Abheri (pronounced ābhēri) is a raga in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is a Janya raga (derived scale), whose Melakarta raga (parent, also known as janaka) is Kharaharapriya, 22nd in the 72 Melakarta raga system.

Abheri
ArohanamS G₂ M₁ P N₂ 
Avarohanam N₂ D₂ P M₁ G₂ R₂ S

Bhimpalasi (or Bheempalas) of Hindustani music sounds close to Abheri.[1][2]

Structure and LakshanaEdit

 
Ascending scale with Shadjam at C
 
Descending scale with Shadjam at C

Abheri is an audava-sampoorna raga. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure (ascending and descending scale) is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms):

Abheri

The swaras in this scale are Chathusruthi Rishabham, Sadharana Gandharam, Suddha Madhyamam, Chathusruthi Dhaivatham and Kaisiki Nishadham.

There are some differing views on swaras in the scale of Abheri. It is considered a Bhashanga raga (scale has an anya swara, that is, a note which is not in the parent melakarta raga, in this case Kharaharapriya raga), with introduction of Suddha Dhiavatham (D1) in some phrases of the raga.[1] A different view is that this raga is a janya of Natabhairavi (which has D1, suddha dhaivatham, in place of D2), with D2 being the anya swara (external note).[2]

This raga is closer to Bhagyasree as for Bhagyasree Gandharam is sung softly. Thus a subtle difference of Gandhara makes a listener to feel this raga as Bhagyasree.

Popular compositionsEdit

A very popular composition in Abheri raga is Nagumomu Ganaleni, a kriti by Thyagaraja, one of the three eminent composers in Carnatic music. Another well known composition is Bhajare Re Manasa, a kriti composed by Mysore Vasudevachar Gokula-nilaya krupalaya is also composed by Mysore Vasudevacharya in the same raga. Ancient Tamil Sangam period poetry, Veral Veli by Kapilar was set to Abheri raga in Sandham: Symphony Meets Classical Tamil by Composer Rajan. Muthuswami Dikshitar has composed Vinabheri in this raga. However, the scale used by Mudduswamy Deekshitar is different from the scale used in Abheri today.

There are many thukadas (or short songs, that are sung towards end of a Carnatic concert) composed in this raga of which Vellai Thamarai penned by Subramanya Bharathi is noteworthy. This raga has been extensively used in movie songs/ movie music. The most popular movie song in this raga is Aakaasa veedhilo from the old Telugu classic movie Malliswari (1951) sung by Ghantasala and Bhanumati.

Film SongsEdit

Language: TamilEdit

Song Movie Year Composer Singer
Yaanai Thandham Pole Amarakavi 1952 G. Ramanathan, T. A. Kalyanam M. K. Thyagaraja Bhagavathar, P. Leela
Thanga Nilavil Thirumanam 1958 S. M. Subbaiah Naidu, T. G. Lingappa A. M. Rajah, Jikki
Vaarai Nee Vaarai Manthiri Kumari 1950 G. Ramanathan Thiruchi Loganathan, Jikki
Kannan Mananilayai Deivathin Deivam 1962 S. Janaki
Singaravelane Deva Konjum Salangai 1962 S. M. Subbaiah Naidu
Isai Thamizh Thiruvilaiyadal 1965 K. V. Mahadevan T. R. Mahalingam
Kadhalaagi Thiruvarutchelvar 1967 T. M. Soundararajan, Master Maharajan
Gangai Karai Thottam Vanambadi 1963 P. Suseela
Komatha Engal Kulamatha Saraswati Sabatham 1966
Velodu Vilaiyaadum Murugaiyaa Chitrangi 1964 Vedha
Pazhamuthir Solaiyilae Kuzhandaiyum Deivamum 1965 M. S. Viswanathan
Raagangal Pathinaaru Thillu Mullu 1981 S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Poo Malaiyil Ooty Varai Uravu 1967 T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela
Malarnthum Malaradha Pasamalar 1961 Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy
Anbu Megame Engamma Sapatham 1974 Vijaya Bhaskar S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Vani Jairam
Kuyile Kavikuyile Kavikkuyil 1977 Illayaraja S. Janaki
Vasantha Kaala Kolangal Thyagam 1978
Naatham En Jeevanae Kaadhal Oviyam 1982
Kandane Engum Kaatrinile Varum Geetham 1978
Chinna Chiru Vayathil Meendum Kokila 1981 K. J. Yesudas, S. P. Sailaja
Megam Karukkuthu Anandha Ragam 1982 K. J. Yesudas, S. Janaki
Velakku Vetcha Mundhanai Mudichu 1983 Illayaraja, S. Janaki
Poovae Poochudava Poove Poochooda Vaa 1985 K. J. Yesudas
Velli Golusu Pongi Varum Kaveri 1989 Arunmozhi, K. S. Chithra
Kallidasan Kannadasan Soorakottai Singakutty P. Jayachandran, P. Susheela
Poonkaaviyam Karpoora Mullai 1991 K. J. Yesudas, P. Suseela, K. S. Chithra
Sangathamizh Kaviye

(Ragamalika: Abheri, Bageshri, Sumanesa Ranjani)

Manathil Uruthi Vendum 1987 K. J. Yesudas, K. S. Chithra
Dhevadhai Poloru Gopura Vasalile 1991 Malaysia Vasudevan, Mano, Deepan Chakravarthy, S. N. Surendar
Ennai Thottu Unna Nenachen Pattu Padichen 1992 S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Swarnalatha
Mayilaadum Thoppil Chinna Pasanga Naanga 1992 S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Unn Manasile Paattuthaan Paandi Nattu Thangam 1989 S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chithra
Poovendrum Ponne Endrum Dhuruva Natchathiram
Guruvayurappa Pudhu Pudhu Arthangal 1989
Muththamizhe Muththamizhe Raman Abdullah 1997
Orellam Un Pattuthan Orellam Un Pattu K. J. Yesudas, Swarnalatha (Sad version)
Punnaivana Ponguiyile Sevanthi 1994 Arunmozhi, Swarnalatha
Kannodu Kaanbadhellam Jeans 1998 A. R. Rahman Nithyashree Mahadevan
Taniye Taniye Rangeela 1995 S. Janaki
Muppadhu Nimidam Parasuram 2003 P. Unnikrishnan, Sujatha Mohan
Sahana Sivaji: The Boss 2007 Udit Narayan, Chinmayi, A. R. Rahman
Thanimayile Sattam Oru Iruttarai 1981 Sankar Ganesh S. N. Surendar, S. Janaki
Vennila Mugham Paduthu Jyothi Malar 1986 K. J. Yesudas, Vani Jairam
Poove Nee Yaar Solli Thaniyatha Thagam A. A. Raj Malaysia Vasudevan, S. Janaki
Nagumo Arunachalam 1997 Deva Hariharan, K. S. Chithra
Sempattu Poove Purusha Lakshanam 1993 S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chithra
Pathinettu Vayadhu Suriyan 1992 S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Poothirukkum Vaname Pudhayal 1997 Vidyasagar Hariharan, Uma Ramanan
Malare Oru Varthai Poomagal Oorvalam 1999 Siva Hariharan, Sujatha Mohan
Sollamalae Poove Unakkaga 1996 S. A. Rajkumar P. Jayachandran, Sujatha, Sunandha
Pudhu Kadhal Pudhukottaiyilirundhu Saravanan 2004 Yuvan Shankar Raja Ranjith, Chinmayi
Engeyo Paartha Yaaradi Nee Mohini 2008 Udit Narayan
Endhan Uyir Thozhiyae Winner 2003
Unakkul Naane Pachaikili Muthucharam 2007 Harris Jayaraj Bombay Jayashri
Kana Kaangiren Ananda Thandavam 2009 G. V. Prakash Kumar Nithyashree Mahadevan, Shubha Mudgal, Vinita, Uluwissu Santhoshan Suarez
Uyire Uyire Ellame En Kadhali M. M. Keeravani Mano, K. S. Chithra
Kannamma Ispade Rajavum Idhaya Raniyum 2019 Sam C. S. Anirudh Ravichander

AlbumEdit

Song Language Album Composer Lyricist Singer Audio Label / Licence to
Veral Veli Tamil Sandham Rajan Somasundaram Kapilar (Kuruntokai 18) Bombay Jayashri Rajan Somasundaram
Suvakshoja Kumbham Sanskrit Sharada Bhujangam Mahesh Mahadev Adi Shankaracharya Priyadarshini PM Audios
Palisennanu Sri Mahalakshmi Kannada Palisennanu Sri Mahalakshmi Mahesh Mahadev Purandara Dasa Priyadarshini PM Audios

Popular Classical Albums on this RaagamEdit

An excellent rendition of this Raaga can be found in one of L. Shankar Albums Raga Aberi. He received a Grammy Nomination for this composition.

Related rāgamsEdit

This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rāgam.

Abheri's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam, yields 3 other janya rāgams, namely, Mohanakalyani, Kedaragaula and Arabhi (if we consider the Kharaharapriya-based scale). Graha bhedam is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the Shadjam to the next note in the rāgam. In case of Janya ragams, only notes that occur in both ascending and descending scale are taken for this change. For further details and an illustration of Graha bhedam refer Graha bhedam on Sankarabharanam. Abheri has close resemblance to Karnatakadevagandhari and Bhimpalasi. Whether they are essentially same is a matter of debate among the musicologists.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani: S  M P  
    • Western: C E F G B C
  2. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani:   D P M  R S
    • Western: C B A G F E D C

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications
  2. ^ a b Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras