Dheerashankarabharanam

  (Redirected from Dheerasankarabharanam)

VeeraDhīraśankarābharaṇaṃ, commonly known as Śankarābharaṇaṃ, is a rāga in Carnatic music. It is the 29th Melakarta rāga in the 72 Melakarta rāga system of Carnatic music. Since this raga has many Gamakās (ornamentations), it is glorified as "Sarva Gamaka Maaṇika Rakti Rāgaṃ" in Telugu.

Shankaraabharanam
Mela29th, Dheera Shankaraabharanam
ChakraBāṇa
ArohanamS R₂ G₃ M₁ P D₂ N₃ 
Avarohanam N₃ D₂ P M₁ G₃ R₂ S
SynonymDheera Shankaraabharanam
Equivalent

By scale wise, the Śankarābharaṇaṃ scale corresponds to Bilaval in the Hindustani music system. The Western equivalent is the major scale, or the Ionian mode.[1][2] Hence this rāga is one of the most popular scales across the world, known with different names in different musical styles.

Its nature is mellifluous and smooth. This rāga offers a large scope for compositions. It is ideal for a melodious, but still laid back majestic presentation.

Structure and LakshanaEdit

 
Śaṃkarābharaṇaṃ scale with shadjam at C

It is the 5th rāga in the 5th Chakra Bāṇa. The mnemonic name is Bāṇa-Ma. The mnemonic phrase is sa ri ga ma pa da ni sa[1] Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms):

The notes in this scale are shadjam, chatushruti rishabham, antara gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, paṅchamam, chatushruti dhaivatam and Kakali Nishadam. As it is a Melakarta rāga, by definition it is a Sampurṇa rāga (has all seven notes in ascending and descending scale). It is the Shuddha Madhyamam equivalent of 65th Melakarta rāga Kaḷyāṇi.

Janya RāgasEdit

Due to the even spacing of svarās, many janya rāgas can be derived from Śaņkarābharaṇaṃ. It is one of the melakarta rāgas that has high number of Janya rāgas (derived scales) associated with it.

Many of the Janya rāgas are very popular on their own, lending themselves to elaboration, interpretation and evoking different moods. Some of them are Arabhi, Atana, Bilahari, Devagaandhaari, Jana Ranjani, Hamsadhvani, Kadanakutuhalam, Niroshta, Shuddha Sāveri, Pahādi, Purnachandrika, Janaranjani, Kedaram, Kurinji, Navroj, Sarasvati-manohari, Naagadhvani etc.

See List of Janya rāgas for full list of rāgas associated with Śaṃkarābharaṇaṃ.

CompositionsEdit

Śankarābharaṇaṃ has been decorated with compositions by almost all composers. A few of the compositions are listed here.

Muthuswami Dikshitar also has a list of 22 "Nottu Svara" compositions, based on Western Major Scale notes to his credit.

Related rāgasEdit

This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rāga.

Śaṃkarābharaṇaṃ's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam, yields 5 other major Melakarta rāgas, namely, Kaḷyāṇi, Hanumatodi, Natabhairavi, Kharaharapriya and Harikambhoji. Graha bhedam is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rāga. Refer table below for illustration of this concept.

Rāga Mela # C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C
Śaṃkarābharaṇaṃ 29 S R2 G3 M1 P D2 N3 S' R2' G3' M1' P' D2' N3' S' '
Kharaharapriya 22 S R2 G2 M1 P D2 N2 S'
Hanumatodi 08 S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N2 S'
Kaḷyāṇi 65 S R2 G3 M2 P D2 N3 S'
Harikambhoji 28 S R2 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S'
Natabhairavi 20 S R2 G2 M1 P D1 N2 S'
Not a Melakarta -- S R1 G2 M1 M2 D1 N2 S'
Shankarābharanam 29 S R2 G3 M1 P D2 N3 S'

Notes on above table

C as the base for Śaṃkarābharaṇaṃ is chosen for above illustration only for convenience, as Carnatic music does not enforce strict frequency/note structure. The shadjam (S) is fixed by the artist as per the vocal range or the instrument's base frequency. All the other svarams are relative to this shadjam, falling into a geometric progression-like frequency pattern.

The 7th Graha bhedam of Śaṃkarābharaṇaṃ has both madhyamams (Ma) and no panchamam (Pa) and hence will not be considered a valid melakarta (rāga having all 7 swarams and only 1 of each). This is only a classification issue with respect to melakarta scales, while this structure could be theoretically used well to create good music (probably needs an expert).

Interesting featuresEdit

The swaras are regularly spaced in these ragas. Hence these six ragas give very good melody, scope for elaboration, experimentation and exploration of phrases. In practice, Natabhairavi is not elaborated extensively much. Harikambhoji is taken up for elaboration, but not as much as the rest of the 4 ragas, namely, Śaṃkarābharaṇaṃ, Todi, Kaḷyāṇi and Kharaharapriya. One of these 4 rāgas is sung as the main rāga in a concert quite often.

As can be seen in the illustration, these rāgas can be played using just the white keys of a piano/ organ/ keyboard (rāga in simplified fashion).

Film Songs: TamilEdit

Song Movie Composer Singer
Chandrodhayam Idhile Kannagi S. V. Venkatraman P. U. Chinnappa
Madi Meethu Annai Illam K V Mahadevan T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela
Manam Padaithen Kandhan Karunai P. Susheela
Aththaan En Aththaan Paava Mannippu Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy
Kaadhellenum Vadivam Kanden Bhagyalakshmi
Kaana Vandha Kaatchiyenna
Enna Enna Vaarththaigalo Vennira Aadai
Ore Raagam Ore Thaalam Manapanthal
Kaatru Vandhal Kathiruntha Kangal P. B. Sreenivas, P. Susheela
Kanpadume Pirar Kanpadume P. B. Sreenivas
Paadadha Paatellam Veerathirumagan
Maadi Mele Maadikati Kadhalikka Neramillai
Enna Paarvai K. J. Yesudas, P. Susheela
Kaadhalika Neramillai Sirkazhi Govindarajan
Roja Malare Raajakumari Veerathirumagan P. B. Sreenivas, P. Susheela
Poga Poga Theriyum Server Sundaram
Andru Vandhadhum Periya Idathu Penn T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela
Naan Maanthoppil Enga Veettu Pillai
Aandavan Padachan Nichaya Thaamboolam T. M. Soundararajan
Adho Andha Paravai Pola Aayirathil Oruvan
Naan Kavignanum Ilai Padithal Mattum Podhuma
Moondrezhuthil En Moochu Dheiva Thaai
Kadhal Embadhu Paadha Kaanikkai P. B. Sreenivas, P. Susheela, L. R. Eswari, J. P. Chandrababu
Epo Vechikalam Bandha Pasam J. P. Chandrababu
Enna Paravai Sirakadithu Karthigai Deepam R. Sudarsanam T. M. Soundararajan(ver 1), P. Susheela(ver 2)
Pudhu Naadagathil Ooty Varai Uravu M. S. Viswanathan T. M. Soundararajan
Kettavarellam Paadalam Thangai
Anubhavi Raja Anubhavi Anubavi Raja Anubavi P. Susheela, L. R. Eswari
Maanendru Pennukoru P. Susheela
Naan Paadum Paatile Bhavani
Love Birds Anbe Vaa
Maharaja Oru Maharaani Iru Malargal T. M. Soundararajan, Shoba Chandrasekhar
Enni Irundhadhu

(Ragam Neelambari Touches)

Andha 7 Naatkal Malaysia Vasudevan, Vani Jairam
Vidiya Vidiya Solli Pokkiri Raja S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, P. Susheela
Dil Dil Dil Manadhil Mella Thirandhathu Kadhavu
Aadungal Paadungal Guru Ilaiyaraaja S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Pudhucheri Katcheri Singaravelan
Thene Thenpaandi Udaya Geetham
Nilaave Vaa Mouna Ragam
Yerikkarai Poongaatre Nee Pora Vazhi Thooral Ninnu Pochchu K. J. Yesudas
Thaalattudhe Vaanam Kadal Meengal P. Jayachandran, S. Janaki
Pudhu Maapilaiku Apoorva Sagodharargal S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. P. Sailaja
Aalapol Vellapol Ejamaan S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chithra
Paarthathenna Paarvai Naangal
Indha Minminiku Sigappu Rojakkal Malaysia Vasudevan, S. Janaki
Malaiyaala Karaiyoram Rajadhi Raja Mano
Germaniyin Senthen Malare Ullasa Paravaigal S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Anjali Anjali Anjali Anjali Sathya, Karthik Raja, Yuvan Shankar Raja,

Bhavatharini, Venkat Prabhu, Premji Amaran, Parthi Bhaskar,Hari Bhaskar,Vaishnavi

Thulli Ezhunthathu Geethanjali Ilaiyaraaja
Kanmani Anbodu Kadhalan Gunaa Kamal Haasan, S. Janaki
Kuzhaloodhum Kannanuku Mella Thirandhathu Kadhavu K. S. Chithra
Dillu Baru Jaane Kalaignan Mano, K. S. Chithra
Nila Kaayum Neeram Chembaruthi Mano, S. Janaki
Paattu Poove
April Mayilae Idhayam Ilaiyaraaja, Deepan Chakravarthy, S.N.Surendar
Naan Erikarai Chinna Thayee K. J. Yesudas, Swarnalatha
Maalai En Vethanai Sethu Unni Krishnan,Arunmozhi, S.N.Surendar
Pullankuzhal Mozhi Tamil Oorum Uravum Shankar Ganesh S. P. Balasubramaniam, Vani Jairam
Thendrale Kadhal Desam A. R. Rahman Mano, Unni Krishnan
O Vennila Unni Krishnan
Kandukondain Kandukondain(Ragam Nalinakanthi Touches also) Kandukondain Kandukondain Hariharan, Mahalakshmi Iyer
Maanooththu Manthaiyile Kizhakku Cheemayile S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Sasirekha
Ini Achcham Achcham Illai Indira Sujatha Mohan, Anuradha Sriram, G. V. Prakash, Shweta Mohan, Esther
Thoda Thoda Malarndhadhenna S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chithra
Kangalil Enne Uzhavan
Pennalla Pennalla S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Moongilile Paatisaikum Kaatralaiyai Raagam Thedum Pallavi T. Rajendar
Mazhaiyum Neeye Azhagan Maragadha Mani
Sa Sa Sa Sani thapa niveathaa Nee Pathi Naan Pathi
Naadodi Paattu Paada Harichandra Agosh
Enna Kathai Solla Annanagar Mudhal Theru Chandrabose S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chithra
Shenbaga Poovai Paasamalargal V. S. Narasimhan S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Sujatha Mohan
Nalam Nalamariya Aval Kadhal Kottai Deva S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Anuradha Sriram
Pulveli Pulveli Aasai K. S. Chithra, Unni Krishnan(Humming only)
Yeno Yeno Appu Hariharan, Sujatha, Harini
Aval Ulaghazhagi Lesa Lesa Harris Jayaraj Karthik
Rakita Rakita Rakita Jagame Thanthiram Santhosh Narayanan Dhanush, Santhosh Narayanan
Kadhale Kadhale Konjam Koffee Konjam Kaadhal Phani Kalyan Prasanna, Neha Nair

Janya 1:Ragam Pahadi/PahariEdit

It is an evening raga that combines both playful and pensive aspects. It is characterized by a very charming, folksy flavor.Peace, power, pathos. Pahadi is a Kashimiri folk melody in its origin, is a simple raga one may think of it as a dhoon.

Ascending: S R2 G3 P D2 P D2 S’

Descending:N3 D2 P G3 M1 G3 R2 S N3 D2 P D2 S

Film Songs: TamilEdit

Song Movie Composer Singer
Kodi Kodi Inbam Aadavantha Deivam K. V. Mahadevan T. R. Mahalingam, P. Susheela, P. Leela
Unnai Arinthaal Vettaikkaran T. M. Soundararajan
Katti Thangam Vetti Thayai Katha Thanayan
Neela Chelai Katti Konda Thiruvilaiyadal P. Susheela
Aththai Magane Paadha Kaanikkai Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy
Kannuku Kulam Yedu Karnan
Thannilavu Theniraikka Padithal Mattum Podhuma
Pakkathu Veettu Paruva Machaan Karpagam
Vaa Endrathu Kathiruntha Kangal
Yaar Yaar Aval Pasamalar P. B. Sreenivas, P. Susheela
Naadu Athai Naadu Nadodi T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela
Manam Ennum Medai Mele Vallavanukku Vallavan Vedha
Innum Parthukondirunthal Vallavan Oruvan
Ponmeni Thazhuvamal(Reused tune) Yaar Nee? P. Susheela
Pachai Maram Ontru Ramu M. S. Viswanathan
Ippadiyor Thalattu Avargal S. Janaki
Vizhiye Kathai Ezhudhu Urimaikural K. J. Yesudas, P. Susheela
Bharathi Kannamma Ninaithale Inikkum S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Vani Jairam
Ore Jeevan Neeya? Shankar–Ganesh
Ore Naal Unnai Naan Ilamai Oonjal Aadukirathu Ilaiyaraaja
Vaan Megangale Puthiya Vaarpugal Malaysia Vasudevan, S. Janaki
Pani Vizhum Poo Nilave Thaipongal Malaysia Vasudevan, S. P. Sailaja
Alli Thantha Bhoomi Nandu Malaysia Vasudevan
Vizhiyil En Vizhiyil Ram Lakshman S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, P. Susheela
Oru Iniya Manathu Johnny Sujatha Mohan
Azhagae Azhagu Raja Paarvai K. J. Yesudas
Magizham Poove Unnai Parthu Puthiya Adimaigal K. J. Yesudas, P. Susheela
Ramanin Mohanam Netrikkan K. J. Yesudas, S. Janaki
Engey Enn Jeevane Uyarndha Ullam
Chinna Chinna Sol Eduthu Rajakumaran
Seer Kondu Vaa Naan Paadum Paadal S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Mounamana Neram Salangai Oli
Salaiyoram Payanangal Mudivathillai
Nilavondru Kanden Kairasikkaran
Vaa Vennila Mella Thirandhathu Kadhavu
Vaigai Nathioram Rickshaw Mama
Koondukulla Unna Vachu Chinna Gounder
Nadu Samathile Thirumathi Palanisamy
Ennodu Paattu Paadungal Udaya Geetham S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Poguthae Poguthae Kadalora Kavithaigal
Yedhedho Ennam Valarthen Punnagai Mannan K. S. Chithra
Ninaitthathu Yaro Paattukku Oru Thalaivan Mano, Jikki
Indha Maan Unthan Sontha Maan Karakattakkaran Ilaiyaraaja, K. S. Chithra
Vechalum Vekkama Ponnalum Michael Madana Kama Rajan Malaysia Vasudevan, S. Janaki
Dhoori Dhoori Manathil Oru Dhoori Innisai Mazhai S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Shoba Chandrasekhar
Oru Kolakili Sonnathey Pon Vilangu P. Jayachandran,Sunandha
Kuthalakuyile Kuthalakuyile Thirumathi Palanisamy Malaysia Vasudevan, Minmini
Kezhukkaale Sevathu Nattupura Pattu Arun Mozhi, Devie Neithiyar
Poovarasan Poove Kadavul Arunmozhi, Sujatha Mohan
Poo Poothadu Mumbai Xpress Sonu Nigam, Shreya Ghoshal, Shaan
Pungatru Un Peru Solla Vettri Vizhaa S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chithra
Marugo Marugo
Adi Vaanmathi Siva
Ennatthil Yedho Kallukkul Eeram S. Janaki
Raasave Unna Nambi Muthal Mariyathai
Thanner Kudam Sakkarai Devan
Alli Alli Veesuthama Atha Maga Rathiname Gangai Amaran
Yedho Nadakkirathu Manithan Chandrabose K. J. Yesudas, K. S. Chithra
Neela Kuyilgal Rendu Viduthalai S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Chandrabose and chorus
Medhuva Meduva Annanagar Mudhal Theru S. P. Balasubrahmanyam,K. S. Chithra
Manasula Enna Nenache Periya Idathu Pillai K. J. Yesudas, P. Susheela
Mela Mela Nadanthu Urimai Geetham Manoj - Gyan S. P. Balasubrahmanyam,Vidhya
Thulli Thulli Pogum Penne Velicham K. J. Yesudas
Kangala Minnala Endrendrum Kadhal S. P. Balasubrahmanyam,K. S. Chithra
O Thendrale S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Maiyil Thogai Ragasiya Police Laxmikant–Pyarelal
Innum Konjam Maryan A. R. Rahman Vijay Prakash, Swetha Mohan
Chitthirai Nilavu Vandicholai Chinraasu P. Jayachandran, Minmini
Hosanna Vinnaithaandi Varuvaayaa Vijay Prakash, Suzanne, Blaaze
Moongil Thottam Kadal Abhay Jodhpurkar, Harini
Khwaja Endhan Khwaja Jodhaa Akbar A. R. Rahman
Enakke Enakka Jeans P. Unnikrishnan, Pallavi
Unakaga

(Ragam Bihag touches also)

Bigil Sreekanth Hariharan, Madhura Dhara Talluri
Kathivaithu Kangal Irandum Mannavaru Chinnavaru Geethapriyan Sukhwinder Singh,Ranjani
Un Per Solla Minsara Kanna Deva Hariharan, Sujatha Mohan
Kottungadi Kummi Surieyan S. Janaki,S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Oh Laali Adimai Changili Gopal Sharma, Swarnalatha
Oru Pen Pura Annaamalai K. J. Yesudas
Aasai Aasaiyai Aanandham S. A. Rajkumar
Poonthendrale Nee Padivaa Manasukkul Mathappu P. Jayachandran,Sunandha(ver 1)

K. S. Chithra(ver 2)

Aayiram Thirnaal Pudhu Vasantham K. S. Chithra,Kalyan
Oru Pouranami Raja Hariharan, Mahalakshmi Iyer
Nadodi Mannargale Vaaname Ellai Maragadha Mani K. S. Chithra & Chorus
Pachchai Thee Neeyada Baahubali: The Beginning Karthik, Damini Bhatla
Enge Andha Vennila Varushamellam Vasantham Sirpy Unni Menon
Putham Puthu Oorukku Chinna Madam
Kannil Aadum Roja Captain Swarnalatha, S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Puthu Roja Puthiruchu Gokulam Mano, Swarnalatha
Azhagooril Poothvale Thirumalai Vidyasagar S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Sujatha Mohan
Hitler Penne Poi Tippu, Sujatha Mohan
Eera Nila Aravindhan Yuvan Shankar Raja S. P. Balasubrahmanyam,'Mahanadhi' Shobana
Poove Vai Pesum Pothu 12B Harris Jayaraj Mahalakshmi Iyer, Harish Raghavendra
Pineaple Kannathodu Samudhiram Sabesh-Murali Shankar Mahadevan, Sujatha Mohan
Azhagu Katteri Goripalayam Surjith, Vijitha
May Madham Shahjahan Mani Sharma Devan, Sujatha Mohan
Aiythaaney Aiythaaney Mudhal Idam D. Imman D. Imman, Chinmayi

Janya 2:Ragam MaandEdit

Mand or Maand is the famous style of singing in Rajasthan. It is well recognized in classical circles and this style is very important in folk-songs of Rajasthan. This is neither accepted as a full-fledged Raga nor is it reckoned among the freely rendered folk songs. It is very near the Thumri or the Ghazal. It is the exclusive contribution of Rajasthani folklore to the classical music of India. It is the Rajasthan's most sophisticated style of folk music and is most exclusive contribution to the classical music of India. The basic format belongs to the folk tune of which is sung during festive occasions like birthday and marriages. The famous Rajasthani song Kesariya Balam is in the Mand style. Some famous Mand singers are: Allah Jilai Bai from Bikaner, Mangi Bai Arya from Udaipur and last but not the least Gavari Bai (also known as Gavri Devi) from Jodhpur.

Ascending: S G3 M1 D2 N3 S

Descending:S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S

Film Songs: TamilEdit

Song Movie Composer Singer
Maasila Nilave

(Ragamalika:Maand,Khambodhi,Punnagavarali)

Ambikapathy G. Ramanathan T. M. Soundararajan, P. Bhanumathi
Ulavum Thendral Manthiri Kumari Thiruchi Loganathan, Jikki
Aaduvome Pallu Paaduvome Naam Iruvar R. Sudarsanam D. K. Pattammal
Aayiram Kan Podhadhu Paavai Vilakku K. V. Mahadevan C. S. Jayaraman
Oru Naal Podhuma Thiruvilaiyadal M. Balamuralikrishna
Kumari Pennin Enga Veettu Pillai Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela
Nenjam Marappathillai Nenjam Marappathillai P. B. Sreenivas, P. Susheela
Azhage Vaa Aandavan Kattalai P. Susheela
Aayiram Penmai Malaratume Vaazhkai Padagu
Aayiram Pookkal Aayiram Pookkal Malarattum V.S.Narasimhan
Naan Endral Adhu Avalum Suryagandhi M. S. Viswanathan S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, J. Jayalalithaa
Nadanai Kandeanadi

(Ragam kathanakuthuhalam touches in charanam)

Rajaraja Cholan Kunnakudi Vaidyanathan P. Susheela,B. Radha
Mohana Punnagai Orvalamey Uravu Solla Oruvan Vijaya Bhaskar K. J. Yesudas
Raasaave Unna Naan Ennithan Thanikattu Raja Ilayaraja S. P. Sailaja
Chellapillai Saravanan Penjenmam K. J. Yesudas, P. Susheela
Vanna Chindhu Koyil Kaalai Mano, S. Janaki
Machan Un Machini Raman Abdullah Malgudi Subha
Chinna Kuyil Paadum Pattu Poove Poochooda Vaa K. S. Chitra
Vaanaththil Irunthu

(Ragamalika:Mohanam,Maand)

Vellaiya Thevan Arun Mozhi, Uma Ramanan
Aalappol Velappol

(Ragam Shankarabharanam touches also)

Ejamaan S. P. Balasubramaniam, K. S. Chitra
Anjali Anjali Duet A. R. Rahman
Sowkiyama Kannae Sangamam Nithyashree Mahadevan
Swasame Swasame

(Ragamalika:Kedar/Hamirkalyani,Maand)

Thenali S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Sadhana Sargam
Aye Mr.Minor! Kaaviya Thalaivan Shashaa Tirupati, Haricharan
Maya Maya Sarvam Thaala Mayam Chinmayi
O Meghame Chinna Chinna Aasaigal Chandrabose K. J. Yesudas, Vani Jairam
Sathi Malli Poocharame Azhagan Maragadha Mani S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Marakamudiyavillai Jaathi Malli S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chitra
Paithiyamaanene Kadal Pookkal Deva Harini, P. Unnikrishnan
Kandupidi Avanai Kandupidi Unnudan S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Harini
Putham Pudhu Malargal Kaalamellam Kadhal Vaazhga K. S. Chitra
Kaddu Thirande Kidakinrathu Vasool Raja MBBS Bharadwaj Hariharan, Sadhana Sargam

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani: S R G M P D N 
    • Western: C D E F G A B C
  2. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani:  N D P M G R S
    • Western: C B A G F E D C

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications
  2. ^ Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras