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List of adaptations of works by Stephen King

This is a list of media based on work by Stephen King (including the Richard Bachman titles). Note that aside from Creepshow 2, It Chapter Two, and Doctor Sleep, the sequels are only tangentially related to Stephen King's work.

FilmsEdit

Year Films Director Notes Distributor RT
1970s
1976 Carrie Brian De Palma Based on the novel of the same name. United Artists 94%[1]
1980s
1980 The Shining Stanley Kubrick Based on the novel of the same name. Warner Bros. 85%[2]
1982 Creepshow George A. Romero Based on the short stories "Weeds" and "The Crate", the rest is original work for the film. 72%[3]
1983 Cujo Lewis Teague Based on the novel of the same name. 61%[4]
The Dead Zone David Cronenberg Based on the novel of the same name. Paramount Pictures 90%[5]
Christine John Carpenter Based on the novel of the same name. Columbia Pictures 70%[6]
1984 Children of the Corn Fritz Kiersch Based on the short story of the same name. New World Pictures 36%[7]
Firestarter Mark L. Lester Based on the novel of the same name. Universal Studios 36%[8]
1985 Cat's Eye Lewis Teague Based on the short stories "Quitters, Inc." and "The Ledge", the rest is original work for the film. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 67%[9]
Silver Bullet Dan Attias Based on the novel Cycle of the Werewolf. Paramount Pictures 47%[10]
1986 Maximum Overdrive Stephen King Based on the short story "Trucks". De Laurentiis Entertainment 17%[11]
Stand by Me Rob Reiner Based on the novella "The Body". Columbia Pictures 91%[12]
1987 Creepshow 2 Michael Gornick Based on the short story "The Raft", the rest is original work for the film. New World Pictures 33%[13]
The Running Man Paul Michael Glaser Loosely based on the novel of the same name. TriStar Pictures 64%[14]
1989 Pet Sematary Mary Lambert Based on the novel of the same name. Paramount Pictures 52%[15]
1990s
1990 Graveyard Shift Ralph S. Singleton Based on the short story of the same name. Paramount Pictures 13%[16]
Misery Rob Reiner Based on the novel of the same name. Columbia Pictures 90%[17]
1992 The Lawnmower Man Brett Leonard The title based on the short story of the same name. New Line Cinema 35%[18]
1993 The Dark Half George A. Romero Based on the novel of the same name. Orion Pictures 57%[19]
Needful Things Fraser Clarke Heston Based on the novel of the same name. Columbia Pictures 32%[20]
1994 The Shawshank Redemption Frank Darabont Based on the novella "Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption". 90%[21]
1995 The Mangler Tobe Hooper Based on the short story of the same name. New Line Cinema 27%[22]
Dolores Claiborne Taylor Hackford Based on the novel of the same name. Columbia Pictures 83%[23]
1996 Thinner Tom Holland Based on the novel of the same name. Paramount Pictures 15%[24]
1997 The Night Flier Mark Pavia Based on the short story of the same name. New Line Cinema 33%[25]
1998 Apt Pupil Bryan Singer Based on the novella of the same name. TriStar Pictures 53%[26]
1999 The Green Mile Frank Darabont Based on the novel of the same name. Warner Bros. 79%[27]
2000s
2001 Hearts in Atlantis Scott Hicks Based on the novella "Low Men in Yellow Coats". Warner Bros. 49%[28]
2003 Julie Ganapathi Balu Mahendra Based on the novel Misery. GJ Cinemaa N/A
Dreamcatcher Lawrence Kasdan Based on the novel of the same name. Warner Bros. 29%[29]
2004 Secret Window David Koepp Based on the novella "Secret Window, Secret Garden". Columbia Pictures 46%[30]
Riding the Bullet Mick Garris Based on the novella of the same name. Innovation Film 26%[31]
2007 1408 Mikael Håfström Based on the short story of the same name. Dimension Films
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
79%[32]
The Mist Frank Darabont Based on the novella of the same name. 72%[33]
No Smoking Anurag Kashyap Based on the short story "Quitters, Inc." Eros International 46%[34]
2009 Dolan's Cadillac Jeff Beesley Based on the novella of the same name. G2 Pictures N/A
2010s
2013 Carrie Kimberly Peirce Based on the novel of the same name. Sony Pictures Releasing 50%[35]
2014 A Good Marriage Peter Askin Based on the novella of the same name. Screen Media Films 33%[36]
Mercy Peter Cornwell Based on the short story "Gramma". Universal Studios N/A
2016 Cell Tod Williams Based on the novel of the same name. Saban Films 12%[37]
2017 The Dark Tower Nikolaj Arcel Based on the series of the same name. Sony Pictures Releasing 15%[38]
It Andy Muschietti Based on the novel of the same name. Warner Bros. 86%[39]
Gerald's Game Mike Flanagan Based on the novel of the same name. Netflix 91%[40]
1922 Zak Hilditch Based on the novella of the same name. 89%[41]
2019 Pet Sematary Kevin Kölsch
Dennis Widmyer
Based on the novel of the same name. Paramount Pictures 58%[42]
It Chapter Two Andy Muschietti Based on the novel of the same name. Warner Bros. 63%[43]
In the Tall Grass Vincenzo Natali Based on the novella of the same name. Netflix 43%[44]
Upcoming films
2019 Doctor Sleep Mike Flanagan Based on the novel of the same name. Warner Bros. TBA
TBA 'Salem's Lot[45] TBA Based on the novel of the same name. New Line Cinema
The Long Walk[46] André Øvredal Based on the novel of the same name.
From a Buick 8[47] William Brent Bell Based on the novel of the same name. TBA

TelevisionEdit

Year Series Notes Distributor Original network
1970s
1979 Salem's Lot Based on the novel of the same name. Warner Bros. Television CBS
1990s
1990 It Based on the novel of the same name. Warner Bros. Television ABC
1991 Sometimes They Come Back Based on the short story of the same name. CBS CBS
1993 The Tommyknockers Based on the novel of the same name. Trimark Pictures ABC
1994 The Stand Based on the novel of the same name. Republic Pictures
1995 The Langoliers Based on the novella in Four past Midnight. Artisan Entertainment
1997 The Shining Based on the novel of the same name. Warner Bros. Television
Trucks Based on the short story of the same name. Trimark Pictures USA Network
Quicksilver Highway Based on the short story Chattery Teeth. 20th Television 20th Television
1998 Woh Based on the novel It. Zee Entertainment Enterprises Zee TV
2000s
2002
Carrie Based on the novel of the same name. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer NBC
2002–2007 The Dead Zone Based on the novel of the same name. 20th Television USA Network
2004 Salem's Lot Based on the novel of the same name. Warner Home Video TNT
2006 Desperation Based on the novel of the same name. ABC Studios ABC
Nightmares & Dreamscapes Based on short stories in collections Nightmares & Dreamscapes, Everything's Eventual, and Night Shift. TNT TNT
2009 Children of the Corn Based on the short story of the same name. Anchor Bay Entertainment Syfy
2010s
2010–2015 Haven Based loosely on the novel The Colorado Kid. Entertainment One Syfy
2011 Bag of Bones Based on the novel of the same name. A&E Networks A&E
2013–2015 Under the Dome Based on the novel of the same name. CBS Television Distribution CBS
2014 Big Driver Based on the novella of the same name. Lifetime Movies Lifetime
2016 11.22.63 Based on the novel of the same name. Warner Bros. Television Hulu
2017 The Mist Based on the novella of the same name. Dimension Television Spike
2017–present Mr. Mercedes Based on the novels Mr. Mercedes, Finders Keepers and End of Watch. WarnerMedia Entertainment Audience
2018–present Castle Rock Based on the eponymous fictional city and also characters created by King. Warner Bros. Television Hulu
2019–present Creepshow Following the same anthology formula as the Creepshow films. Shudder Shudder
Upcoming
2020 Lisey's Story Based on the novel of the same name. Warner Bros. Television Apple TV+
The Outsider Based on the novel of the same name. Media Rights Capital HBO
The Stand Based on the novel of the same name. CBS Television Distribution CBS

Derivative worksEdit

Year Films Director Notes Distributor RT
1980s
1987 A Return to Salem's Lot Larry Cohen Sequel to the Salem's Lot miniseries. Warner Bros. N/A
1990s
1992 Pet Sematary Two Mary Lambert Sequel to 1989's Pet Semetary. Paramount Pictures 25%[48]
Children of the Corn II: The Final Sacrifice David Price Sequel to 1984's Children of the Corn. Dimension Films 22%[49]
1995 Children of the Corn III: Urban Harvest James D. R. Hickox N/A
1996 Lawnmower Man 2: Beyond Cyberspace Farhad Mann Sequel to 1992's The Lawnmower Man. New Line Cinema 11%[50]
Sometimes They Come Back... Again Adam Grossman Based on the 1991's Sometimes They Come Back. Trimark Pictures N/A
Children of the Corn IV: The Gathering Greg Spence Sequel to 1984's Children of the Corn. Dimension Films
1998 Children of the Corn V: Fields of Terror Ethan Wiley
Sometimes They Come Back... for More Daniel Zelik Berk Based on the 1991's Sometimes They Come Back. Trimark Pictures
1999 The Rage: Carrie 2 Katt Shea Sequel to 1976's Carrie. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 20%[51]
Children of the Corn 666: Isaac's Return Kari Skogland Sequel to 1984's Children of the Corn. Dimension Films N/A
2000s
2001 Children of the Corn: Revelation Guy Magar Sequel to 1984's Children of the Corn. Dimension Films N/A
2002 The Mangler 2 Michael Hamilton-Wright Sequel to 1995's The Mangler. Artisan Entertainment
2005 The Mangler Reborn Erik Gardner and Matt Cunningham Lionsgate
2006 Creepshow 3 Ana Clavell and James Dudelson Sequel to 1982's Creepshow and 1987's Creepshow 2. HBO Films 0%[52]
2010s
2011 Children of the Corn: Genesis Joel Soisson Sequel to 1984's Children of the Corn. Dimension Extreme N/A
2018 Children of the Corn: Runaway John Gulager Lionsgate Films

Comic booksEdit

Year Comic Based on Publisher
1980s
1981 The Lawnmower Man Based on the short story The Lawnmower Man Marvel Preview
1982 Creepshow Based on the Creepshow film Plume
Dark Tower (2000s)
2007 The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger Born Spin-offs from the Dark Tower novels Marvel Comics
2008 The Dark Tower: The Long Road Home
The Dark Tower: Treachery
2009 The Dark Tower: The Sorcerer
The Dark Tower: The Fall of Gilead
The Dark Tower: Battle of Jericho Hill
Dark Tower (2010s)
2010 The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger – The Journey Begins Based on the novel The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger Marvel Comics
The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger – The Little Sisters of Eluria Based on the short story The Little Sisters of Eluria
2011 The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger – The Battle of Tull Based on the novel The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger
The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger – The Way Station Based on the novel The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger
2012 The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger – The Man in Black Based on the novel The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger
2013 The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger – Sheemie's Tale Spin-off from the Dark Tower novels
The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger – Evil Ground
The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger – So Fell Lord Perth
2014 The Dark Tower: The Drawing of the Three – The Prisoner Based on the novel The Dark Tower II: The Drawing of the Three
2015 The Dark Tower: The Drawing of the Three – House of Cards
2016 The Dark Tower: The Drawing of the Three – Lady of Shadows
The Dark Tower: The Drawing of the Three – Bitter Medicine
2017 The Dark Tower: The Drawing of the Three – The Prisoner Based on the novel The Dark Tower III: The Waste Lands
The Stand (2000s)
2008 The Stand: Captain Trips Based on the novel The Stand Marvel Comics
2009 The Stand: American Nightmares
The Stand: Soul Survivors[53]
The Stand (2010s)
2010 The Stand: Hardcases Based on the novel The Stand Marvel Comics
2011 The Stand: No Mans Land
The Stand: Night Has Come
The Talisman
2009 The Talisman[54] Based on the novel The Talisman Del Rey
N.
2010 N. Based on the novel N. Marvel Comics
Road Rage
2012 Road Rage Based on the novella Throttle IDW Publishing
The Little Green God of Agony
2012 The Little Green God of Agony Free web-comic on Stephen King's official website[55] N/A

StageEdit

  • 1988: Carrie is notorious for its history as a flop on Broadway, and has gained a cult following in recent years. The musical was revived at the Lucille Lortel Theatre in New York, directed by Stafford Arima from January until April 2012. On September 25, 2012, the first official cast recording was released. The new production is currently available to license for professional and amateur productions from Rodgers & Hammerstein Theatricals.
  • 1990: Ghost Stories was an adaptation of Stephen King's short stories "The Return of Timmy Baterman," about zombies; "Strawberry Spring," about a campus serial killer; "Gray Matter," a black comedy about a hideous mutation caused by a bottle of beer; "Uncle Otto's Truck," and "The Boogeyman," about a distraught father's encounter with a child-killing closet monster, as well as selections from Pet Sematary. Adapted and directed by Robert Pridham, the play premiered at the Arts Center Theatre at Kent Place School in Summit, New Jersey, and toured the United States in the mid-1990s.
  • 1993: Rage stage play produced by Shane Black and directed by Jim Birge. Originally titled Getting It On, it was intended to premiere in Jasper, Indiana, but scheduling and venue issues forced it to move to the VFW in Santa Claus, Indiana, where it ran from April 23 to May 1. Venue problems caused the final show, on May 2, to be canceled.
  • 2005: Misery stage play by Simon Moore based on 1987 novel. Another adaptation, written by William Goldman (who wrote the 1990 film), premiered on Broadway in 2015 with Bruce Willis and Laurie Metcalf. A musical version also exists, written by Jeff Hockhauser and Bob Johnson. While it has not been staged, a demo recording has circulated on the internet in recent years.
  • 2009: Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption was dramatized by Dave Johns and Owen O'Neill for the Gaiety Theatre, Dublin.[56][57] A later version, directed by Peter Sheridan, had its world premiere at the Peter Sheridan Theatre in London in September 2010. A production was mounted at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe directed by Lucy Pitman-Wallace in August 2013.[58] In April 2019, The Shawshank Redemption made its North American debut at the Metropolitan Ensemble Theatre in Kansas City, Missouri, directed by Bob Paisley. It garnered great reviews from critics during its run. It featured Keenan Ramos as Red, Chris Roady as Andy Defresne, S.E. Perry as Warden Stammas, Tim Ahlenius as Hadley, Chad Burris as Boggs Diamond, Dan Daly as Pinky, Kevin Fewell as Brooksie, Christopher Preyer as Rooster, Larry Goodman as Dawkins, Nick Hazel as Entwhistle, Evan Lovelace as Tommy, Andrew Paredes as Rico, and Alex Paxton as inmate/guard.
  • 2012: Ghost Brothers of Darkland County, an original musical with book by Stephen King and music and lyrics by John Mellencamp. After a week of previews, it ran at Atlanta's Alliance Theatre from April 11 to May 13, 2012. A concept album was released the following year.
  • 2013: Dolores Claiborne is an American opera composed by Tobias Picker. It premiered at the San Francisco Opera in Fall 2013.
  • 2014: "The Body" (also known as "Stand By Me") was produced by Chellaston Players in Derby, England. Though an amateur staging (produced with Stephen King's permission), it received rave reviews.

There have also been dramatizations of many of King's short stories, including "Nona", "Quitters, Inc.", "In the Deathroom", "Strawberry Spring", "Harvey's Dream", "The Man Who Loved Flowers", "Mute", "The Ten O'Clock People" and King's poem, "Paranoid: A Chant". There have also been alleged stage productions of Rage as well as several parody stage versions of The Shining.

MusicEdit

  • 1983: "The Stand", recorded by The Alarm, and was released in the UK as a single. The song's lyrics were inspired by King's novel, The Stand.
  • 1985: "Lone Justice" by Anthrax, is based on The Gunslinger.
  • 1984: "Horror-Teria: (The Beginning)" from the Twisted Sister album Stay Hungry. The album's liner notes thank King for inspiring the piece.
  • 1987: "Among the Living", recorded by Anthrax, is based on The Stand. "The Walkin' Dude" is Randall Flagg, the main villain in the book, and the beginning verse: "Disease! Disease! Spreading the disease!\With some help from Captain Trips\He'll bring the world down to its knees" refers to the virus that destroys most of the population in the novel.
  • 1987: "A Skeleton in the Closet", recorded by Anthrax, is based on the King novella Apt Pupil from the collection Different Seasons.
  • 1987: "Severed Survival" recorded by Autopsy is based on the King short story "Survivor Type".
  • 1988: "Misery Loves Company" by Anthrax, is based on Misery
  • 1989: "Pet Sematary", recorded by Ramones, a single from their 1989 album Brain Drain. The song is originally written for the King movie adaptation of the same name. The single became one of the Ramones' biggest radio hits, and a staple in their concerts during the 1990s.
  • 1999: The music video for "Spit it Out", recorded by nu metal band Slipknot, pays homage to Stanley Kubrick's adaptation of The Shining
  • 2002: Formation of the Dutch band Delain, who takes the name from Kingdom of Delain, from the novel The Eyes of the Dragon
  • 2006: The song "Carry the Blessed Home" on the Blind Guardian album A Twist in the Myth. It is about Roland Deschain and Jake Chambers at the end of The Dark Tower.
  • 2008: "Dull Boy", recorded by heavy metal band Mudvayne, was a single for both The New Game and their compilation album, based on The Shining novel and Stanley Kubrick's 1980 film.
  • 2015: Ice Nine Kills included the song "Hell in the Hallways" on their album Every Trick in the Book, which was based on King's first novel Carrie. A number of months later, the band via a poll created and released the single "Enjoy Your Slay", based upon The Shining.
  • 2016: The song "Breathing Lightning" by Anthrax is based on The Dark Tower series.
  • 2016: Boston band Walter Sickert & the Army of Broken Toys included a song titled "Dull Boy" on their Come Black Magic album, with lyrics inspired by The Shining. The song is otherwise unrelated to the Mudvayne track listed above.
  • 2018: Ice Nine Kills release the album The Silver Scream, featuring the song "It is the End", which is based upon the film and TV adaptations of King's highly successful horror novel It.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Carrie (1976)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  2. ^ "The Shining (1980)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  3. ^ "Creepshow (1982)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
  4. ^ "Cujo (1983)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  5. ^ "The Dead Zone (1983)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
  6. ^ "Christine (1983)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  7. ^ "Children of the Corn (1984)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
  8. ^ "Firestarter (1984)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 9, 2017.
  9. ^ "Cat's Eye (1985)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 9, 2017.
  10. ^ "Silver Bullet (1985)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 9, 2017.
  11. ^ "Maximum Overdrive (1986)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 9, 2017.
  12. ^ "Stand by Me (1986)". Retrieved April 1, 2018.
  13. ^ "Creepshow 2 (1987)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
  14. ^ "The Running Man (1987)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved March 14, 2009.
  15. ^ "Pet Sematary (1989)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
  16. ^ "Graveyard Shift (1990)". Rotten Tomatoes.
  17. ^ Misery at Rotten Tomatoes
  18. ^ "The Lawnmower Man (1992)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
  19. ^ "The Dark Half (1993)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  20. ^ "Needful Things (1993)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  21. ^ "The Shawshank Redemption (1994)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on September 18, 2017. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
  22. ^ "The Mangler (1995)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
  23. ^ "Dolores Claiborne (1995)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
  24. ^ Thinner – Rotten Tomatoes
  25. ^ "The Night Flier (1997)". Rotten Tomatoes.com. Flixer. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  26. ^ Apt Pupil – Rotten Tomatoes
  27. ^ "The Green Mile (1999)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
  28. ^ "Hearts in Atlantis (2001)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  29. ^ "Dreamcatcher (2003)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved February 9, 2014.
  30. ^ "Secret Window (2004)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved February 9, 2014.
  31. ^ "Riding the Bullet (2004)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved February 9, 2014.
  32. ^ "1408 (2007)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on November 1, 2007. Retrieved November 3, 2007.
  33. ^ "The Mist (2007)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  34. ^ "No Smoking (2007)". Rotten Tomatoes.
  35. ^ "Carrie (2013)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  36. ^ "A Good Marriage (2014)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  37. ^ "Cell (2016)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved April 9, 2018.
  38. ^ "The Dark Tower (2017)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  39. ^ "It (2017)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved September 7, 2017.
  40. ^ "Gerald's Game (2017)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  41. ^ "1922 (2017)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  42. ^ "Pet Semetary (2019)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  43. ^ "It Chapter Two (2019)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved October 9, 2019.
  44. ^ "In the Tall Grass (2019)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved October 9, 2019.
  45. ^ "James Wan, Gary Dauberman Tackling Stephen King's Vampire Tale 'Salem's Lot'". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 31, 2019.
  46. ^ "André Øvredal To Direct Stephen King's 'The Long Walk' For New Line". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved August 31, 2019.
  47. ^ McNary, Dave (July 23, 2018). "Stephen King's 'From a Buick 8' in the Works as a Movie". Variety. Retrieved August 31, 2019.
  48. ^ "Pet Sematary Two (1992)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
  49. ^ "Children of the Corn II: The Final Sacrifice (1993)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
  50. ^ "Lawnmower Man 2 – Jobe's War (Lawnmower Man 2: Beyond Cyberspace)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  51. ^ "The Rage: Carrie 2 (1999)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  52. ^ "Creepshow 3". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
  53. ^ "THE STAND: SOUL SURVIVORS # 1". Marvel. Archived from the original on October 22, 2009.
  54. ^ "The Talisman Graphic Novel Series – Coming Fall 2009" (Press release). Stephenking.com. October 13, 2008. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
  55. ^ "Little Green God of Agony – The Free Online eComic". StephenKing.com. 2012. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
  56. ^ Moffatt, Michael (May 17, 2009). "Actors Who Have Served Their Time Bring Jail Hell Alive; THEATRE". Irish Mail on Sunday. Retrieved October 30, 2014.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  57. ^ Moffatt, Michael (May 24, 2009). "A Little Escapism in King's Grim Classic; THEATRE". Mail on Sunday. Retrieved October 30, 2014.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  58. ^ "The Shawshank Redemption – Edinburgh festival 2013 review". The Guardian. August 11, 2013. Retrieved October 30, 2014.