Hanumatodi

Hanumatodi, more popularly known as Todi (pronounced hanumatōdi and tōdi), is a rāgam (musical scale) in Carnatic music. It is the 8th melakarta rāgam (parent scale) in the 72 melakarta rāgam system. This is sung very often in concerts. It is a difficult rāgam to perform in owing to its complexity in prayoga (phrases of notes and intonation). It is called Janatodi in Muthuswami Dikshitar school of Carnatic music.[1] Its Western equivalent is the Phrygian mode. Todi in Carnatic music is different from Todi (thaat) of Hindustani music (North Indian classical music). The equivalent of the Hindustani raga Todi in Carnatic music is Shubhapantuvarali (which is the 45th melakarta).[2][3] The equivalent of Carnatic Todi in Hindustani is Bhairavi thaat.[2]

Hanumatodi
ArohanamS R₁ G₂ M₁ P D₁ N₂ 
Avarohanam N₂ D₁ P M₁ G₂ R₁ S
EquivalentPhrygian mode

Structure and LakshanaEdit

 
Todi scale with shadjam at C

It is the 2nd rāgam in the 2nd chakra Netra. The mnemonic name is Netra-Sri. The mnemonic phrase is sa ra gi ma pa dha ni.[2] Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music page for details on below notation and terms):

This scale uses the notes shuddha rishabham, sadharana gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, shuddha dhaivatham and kaisiki nishadham.[what language is this?] It is a sampoorna rāgam - rāgam having all 7 swarams. It is the shuddha madhyamam equivalent of Bhavapriya, which is the 44th melakarta scale. A peculiarity of this raga is that it is sung in all lower notes. It is also classified as a "rakti" raga (a raga of high melodic content).

Janya rāgamsEdit

Hanumatodi has a quite a few janya rāgams (derived scales) associated with it, of which Asaveri, Janatodi, Dhanyasi, Punnagavarali and Shuddha Seemanthini are popular. See List of janya rāgams for all of Todi's janyas.

Popular compositionsEdit

Most composers have composed songs in Todi.[3] Thyagaraja alone has composed about 32 compositions in this raga with each composition starting at every single note of the three octaves. Thāye Yashoda, composed by Oottukkadu Venkata Kavi, is a very well known composition, in the Tamil language. This popular kriti is sung frequently in concerts. A popular varnam in the Todi rāgam is Erā Nāpai by Patnam Subramania Iyer, one of the famous composers of Carnatic music.

Other popular compositions are:

Film SongsEdit

Language:TamilEdit

Song Movie Year Composer Singer
Ellam Sivan Seyal Sivakavi 1943 Papanasam Sivan M. K. Thyagaraja Bhagavathar
Kattradhu Kai Mannalavu Avvaiyar 1953 M. D. Parthasarathy,

Anandaraman and Mayavaram Venu

K. B. Sundarambal
Ennai Pol Pennallavo Vanangamudi 1957 G. Ramanathan P. Suseela
Pesuvadhu Killiyaa Panathottam 1963 Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela
Aadaludan Paadalai Kudiyirundha Koyil 1968
Enge Nimmadhi Puthiya Paravai 1964 T. M. Soundararajan
Thodiyil Padugiren Raga Bandhangal Kunnakudi Vaidyanathan T. N. Seshagopalan
Gangai Karai Mannanadi Varusham 16 1989 Ilaiyaraaja K. J. Yesudas
Nethu Kodutha Kathal Saathi Karthik
Usure Pogudhey Raavanan 2010 A.R. Rahman Karthik, Mohammad Irfan Ali
Megam Karukuthu Kushi 2000 Deva Harini
Thodi Raagam Paadava Maanagara Kaaval 1991 Chandrabose K. J. Yesudas, K. S. Chithra
Mankatha Theme Mankatha 2011 Yuvan Shankar Raja

Related rāgamsEdit

Todi's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam, yields 5 other major melakarta rāgams, namely, Kalyani, Shankarabharanam, Natabhairavi, Kharaharapriya and Harikambhoji. For further details and an illustration of graha bhedam of this rāgam refer related rāgams section in Shankarabharanam page.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani: S   M P   
    • Western: C D E F G A B C
  2. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani:    P M   S
    • Western: C B A G F E D C

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Sri Muthuswami Dikshitar Keertanaigal by Vidwan A Sundaram Iyer, Pub. 1989, Music Book Publishers, Mylapore, Chennai
  2. ^ a b c Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications
  3. ^ a b Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras