m, the Somali National Movement (shortened SNM) attacked Hargeisa. With two Habar yunis leaders , one in burco and the other in the capital city Hargeisa.[35] The SNM force attacking Hargeisa was estimated at 500 men equipped with 84 vehicles, of whom only 14 were left due to vehicles being sent to the front in Adadley.[36] The SNM captured the headquarters of the 26th Division, as well as capturing the Birjeex arms depot where the SNM collected ammunition.[36] An SNM fighter who partook in the Hargeisa offensive described Somali troops dropping their uniforms on the ground and fleeing.[36] The SNM encountered stiff resistance from the Somali Army as they surrounded Radio Hargeisa's headquarters.[36] Due to heavy bombardment from Somali heavy artillery and tanks, the SNM force tasked with capturing Hargeisa airport fell back and retreated to Adadley.[36]

By 1 June, with the exception of Hargeisa Airport, the SNM overran the city.[37] During the Somali army counterattack the SNM line of defense in the city was behind Hargeisa's radio station.[35]

Hargeisa campaign (Hargeisa Holocaust)

 
Up to 90% of Hargeisa (2nd largest city of the Somali Republic) was destroyed.

Dictator Siad Barre's response to the SNM attacks was of unparalleled brutality, with explicit aims of handling the "Isaaq problem", he ordered "the shelling and aerial bombardment of the major cities in the northwest and the systematic destruction of Isaaq dwellings, settlements and water points. The Siad Barre regime targeted civilian members of the Isaaq group specifically,[38] especially in the cities of Hargeisa and Burco and to that end employed the use of indiscriminate artillery shelling and aerial bombardment against civilian populations belonging to the Isaaq clan.[39][40]

ReconstructionEdit

After the collapse of the Somali central government and the unilateral declaration of independence of the Republic of Somaliland, a slow process of infrastructural reconstruction subsequently began in Hargeisa and other towns in the country.

Since 1991, Hargeisa has undergone a large-scale facelift. The renovations have been largely financed by local entrepreneurs, as well as Somali expatriates sending remittance funds to relatives in the region through some of the various Somali-owned money transfer operators.[41] Most of the destroyed residential and commercial buildings have since been reconstructed, with many newer structures erected. Single-story buildings downtown are also progressively giving way to multi-story high-rises.

GeographyEdit

Hargeisa is located in Somaliland, on the Horn of Africa.

ClimateEdit

Hargeisa has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSh). The city generally features very warm winters and hot summers. However, despite its location in the tropics, due to the high altitude Hargeisa seldom experiences either very hot or very cold weather, a trait rarely seen in semi-arid climates. The city receives the bulk of its rain between the months of April and September, averaging just over 400 millimetres (16 in) of rainfall annually. Average monthly temperatures in Hargeisa range from 18 °C or 64.4 °F in the months of December and January to 24 °C or 75.2 °F in the month of June.

Climate data for Hargeisa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.1
(88.0)
31.7
(89.1)
32.8
(91.0)
32.8
(91.0)
35.0
(95.0)
33.9
(93.0)
33.9
(93.0)
33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91.0)
31.7
(89.1)
30.6
(87.1)
28.9
(84.0)
35.0
(95.0)
Average high °C (°F) 24.2
(75.6)
26.6
(79.9)
28.7
(83.7)
29.2
(84.6)
30.5
(86.9)
31.0
(87.8)
29.2
(84.6)
29.2
(84.6)
30.5
(86.9)
28.2
(82.8)
26.0
(78.8)
23.7
(74.7)
28.1
(82.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.7
(63.9)
18.7
(65.7)
21.6
(70.9)
23.0
(73.4)
24.1
(75.4)
24.3
(75.7)
23.6
(74.5)
23.6
(74.5)
23.6
(74.5)
24.1
(75.4)
18.7
(65.7)
18.0
(64.4)
21.7
(71.1)
Average low °C (°F) 11.6
(52.9)
12.6
(54.7)
15.0
(59.0)
16.6
(61.9)
17.7
(63.9)
17.7
(63.9)
17.1
(62.8)
17.1
(62.8)
17.1
(62.8)
15.0
(59.0)
13.1
(55.6)
12.1
(53.8)
15.2
(59.4)
Record low °C (°F) 2.8
(37.0)
2.8
(37.0)
3.9
(39.0)
9.4
(48.9)
11.7
(53.1)
11.7
(53.1)
10.5
(50.9)
11.1
(52.0)
11.1
(52.0)
7.2
(45.0)
4.4
(39.9)
4.4
(39.9)
2.8
(37.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 2
(0.1)
2
(0.1)
36
(1.4)
53
(2.1)
49
(1.9)
61
(2.4)
38
(1.5)
81
(3.2)
61
(2.4)
20
(0.8)
8
(0.3)
1
(0.0)
412
(16.2)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1 1 3 6 7 9 8 10 11 4 1 0 61
Average relative humidity (%) 65 65 58 57 56 55 53 53 55 56 61 64 58
Average dew point °C (°F) 11
(52)
12
(54)
12
(54)
15
(59)
15
(59)
14
(57)
15
(59)
16
(61)
15
(59)
12
(54)
12
(54)
11
(52)
13
(56)
Mean daily sunshine hours 8.9 9.8 9.7 11.2 11.9 12.1 11.8 12.2 11.4 9.6 8.7 7.6 10.4
Percent possible sunshine 80 73 80 73 64 73 64 64 73 80 80 80 74
Source 1: Food and Agriculture Organization: Somalia Water and Land Management (temperatures, humidity and percent sunshine)[42][43]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes and precipitation)[44]

Time and Date (dewpoints, 2005-2015)[45] Weather Atlas (daily sun hours)[46]

AdministrationEdit

 
Meeting hall of Somaliland House of Representatives.

Situated in the Maroodi Jeh region of Somaliland, Hargeisa is the seat of the parliament, the presidential palace and government ministries.[47]

The municipal administration is led by Abdikarim Ahmed Mooge. A member of the Waddani party, he assumed the role of Mayor on 17 June 2021 after being elected in the 2021 Somaliland municipal elections.[48][49]

DistrictsEdit

The Hargeisa municipality is divided into five districts; Gaan Libah, 26 June, Ibrahim Kodbur, Mohamed Haybe and Ahmed Dhagah.[50][51] Each district contains sub-districts, or sectors that fall under it.[50][51][52] According to Hargeisa - First steps towards strategic urban planning the districts are further divided into the following sectors:[50]

Rank Districts Location Sub-districts
1 Gaan Libah Northeast Hargeisa Sheikh Yusuf, Sheikh Madar, Mohamed Harbi,

Sheikh Nur, Warabe Salaan

2 26 June North-central Hargeisa Durya, Almis, Aingal, Gol-Jano
3 Ibrahim Kodbur Northwest Hargeisa Hero-Alur, Lihle, Gul-Alla, Jigjiga Yar
4 Mohamed Haybe Southeast Hargeisa Jame’o-Weyn, Burao-Duray, Sheikh Shukri,

Qudha-Dheer, Mohamed Moge

5 Ahmed Dhagah Southwest Hargeisa Mohamed Ali, Farah Nur, 18 May,

Sheikh Muse Duale, Abdi Idan (‘Ayaha’)

DemographicsEdit

In 2005 according to the UNDP the city had a population of 560,028,[53] while according to CIA factbook, Hargeisa has estimated population of around 760,000 as of 2015.[54] As of 2019, it is estimated that Hargeisa has a population of 1.2 million[55] The urban area occupies 75 square kilometres (29 sq mi), with a population density of 12,600 inhabitants per square kilometre (33,000/sq mi).[54]

EconomyEdit

 
Dahabshiil bank in Hargeisa.

Hargeisa is the financial hub to many entrepreneurial industries ranging from finance, retail, imports/export warehouses to gem cutters, construction, food processing, textiles and livestock trading.

 
Qani Abdi Alin, owner of the Dheeman clothing firm, at the launch of the Partnership Fund for local commercial ventures.

In June 2012, the Partnership Fund for the private sector in Somaliland was launched at Hargeisa's Ambassador Hotel. Part of the larger Partnership for Economic Growth program, the initiative will see $900,000 USD allocated to 13 private local businesses, as well as the creation of 250 new full-time jobs, half of which are to be earmarked for youth and one third for women. The fund is expected to improve job opportunities for 1,300 entrepreneurs through ameliorated product distribution and investment in new technologies and processing facilities. Eligibility is determined through a competitive and transparent selection process overseen by the Partnership program, the Somaliland Chamber of Commerce, and government officials.[56]

TransportationEdit

 
Bus station in Hargeisa at night

Buses are the most commonly used form of public transportation in Hargeisa. They travel on a number of routes serving nearly all of the city's districts. Intercity bus services are also available, which connect Hargeisa to other major cities and towns across Somaliland, including Burao, Berbera and Borama.

With the growth of urban development, several new taxi companies have sprung up in Hargeisa.[57]

Hargeisa Taxi is another of the recent taxi firms based in Hargeisa. It has a fleet of four small compact cars and seven passenger minivans, in addition to around 19 other vehicles. GPS devices installed by the Sahal Technology firm allow the cab company's dispatch office to monitor its taxis to ensure that they travel within the speed limit. The office can also disable the vehicles online in the event of theft. Other new taxi firms serving Hargeisa include Dalhis Taxi and Marodi Jeh Taxi. Fares are inexpensive, costing between 15,000 and 18,000 Somaliland shillings ($2–$3 USD) per ride,[57] the US dollar is also widely accepted alongside the local currency.[58]

International AirportEdit

For air transportation, the city is served by the Hargeisa International Airport. The Somali-owned private carriers Daallo Airlines and Jubba Airways offers flights from the facility to various other towns in neighbouring Somalia, such as Mogadishu, Bosaso and Galkayo. Trips to international destinations are also available, including to Djibouti and Dubai. It has recently gained more airlines such as Ethiopian Airlines and flydubai.[59]

EducationEdit

 
A young librarian arranging books at the National Library of Somaliland in Hargeisa

Various primary schools and nurseries are dispersed throughout Hargeisa. There are also several state-run and privately owned secondary and high schools in the city. Among these are the SOS Sheikh Secondary School and Abaarso School of Science and Technology, the latter of which is the pre-eminent secondary institution in the area. Abaarso School is located about 13 km (8 mi) west of Hargeisa.

In terms of post-secondary education, the city is home to a number of colleges and universities. The main institutions of higher learning include the University of Hargeisa, Admas University College, Somaliland University of Technology, Gollis University, New Generation University, Hope University and Marodijeh International University. Additionally, the Edna Adan Maternity Hospital offers nursing programmes to students. The Institute for Practical Research and Training specializes in (applied) research and training.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "Duqa cusub ee magaalada Hargeysa oo la doortay".
  2. ^ "Somaliland: AbdiKarim Ahmed Mooge Sworn in as the New Mayor of Hargeisa". 17 June 2021. Archived from the original on 29 June 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  3. ^ https://www.thebrenthurstfoundation.org/downloads/hargeisa_discussion-paper-04-2019-hargeisa-somaliland-invisible-city.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  4. ^ a b "Hargeisa". Jubba Airways. Archived from the original on January 22, 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  5. ^ "Somalia: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population". world-gazetteer.com. Archived from the original on December 4, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
  6. ^ "Somaliland profile". BBC News. 2016-05-26. Archived from the original on 2017-04-23. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  7. ^ "In the Valley of Death: Somaliland's Forgotten Genocide". {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  8. ^ Tekle, Amare (1994). Eritrea and Ethiopia: From Conflict to Cooperation. ISBN 9780932415974.
  9. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica, The New Encyclopædia Britannica, (Encyclopædia Britannica: 2002), p.835
  10. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica: A New Survey of Universal Knowledge. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1957. p. 967.
  11. ^ Ficadorey, Gianfranco (2008). "Ha". Basic Reference. NY, USA: Thomson/Gale. 3: 1032. ISBN 9783447052382.
  12. ^ Bennett, Norman (1968). Leadership in Eastern Africa. Boston University Press. p. 70. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  13. ^ Haji Mukhtar., M (2003). Historical Dictionary of Somalia. Scarecrow Press. p. 98.
  14. ^ Gabriel Schnitzer., J (1927). Hides and Skins: World Production and International Trade. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 145.
  15. ^ Taḥaḍḍur fī al-waṭan al-ʻArabī (Institute of Arab Research and Studies). 1978. ISBN 9789777287289.
  16. ^ The Journal of African Archeology Volume 1.2 (2003) Chapter 3
  17. ^ Michael Hodd, East African Handbook, (Trade & Travel Publications: 1994), p.640.
  18. ^ "The history of Hargeisa City as per documentary from U- Tube taken live frtom Hagi Abdi Hussen (Abdi Waraabe) commented by Dr. Mohamed Rashid sheik Hassan (An Ex-BBC Somali broadcaster)". Salaan Media. 2015-02-18. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  19. ^ Briggs, Philip (2012). Somaliland with Addis Ababa & Eastern Ethiopia. ISBN 9781841623719.
  20. ^ "South Asia Bulletin". 16 (2). 1996: 88. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  21. ^ Abubaker, Abdulmalik. The relevance of Harari values (PDF). University of Alabama. p. 151.
  22. ^ Burton, Richard. First footsteps in East Africa (PDF). "The chief Ulema are the Kabir Khalil, the Kabir Yunis, and the Shaykh Jami: the two former scarcely ever quit their houses, devoting all their time to study and tuition: the latter is a Somali who takes an active part in politics. These professors teach Moslem literature through the medium of Harari, a peculiar dialect confined within the walls"
  23. ^ Burton. F., Richard (1856). First Footsteps in East Africa. p. 360.
  24. ^ Abdurahman., A (2017). Making Sense of Somali History. Adonis and Abbey. p. 80.
  25. ^ "Leadership in Eastern Africa". African Research Studies (9): 70. 1968.
  26. ^ WSP Transition Programme, War-torn Societies Project (2005). Rebuilding Somaliland: Issues and Possibilities, Volume 1. Red Sea Press. p. 214.
  27. ^ Carlos-Swayne, Harald (1900). Seventeen Trips Through Somaliland and a Visit to Abyssinia. p. 96.
  28. ^ Hugh Chisholm (ed.), The encyclopædia britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Volume 25, (At the University press: 1911), p.383.
  29. ^ Milman, Brock (2014). British Somaliland An Administrative History, 1920-1960. Routledge. pp. 138–139. ISBN 9780367868840.
  30. ^ "Somaliland Marks Independence After 73 Years of British Rule" (fee required). The New York Times. 1960-06-26. p. 6. Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
  31. ^ "How Britain said farewell to its Empire". BBC News. 2010-07-23. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25.
  32. ^ "Close Residents of Somaliland sit under a war memorial of a MiG fighter jet in the centre of town in Hargeisa". Reuters. 19 May 2013. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
  33. ^ Cobelj, Stefanja (April 24, 2009). "The Provincial Museum of Hargeisa". Museum International. 38 (3): 150–154. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0033.1986.tb00633.x.
  34. ^ Economist Intelligence Unit (Great Britain), Country report: Uganda, Ethiopia, Somalia, Djibouti, (The Unit: 1986), p.43.
  35. ^ a b Somalia: A Government at War With Its Own People (PDF). Human Rights Watch. 1990. pp. 137, 145.
  36. ^ a b c d e Prunier, Gérard (2021). The country that does not exist a history of Somaliland. London. pp. 95–99. ISBN 978-1-78738-529-0. OCLC 1242464786.
  37. ^ Abdullahi, Mohamed Diriye (2001). Culture and Customs of Somalia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-313-31333-2.
  38. ^ Reinl, James. "Investigating genocide in Somaliland". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 7 May 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  39. ^ Fitzgerald, Nina J. (1 January 2002). Somalia: Issues, History, and Bibliography. Nova Publishers. ISBN 978-1-59033-265-8.
  40. ^ Geldenhuys, p.131
  41. ^ "UK Somali Remittances Survey" (PDF). diaspora-centre.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  42. ^ "Climate of Somalia" (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization. pp. 69–73. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  43. ^ "Long term mean monthly sunshine fraction in Somalia". Food and Agriculture Organization. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  44. ^ "Klimatafel von Hargeisa / Somalia" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  45. ^ "Climate & Weather Averages in Hargeisa, Somalia". Time and Date. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  46. ^ "Monthly weather forecast and climate in Hargeisa, Somalia". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  47. ^ Hargeisa City Hall Archived 2013-01-16 at archive.today. Retrieved on 2012-10-17. (2000 est.)
  48. ^ "Duqa cusub ee magaalada Hargeysa oo la doortay". VOA (in Somali). Retrieved 2021-12-10.
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External linksEdit

  Media related to Hargeisa at Wikimedia Commons