Kharaharapriya

Kharaharapriya is a rāga in Carnatic music. It is the 22nd melakarta rāga (parent scale) in the 72 melakarta rāga system. It is possible that the name of the ragam was originally Harapriya but it was changed to conform to the Katapayadi formula. Kharaharapriya has a distinct melody and brings out the Karuna rasam, invoking pathos in the listeners. The Kafi thaat of Hindustani music is the equivalent of Kharaharapriya.[1][2] Its Western equivalent is the Dorian mode.

Kharaharapriya
ArohanamS R₂ G₂ M₁ P D₂ N₂ 
Avarohanam N₂ D₂ P M₁ G₂ R₂ S
EquivalentDorian mode

EtymologyEdit

There are many theories behind the etymology of the name Kharaharapriya. One of the most popular beliefs is that the ragam was initially called Samaganam and when Ravana was trapped by Shiva, under the kailash hill trying to lift it, it is believed that, to appease the lord, Ravana sang many hymns in praise of the lord, but his heart cooled only when a hymn was sung in the ragam and hence the name (hara) shiva and (priya) loved hence "Harapriya " - The one dear to Shiva, and to fit it in the Katapayadi system according to the melakarta chakra system.

The word Kharaharapriya may also mean the beloved of the killer of the Khara demon (Khara - Khara demon, Hara - Defeater/Killer, Priya - Beloved). The story of Rama killing the Khara demon is narrated in the 28th, 29th and the 30th sub-chapter of the Aranya Khanda of Ramayana.[3] It could be speculated that this was a reason why Saint Tyagaraja revived this dying ancient raga in the 18th Century and breathed new life into it by creating many compositions in this raga.

Structure and LakshanaEdit

 
Kharaharapriya scale with shadjam at C

It is 4th rāga in the 4th chakra Veda. The mnemonic name is Veda-Bhu. The mnemonic phrase is sa ri gi ma pa dhi ni.[1] Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms):

The notes are chatushruti rishabham, sadharana gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, chatushruti dhaivatam and kaisiki Nishadam. It is a sampoorna rāgam – scale having all 7 swarams. It is the shuddha madhyamam equivalent of Hemavati, which is the 58th melakarta scale. Since the swaras of Kharaharapriya are quite evenly spaced, and since several different types of gamakas are allowed, it is a very versatile, fluid and flexible rāgam that allows for elaborate melodic improvisation within its scale.

Songs sung in Kharaharapriya ragas typically have long, elaborate ālapanās, which exhibit the fluidity of the rāgam. Kharaharapriya songs are usually meant to be sung slow, medium or medium-fast, in order to bring out the Karuna rasa and bhava of the song.

Janya rāgamsEdit

Due to the even spacing of swaras, many [janya] rāgams (derived scales) are associated with Kharaharapriya. It is one of the melakarta scales that has a large number of janya rāgams. Many of the janya rāgams are very popular on their own, lending themselves to elaboration and interpretation. Some of them are Abheri, Abhogi,Andolika, Bhimplaas (Hindustani music), Brindavana Saranga, Kāpi, Madhyamavati, Mukhari, Reetigowla, Shree, Dhanashree, Udayaravichandrika, and Sriranjani.

See List of janya rāgams for full list of scales associated with Kharaharapriya.

CompositionsEdit

Kharaharapriya has been decorated with compositions by many composers. The ragam is most closely associated with Thyagaraja who has pioneered in composing many songs in this rāgam, that have become popular and well known. Both Muthuswami Dikshitar and Shyama Sastri, however, have not composed kritis in 'Kharaharapriya'[4] A few of the popular compositions are listed here.

The basic scale of Kharaharapriya has been used in several film songs in Indian film music. Although rarely authentic, there are several film songs that are set in this scale, or scales derived from this ragam. The popular Kannada song 'Arādhisuve madanāri', from the movie Babhruvahana (1977) and sung by Dr. Rajkumar, is in typical Kharaharapriya. A popular Tamil film composer M.S.Viswanathan used this raga brilliantly in many of his songs such as "Maharajan Ullagai" from Karnan, "Maadhavi Ponmayilal" in the movie Iru malargal. Ace singer P. Unnikrishnan released his 2012 album on Lord Ayyappan titled Shabaimalai Va Charanam Solli Va in which he has rendered a song in Kharaharapriya raagam set in classical melody. The song also illustrates how the Lord learnt the Kalari fight in Cheerappanchira which houses a temple called Mukkal Vattam managed by Lord's Guruvamsam even now.[5]

Film SongsEdit

Language:TamilEdit

Song Movie Composer Singer
Enna Seidhaalum Irumbu Thirai S. V. Venkatraman Radha Jayalakshmi
Ariyaa Paruvamadaa Missiamma S. Rajeshwara Rao P. Susheela
Maayavalaiyil Gulebakavali Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy T. M. Soundararajan
Annan Kaatiya Vazhiyamma Padithal Mattum Podhuma
Maharajan Karnan T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela
Aagaya Pandhalile Ponnunjal M. S. Viswanathan
Madhavi Pon Mayilaal Iru Malargal T. M. Soundararajan
Ponmagal Vandhaal Sorgam
Attamenna Solladi (I will sing for you) Manidharil Manikkam
Malligai En Mannan Dheerga Sumangali Vani Jayaram
Sippi Irukkuthu Varumayin Niram Sivappu S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Aayiram Nilave Vaa Adimai Penn K. V. Mahadevan S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, P. Susheela
Isaiyai Thamizhai Agathiyar Kunnakudi Vaidyanathan Sirkazhi Govindarajan, T. R. Mahalingam
Poo Malarinthida Tik Tik Tik Ilaiyaraaja K. J. Yesudas, Jency Anthony
Thaana Vantha Santhaname Ooru Vittu Ooru Vanthu S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Vaazhavaikum Kaathalukku Jey Apoorva Sagodharargal
Pattu Onna Kumbakarai Thangaiah
Mappillaikku Netrikkan Malaysia Vasudevan, P. Susheela
Kannukkulle Yaaro Kai Kodukkum Kai S. P. Sailaja, P. Susheela
Maalai Karukkalil Neethiyin Marupakkam K. J. Yesudas, S. Janaki
Roja Poo Adivanthathu Agni Natchathiram S. Janaki
Karutha Machan Pudhu Nellu Pudhu Naathu
Iravu Nilavu Anjali
Kaala kaalamaaga Vaazhum Punnagai Mannan S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K.S. Chitra
Aethamayya Aetham Ninaive Oru Sangeetham Malaysia Vasudevan, K.S. Chitra
Ilam Vayasu Ponna Paandi Nattu Thangam
Nethu Oruthara Oruthara Puthu Paatu Ilaiyaraaja, K.S. Chitra
Poongatru Thirumbuma Muthal Mariyathai Malaysia Vasudevan, S. Janaki
Katti Vechukko Enthan Anbu Manasu En Jeevan Paduthu
Anandham Pongida Pongida Sirai Paravai K. J. Yesudas,Sunanda
Thooliyile Ada Vantha Chinna Thambi Mano, K.S. Chitra
Unnai Vaazhtha Vanthen Unnai Vaazhthi Paadugiren K. J. Yesudas
Elangaathu Veesudhey Pithamagan Sriram Parthasarathy, Shreya Ghoshal
Kai Veesi Nandalala Vijay Yesudas, Swetha Mohan, Madhu Balakrishnan,Raagul,Chandrasekar
Ilavenirkala Panjami Manam Virumbuthe Unnai Hariharan
Aanenna Pennena Dharma Durai S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Neela Vana Odayil Vazhvey Maayam Gangai Amaran
Indralogathu Sundari Uyirullavarai Usha T. Rajendar
Janaki Devi Samsaram Adhu Minsaram Shankar–Ganesh K.S. Chitra
Rendu Kannam Santhana Kinnam Sivappu Malli K. J. Yesudas, P. Susheela
Panivilum Paruvanila Paneer Nadhigal K. J. Yesudas
Atho Vanile Nila Oorvalam Thandanai Chandrabose S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Kakki Sattai Potta Machan Sankar Guru Malaysia Vasudevan, S. P. Sailaja
Pachchai Nirame (Sakiye) Alaipayuthey A. R. Rahman Hariharan, Clinton Cerejo
Urvasi Urvasi Kadhalan A. R. Rahman, Suresh Peters, Shahul Hameed
Kilimanjaro Enthiran Javed Ali, Chinmayi
Mayiliragae Mayiliragae Anbe Aaruyire Naresh Iyer, Madhushree
Gulmohar Malare Majunu Harris Jayaraj Hariharan
Mudhal Mazhai Bheemaa Hariharan, Mahathi, R. Prasanna
Suttum Vizhi Ghajini Sriram Parthasarathy, Bombay Jayashree
Yaaridamum Thotti Jaya Ramesh Vinayagam, Harini
Uyirile Vettaiyaadu Vilaiyaadu Mahalakshmi Iyer, Srinivas
Silu Silu Siluvena Kovil Tippu
Meela Mudiyamal(Unreleased track) Vaaranam Aayiram Benny Dayal, Srimathumitha,Rathika
Karuvella Kaatukkulae Porkkaalam Deva Sujatha Mohan, Anuradha Sriram, Arunmozhi
Sangeetha Swarangal Azhagan Maragathamani S. P. Balasubrahmanyam,Sandhya
Kamban Engu Jaathi Malli S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K.S. Chitra
Rosappu Chinna Rosappu Suryavamsam S. A. Rajkumar Hariharan(vers 1), Sujatha Mohan(vers 2)
Edho Oru Paattu Unnidathil Ennai Koduthen
Kanava Ninaiva Aasal Bharadwaj V. V. Prasanna, Manjari
Santhikkadha Kangalil Inbangal 180 Sharreth Unni Menon, K.S. Chitra, S. Sowmya
En Raasi Enakkoru Magan Pirappan Karthik Raja Sujatha Mohan, P. Unni Krishnan
Summa Kidantha Thambi Vidyasagar Karthik, Kalyani Nair
Inni Naanum Naanilai Yai! Nee Romba Azhaga Irukke! Srinivas Srinivas, Sujatha Mohan, Sunitha Sarathy
Yamini Yamini Arvind-Shankar Harish Raghavendra
Aathadi Manasudhan Kazhugu Yuvan Shankar Raja Priya Himesh, Karthik Raja
Ayyayyo Paruthiveeran Shreya Ghoshal,Krishnaraj, Manikka Vinayagam, Yuvan Shankar Raja(Humming)
Dheivangal Ellam Kedi Billa Killadi Ranga Vijay Yesudas
Kadhal Vaithu Deepavali
Dhavanipotta Deepavali Sandakozhi Vijay Yesudas, Shreya Ghoshal
Thaaliyae Thevaiyillai Thaamirabharani Hariharan, Bhavatharini
Un Mela Oru Kannu Rajinimurugan D. Imman Jithin Raj, Mahalakshmi Iyer
Muzhumadhi Muzhumadhi Kanimozhi Satish Chakravarthy Vijay Yesudas, Bela Shende
Ithanai Dhooram Koottam James Vasanthan Haricharan, Shweta Mohan
Vinmeen Vithaiyil Thegidi Nivas K. Prasanna Abhay Jodhpurkar, Saindhavi
Kalla Payalae Payalae Mosakutty Ramesh Vinayakam Shreya Ghoshal,Haricharan
Ara Kirukan Vengayam Bharani Sujith,Srimathumitha
Bodhai Kaname Oh Manapenne! Vishal Chandrashekhar Shashaa Tirupati, Anirudh Ravichander

Janya 1:Ragam Karnaranjani TamilEdit

Ascending:S R2 G2 M1 G2 P D2 S

Descending:S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S

Song Movie Composer Singer
Ponmagal Vandhal(in Charanam portion) Sorgam M. S. Viswanathan T. M. Soundararajan
Megame Megame Palaivana Solai Shankar–Ganesh Vani Jairam
Theertha Karaithaniley Thai Pongal Ilaiyaraaja K.J. Yesudas, Jency Anthony
Aalolam Paadum Sirayil Pootha Chinna Malar Mano, S. Janaki
Naan Paadum Mouna Raagam Idaya Kovil S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Ilamai Enum Poongaatru Pagalil Oru Iravu
Mani Thooral Maathangal Ezhu Vidyasagar
Ragam Pudhu Ragam Kan Simittum Neram V. S. Narasimman K.J. Yesudas
Thaalaattu Mamangam M. Jayachandran Bombay Jayashri

The Hindi song 'Tumhen Dekhti Hoon To' from movie Tumhare Liye composed by Jaidev sung by Lata Mangeshkar was based on Ragam Karnaranjani too.

Related rāgamsEdit

This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rāgam.

Kharaharapriya's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam, yields 5 other major melakarta rāgams, namely, Kalyani, Hanumatodi, Natabhairavi, Shankarabharanam and Harikambhoji. For further details and an illustration of Graha bhedam of this rāgam refer Graha bhedam on Shankarabharanam.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani: S R  M P D  
    • Western: C D E F G A B C
  2. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani:   D P M  R S
    • Western: C B A G F E D C

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications
  2. ^ Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras
  3. ^ "Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda : Contents".
  4. ^ Article from Carnatica.net
  5. ^ Song set in Kharaharapriya on Mukkal vattam Ayyappan