Laura Elizabeth "Laurie" Metcalf (born June 16, 1955) is an American actress. Metcalf began her career with the Steppenwolf Theater Company and frequently works in Chicago theater, including the 1983 revival of Balm in Gilead.
Metcalf in 2008
|Born||Laura Elizabeth Metcalf
June 16, 1955
Carbondale, Illinois, U.S.
From 1988 to 1997, Metcalf portrayed the role of Jackie Harris on the ABC sitcom Roseanne, for which she won three Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series (1992–1994). She also was nominated for two Golden Globe Awards. A ten-time Emmy Award nominee, Metcalf's television credits include 3rd Rock from the Sun, The Norm Show, Desperate Housewives, and The Big Bang Theory. From 2013 to 2015, she played a leading role of Dr. Jenna James in the HBO comedy series Getting On, for which she received critical acclaim and a nomination for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Comedy Series.
For her stage performances and work on Broadway, Metcalf has received four Tony Award nominations, winning Best Actress in a Play in 2017 for her performance in A Doll's House, Part 2. She starred as Mary Tyrone in a London production of Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey into Night at the Apollo Theatre in 2012. She has also received a Theatre World Award and two Obie Awards for her Off-Broadway work.
Metcalf has starred in numerous films, including Desperately Seeking Susan (1985), Uncle Buck (1989), Internal Affairs (1990), Pacific Heights (1990), JFK (1991), A Dangerous Woman (1993), Leaving Las Vegas (1995), Dear God (1996), Scream 2 (1997), and Meet the Robinsons (2007). She also voiced the role of Mrs. Davis in the acclaimed Toy Story film series. In 2017, Metcalf received critical acclaim for her performance in Greta Gerwig's comedy-drama film Lady Bird, for which she was nominated for an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, a SAG Award, and a BAFTA Award.
Metcalf was born in Carbondale, Illinois, the eldest of three children. She, her brother James, and her sister Linda and were raised in Edwardsville, Illinois, which she has said "isn't anywhere near a theatre." Her father, James, was the budget director at Southern Illinois University-Edwardsville at the time of his sudden death in 1984. Her mother, Libby, was a librarian. Her great-aunt was the Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Zoë Akins. She is an alumna of Illinois State University, class of 1976.
Metcalf, who worked as a "damn good" secretary while in college, said she thoroughly enjoyed seeing a pile of paper in the to-do box on one side of her desk move over to the completed side by the end of the day. She often zoned in on the task at hand and worked through lunch. She originally majored in German, thinking she could work as an interpreter, and then in Anthropology before accepting that majoring in Theatre was her true passion. She has said that theatre work also involves interpreting and studying human behavior. She has described herself as hideously shy, and yet she found the courage to audition for a few plays in high school and was "hooked". She didn't choose acting as a career because it was unlikely to lead to regular work.
Metcalf attended Illinois State University and earned her Bachelor of Arts in Theater in 1976. While at ISU, she met fellow theater students, among them John Malkovich, Glenne Headly, Joan Allen, Terry Kinney, and Jeff Perry, the latter two of whom, along with Perry's high school classmate Gary Sinise, went on to establish Chicago's famed Steppenwolf Theatre Company. Metcalf began her professional career at Steppenwolf, of which she was a charter member. Metcalf went to New York to appear in an Off-Broadway Steppenwolf production of Balm in Gilead at Circle Repertory in 1984 for which she received the 1984 Obie Award for Best Actress and a 1984–85 Theatre World Award (for best debut in a Broadway or Off-Broadway performance). Metcalf was praised for her performance as Darlene, and was specifically singled out for her tour de force twenty-minute Act Two monologue.
There's a moment when Laurie Metcalf—who plays this poor young thing that comes to the big city and hangs out at this greasy spoon diner where the play is set—is talking about her once boyfriend who is an albino; I think it's a monologue of about five, six, seven minutes. Just to sit there and watch and hear Laurie unspool that story, it just brought tears coming down your eyes—oh, boy, it was something.— Chicago critic Richard Christiansen on Balm in Gilead
Through June 2009, Metcalf starred with French Stewart in Justin Tanner's play, Voice Lessons, in Hollywood before beginning rehearsals to play Kate Jerome in the Broadway revival of Neil Simon's semi-autobiographical plays Brighton Beach Memoirs and Broadway Bound, directed by David Cromer. The former production's run, however, lasted for 9 performances in October 2009, while the latter was canceled prior to opening.
In March 2011, she appeared Off-Broadway in The Other Place by Sharr White. She won the 2011 Lucille Lortel Award, Outstanding Lead Actress, and the 2011 Obie Award, Performance for The Other Place.
In 2012, Metcalf joined David Suchet in a West End production of Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey into Night, for which she was nominated for the Evening Standard Theatre Award for Best Actress.
In October 2013, Metcalf performed with Jeff Goldblum in Domesticated, by Bruce Norris at the Off-Broadway Mitzi Newhouse Theater of Lincoln Center. She was nominated for the 2014 Lucille Lortel Award, Outstanding Lead Actress in a Play; the 2014 Drama League Award, Distinguished Performance; and the 2014 Drama Desk Award, Outstanding Actress in a Play for Domesticated.
She was then cast in the role of Annie Wilkes in the Broadway production of Stephen King's Misery, opposite Bruce Willis. The play premiered on November 15, 2015. It received mixed reviews from critics, however Metcalf's performance was widely acclaimed. She was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play, her third Tony nomination overall.
Metcalf returned to Broadway in A Doll's House, Part 2 by Lucas Hnath, which opened in April 2017. She received critical acclaim for her performance and earned nominations for the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play, the Drama Desk Award, the Drama League Award for Distinguished Performance, and the Outer Critics Circle Award, winning the Tony Award.
Television and filmEdit
Metcalf has performed in roles that range from very large to very small in many films, including Desperately Seeking Susan (1985), Making Mr. Right (1987), Miles from Home, Internal Affairs, Stars and Bars, Beer League, Mistress, A Dangerous Woman, Uncle Buck, Blink, The Secret Life of Houses, Treasure Planet, Toy Story, Runaway Bride, Bulworth, Meet the Robinsons, Georgia Rule (2007), Fun with Dick and Jane, Leaving Las Vegas, Scream 2, Stop Loss (2008), and Hop.
Metcalf has often appeared against type in both film and television; in JFK (1991), she played a dramatic role as one of Jim Garrison's chief investigators. She appeared as the murderous mother of Billy Loomis in the horror film Scream 2 (1997); and portrayed real-life Carolyn McCarthy in the television movie The Long Island Incident (1998).
Metcalf has appeared in several television series, including being a cast member for a single episode of Saturday Night Live—the final episode of the show's tumultuous 1980–1981 season. In 1981, she appeared as a feature player on the first Dick Ebersol-produced episode of Saturday Night Live following the firing of Jean Doumanian. She appeared in a Weekend Update segment about taking a bullet for the President of the United States. Because of the sketch show's severe decline in quality at the time and the 1981 Writers Guild of America strike, the show was put on hiatus for retooling. Metcalf was never asked back to be a cast member.
Metcalf is perhaps best known for her role as Jackie, the multiple-careered, low self-esteemed, amiable sister of the title character in the hit series Roseanne. Her performance garnered her three consecutive Emmy Awards. Roseanne ran from 1988 to 1997, and Metcalf appeared as Jackie over the show's entire run.
She subsequently appeared with Norm Macdonald on The Norm Show (or Norm), which ran for three seasons (1999–2001), and was also a regular character on the 2003 Nathan Lane series Charlie Lawrence, which was cancelled after the airing of two episodes. Metcalf has made guest appearances on Absolutely Fabulous, Malcolm in the Middle, My Boys, Dharma & Greg, Frasier, The Big Bang Theory, Without a Trace, 3rd Rock from the Sun, and Monk. She was nominated for the Emmy Award as Outstanding Guest Actress In A Comedy Series for both of the latter two listed roles.
Metcalf took a recurring role on Desperate Housewives—for which she received Emmy (also in the category Outstanding Guest Actress In A Comedy Series) and Satellite Award nominations— and also appeared alongside her ex-husband Jeff Perry in an episode of Grey's Anatomy. In fall 2008, Metcalf starred in the CW dramedy Easy Money, as the matriarch of a family of loan sharks. The series was canceled after three episodes.
On April 28, 2017 it was announced that a revival of Roseanne was in the works and that Metcalf along with most of the original cast and some of the producers would return for the limited series that was being shopped around with ABC and Netflix the frontrunners to land the show. On May 16, 2017 it was confirmed that eight episodes would air mid-season in 2018 on ABC.
In 2017, Metcalf received critical acclaim for her performance in Lady Bird, a comedy-drama film directed by Greta Gerwig. For her performance, she was nominated for numerous awards, including the Golden Globe Award, the SAG Award, and the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress.
Metcalf later began a relationship with Matt Roth, the Roseanne co-star who played her abusive boyfriend, Fisher. By November 1993 they had a son, Will, and eventually married. They also worked together on occasion, as in the 1994 feature film thriller Blink and the 1998 drama Chicago Cab; they also appeared together in an episode of Desperate Housewives. Their daughter, Mae Akins, was born in 2005 via surrogate. They had a second son, Donovan, whom they fostered at six years old in 2006 and permanently adopted. On November 26, 2008, Metcalf and Roth separated. In September 2011, Roth filed for divorce, citing irreconcilable differences. In May 2014, the divorce was finalized.
Metcalf has self-disclosed as a workaholic and that she is hard on herself during rehearsals. She has often said that she prefers theatre to any acting medium as it is where she feels most comfortable.
|1978||Wedding, AA Wedding||Maid||Uncredited role|
|1985||Desperately Seeking Susan||Leslie Glass|
|1987||Making Mr. Right||Sandy|
|1988||Stars and Bars||Melissa|
|1988||Appointments of Dennis Jennings, TheThe Appointments of Dennis Jennings||Emma||Short film|
|1988||Miles from Home||Exotic Dancer|
|1989||Uncle Buck||Marcie Dahlgren-Frost|
|1990||Internal Affairs||Amy Wallace|
|1990||Pacific Heights||Stephanie MacDonald|
|1993||Dangerous Woman, AA Dangerous Woman||Anita Bell|
|1994||Secret Life of Houses, TheThe Secret Life of Houses||Ann|
|1995||Leaving Las Vegas||Landlady|
|1995||Toy Story||Mrs. Davis||Voice role|
|1996||Dear God||Rebecca Frazen|
|1997||U Turn||Bus Station Clerk|
|1997||Chicago Cab||Female Ad Exec|
|1997||Scream 2||Debbie Salt / Mrs. Loomis|
|1999||Runaway Bride||Betty Trout||Uncredited role|
|1999||Toy Story 2||Mrs. Davis||Voice role|
|2000||Timecode||Dava Adair||Scenes deleted|
|2002||Treasure Planet||Sarah Hawkins||Voice role|
|2005||Fun with Dick and Jane||Phyllis||Uncredited role|
|2006||Steel City||Marianne Karn|
|2006||Beer League||Artie's Mom|
|2007||Meet the Robinsons||Lucille Krunklehorn-Robinson||Voice role|
|2007||Georgia Rule||Paula Richards|
|2010||Toy Story 3||Mrs. Davis||Voice role|
|2017||Lady Bird||Marion McPherson|
|2019||Toy Story 4||Mrs. Davis||Voice role; in production|
|1981||Saturday Night Live||Weekend Update Reporter||Episode: "Jr. Walker & the All-Stars"|
|1985||Execution of Raymond Graham, TheThe Execution of Raymond Graham||Carol Graham||Television film|
|1986||Equalizer, TheThe Equalizer||Theresa||Episode: "No Conscience"|
|1988–97, 2018||Roseanne||Jackie Harris||219 episodes|
Episodes: "Research and Destroy" and "Forbidden Fruit"
|1997||King of the Hill||Cissy Cobb||Voice role
Episode: "Peggy the Boggle Champ"
|1997||Eddie Files, TheThe Eddie Files||Special Agent Hicks||Episode: "Decimals – The Fake Money Caper"|
|1997||Life with Louie||Miss Kinney||Voice role
Episode: "The Kiss Is the Thing"
|1997||Dharma & Greg||Spyder||Episode: "Instant Dharma"|
|1998||Always Outnumbered||Halley Grimes||Television film|
|1998||Long Island Incident, TheThe Long Island Incident||Carolyn McCarthy||Television film|
|1998||3rd Rock from the Sun||Jennifer Ravelli||3 episodes|
|1999||Balloon Farm||Casey Johnson||Television film|
|1999–2001||Norm Show, TheThe Norm Show||Laurie Freeman||54 episodes|
|2000–2011||God, the Devil and Bob||Donna Allman||Voice role
|2002||Two Families||Unsold pilot|
|2003||Phil at the Gate||Teddy Duffy||Unsold pilot|
|2003||Charlie Lawrence||Sarah Dolecek||7 episodes|
|2004||Malcolm in the Middle||Susan||Episode: "Lois's Sister"|
|2004||Frasier||Nanny G||Episode: "Caught in the Act"|
|2004||Absolutely Fabulous||Crystalline||Episode: "White Box"|
|2005||Without a Trace||Susan Hopkins||Episode: "A Day in the Life"|
|2006||Monk||Cora||Episode: "Mr. Monk Bumps His Head"|
|2006||Grey's Anatomy||Beatrice Carver||Episode: "The Name of the Game"|
|2006||Desperate Housewives||Carolyn Bigsby||4 episodes|
|2006||My Boys||Aunt Phyllis||Episode: "When Heroes Fall from Grace"|
|2007||Virgin of Akron, Ohio, TheThe Virgin of Akron, Ohio||Lydia||Pilot episode|
|2007||Raines||Alice Brody||Episode: "Reconstructing Alice"|
|2007–present||Big Bang Theory, TheThe Big Bang Theory||Mary Cooper||Recurring role; 13 episodes|
|2008–09||Easy Money||Bobette Buffkin||8 episodes|
|2009||Farm, TheThe Farm||Warden Margaret Elder||Unsold pilot|
|2013||Goodwin Games, TheThe Goodwin Games||Dr. Richland||2 episodes|
|2013–15||Getting On||Dr. Jenna James||Series regular; 18 episodes|
|2014||Tim & Eric's Bedtime Stories||Gabrielle||Episode: "Baby"|
|2014–15||The McCarthys||Marjorie McCarthy||Series regular; 15 episodes|
|2016||Horace and Pete||Sarah||Episode #1.3|
|2017||Portlandia||Jill||Episode: "Friend Replacement"|
|2017||Playing House||Dr. Leslie Rollins||Episode: "You Wanna Roll with This"|
|2018||Supergirl||Mary McGowan||Episode: (3.15)|
|1984–85||Balm in Gilead||Darlene||Circle Repertory Theatre|
|1986–87||Bodies, Rest and Motion||Beth||Mitzi E. Newhouse Theatre|
|1987||Educating Rita||Rita||Westside Theatre|
|1995||My Thing of Love||Elly||Martin Beck Theatre|
|2008||November||Clarice Bernstein||Ethel Barrymore Theatre|
|2009||Brighton Beach Memoirs||Kate Jerome||Nederlander Theatre|
|2010||A Lie of the Mind||Meg||Acorn Theatre|
|2011||The Other Place||Juliana||Lucille Lortel Theatre|
|2013||Samuel J. Friedman Theatre|
|2013–14||Domesticated||Judy||Mitzi E. Newhouse Theatre|
|2015–16||Misery||Annie Wilkes||Broadhurst Theatre|
|2017||A Doll's House, Part 2||Nora Helmer||John Golden Theatre|
|2018||Three Tall Women||B||John Golden Theatre|
Awards and nominationsEdit
- "Laurie Metcalf Emmy Awards & Nominations". Primetime Emmy® Award Database. Emmys.com. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
- "tims" (User) (March 8, 2012). "Long Day's Journey into Night at the Apollo Theatre, London". Apollo Theatre London. Apollotheatrelondon.co.uk. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
- "Lauren Elizabeth Metcalf – Genealogy". Geni.com. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
- "American Theatre Wing". May 9, 2011. Archived from the original on May 9, 2011.
- "Laurie Metcalf Biography, filmreference.com, accessed October 9, 2016.
- "St. Louis Post-Dispatch Archives". Nl.newsbank.com. September 1, 1992. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- Michael Hooper. "Laurie Metcalf biodata". Wchstv.com. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- "Illinois State University Alumni Magazine". Blogs.ilstu.edu. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- Christon, Lawrence (April 23, 1995). "She's No Mere Sister Act: Laurie Metcalf is known to TV fans as sibling to the turbulent star. Now she's traveling about 3,000 miles away from Roseanne. But it's not what you think. (Really.)". Los Angeles Times.
- Hal Erickson. "Laurie Metcalf - Biography - Movies & TV - NYTimes.com". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. AllRovi. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
- "Laurie Metcalf: Ensemble Member Bio". Steppenwolf.org. Steppenwolf Theatre Company. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
- Rich, Frank. "Theater: Revival Of 'Balm In Gilead'" The New York Times, June 1, 1984
- Christiansen, Richard (March 1, 2002). "Steppenwolf's Balm in Gilead was the best play Christiansen ever saw". Performink. Carrie Kaufman. PerformInk Online. Archived from the original on January 20, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
- Hernandez, Ernio. "Election Day: Lane Is U.S. President in Mamet's 'November' on Broadway" Playbill, December 20, 2007
- Brantley, Ben."Theater review. Neil Simon’s Jeromes, at Home at the Nederlander" The New York Times, October 26, 2009
- Jones, Kenneth. "Broadway's Neil Simon Plays Will Close Nov. 1" Archived June 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Playbill, October 31, 2009
- " 'Brighton Beach Memoirs' 2009" Playbill (vault), accessed October 7, 2016
- Laurie Metcalf & French Stewart Take Voice Lessons Off-Broadway Playbill article by Harry Haun Archived December 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- "''Voice Lessons'' at Sacred Fools Theater Company – production website". Sacredfools.org. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- Jones, Kenneth. " 'Detroit', a Play About New Neighbors, Opens at Steppenwolf; Laurie Metcalf Lays Welcome Mat" Playbill, September 19, 2010
- Hetrick, Adam.. " 'The Other Place', Starring Laurie Metcalf, Opens Off-Broadway March 28" Playbill, March 28, 2011
- "Laurie Metcalf Off-Broadway" lortel.org, accessed October 7, 2016
- Shenton, Mark. " 'Long Day's Journey Into Night', Starring David Suchet, Laurie Metcalf, Opens in West End April 10" Playbill, April 10, 2012
- "Evening Standard Theatre Awards: Adrian Lester and his writer wife". Evening Standard. 2012-11-12. Retrieved 2017-05-02.
- " 'The Other Place' Broadway" Playbill (vault), accessed October 7, 2016
- "2013 TONY AWARD® NOMINATIONS". TonyAwards.com. Retrieved 2017-05-03.
- "2013 Drama League Awards Nominees Announced". Backstage.com. Retrieved 2017-05-03.
- "It's a Family Affair! Laurie Metcalf's Daughter, Zoe Perry, Joins The Other Place as Her Stage Daughter". Broadway.com. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
- "The Verdict: Critics Review 'Domesticated', Starring Laurie Metcalf and Jeff Goldblum Off-Broadway" Playbill, November 5, 2013
- " 'Misery' Broadway" Playbill (vault), accessed October 7, 2016
- Roundups, Review. "Review Roundup: Bruce Willis-Led MISERY Officially Creeps Onto Broadway". BroadwayWorld.com. Retrieved 2017-05-03.
- McPhee, Ryan. " 'A Doll’s House, Part 2', Starring Laurie Metcalf and Chris Cooper, Opens on Broadway" Playbill, April 27, 2017
- "2017 Tony Award Nominations: The Great Comet and Hello, Dolly! Lead the Pack | Playbill". Playbill. Retrieved 2017-05-03.
- "Hello, Dolly!, Come From Away, and Anastasia Lead 2017 Drama Desk Award Nominations | Playbill". Playbill. Retrieved 2017-05-03.
- "Ben Platt, Sutton Foster, and Josh Groban Among 2017 Drama League Award Nominees | Playbill". Playbill. Retrieved 2017-05-03.
- "Anastasia and Hello, Dolly! Lead Outer Critics Circle Award Nominations". TheaterMania.com. Retrieved 2017-05-03.
- "Laurie Metcalf Filmography" tcm.com, accessed October 8, 2016
- JFK tcm.com, accessed October 8, 2016
- Scream 2 tcm.com, accessed October 8, 2016
- The Long Island Incident tcm.com, accessed October 8, 2016
- Roseanne museum.tv, accessed October 7, 2016
- Brooks, Tim; Marsh, Earle F. " Norm Listing" The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows, 1946–Present, Random House Publishing Group, 2009, ISBN 0307483207, p. 996
- Alessandra Stanley. "Washington Monument: He Takes It Personally". New York Times. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
- Brennan, Matt. "The Emmys Year of Laurie Metcalf" Indie Wire, July 27, 2016
- "MRC cancels Easy Money and Valentine". TV Series Finale. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
- Mary Kaye Schilling. "Laurie Metcalf on Domesticated and Getting On – Vulture". Vulture.com. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
- Maerz, Melissa (October 30, 2015). "Getting On: EW review". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
- Nellie Andreeva. "Laurie Metcalf To Star in CBS Comedy Pilot 'The McCarthys'". Deadline.com. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
- "'Roseanne' revival may be in the works". USA Today. Retrieved 2017-04-28.
- Otterson, Joe (May 16, 2017). "'Roseanne' Revival Lands at ABC". Variety. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- "'Lady Bird' could finally send Laurie Metcalf to the Oscars". Retrieved November 4, 2017.
- Sperling, Nicole. "Lady Bird's Laurie Metcalf on the Mom Role That Hit Close to Home and Roseanne's Revival". Retrieved November 4, 2017.
- Hoffman, Barbara (April 10, 2008). "DIFFERENT FAMILY VALUES". New York Post. News Corporation. NYPost.com. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
- Laurie Metcalf, Yahoo! Movies, accessed June 29, 2011.
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- George Wendt in Lovece, Frank (December 5, 2017). "George Wendt plays Santa in 'Elf: The Musical'". Newsday. New York City / Long Island. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
I don’t remember “Bronco Billy,” but there was one summer they shot “A Wedding” in Chicago and they were looking for extras to play caterers, waiters and waitresses and the like. So all these guys from [Chicago’s famed theater company] Steppenwolf were waiters: Me and Dennis Franz, John Malkovich, Alan Wilder, Tim Evans — lots of people. And we had fun; it was a bonding summer with the Steppenwolf guys. We’d turn up at dawn every morning and just hang out and wait around in our outfits. Except for Malkovich — we were in this big old mansion in [the Chicago suburb of] Lake Forest and he would find a bedroom way out of the way and just sleep there all day. He didn’t care about being in the background of any of the shots. As a matter of fact, I don’t even know if anything I shot is in the movie.
- Masters, Megan. "Exclusive: Roseanne's Laurie Metcalf Books Arc on Fox's New Comedy The Goodwin Games". TVline.com. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
- "Laurie Metcalf Emmy Awards" emmys.com, accessed October 7, 2016
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- "Laurie Metcalf Awards - IMDb" imdb.com, accessed January 9, 2018
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- "Laurie Metcalf - Off-Broadway Awards" http://www.lortel.org/Archives, accessed January 10, 2018
- "Ovation Nominees". September 16, 2013.
- "A Troubie Triumph at the Ovation Awards". November 14, 2011.
- Kikenny, Katie (January 8, 2018). "Golden Globes: Allison Janney Wins Best Supporting Actress for 'I, Tonya'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 8, 2018.