Madhyamavati

Madhyamavati (madhyamāvati) is a rāga in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is an audava rāga (or owdava rāga, meaning pentatonic scale), as it does not have all the seven musical notes (swaras). It is a janya rāga (derived scale). The equivalent of Madhyamavati in Hindustani music is Madhumad Sarang.[1][2]

Madhyamavati
ArohanamS R₂ M₁ P N₂ 
Avarohanam N₂ P M₁ R₂ S

It is considered a very auspicious rāgam and every Carnatic music concert ends with either a song in Madhyamavati or the ending of the last song is sung in this rāgam.[3] It is very suitable for elaboration and exploration due to even spacing of notes. The scale uses the first three notes of the cycle of fifths S, P and R2 and fourths S, M1 and N2.[3]

Madhyamavati is considered a janya rāga of Kharaharapriya, the 22nd Melakarta rāga, though it can be derived from other melakarta rāgas, Charukesi, Natabhairavi or Harikambhoji, by dropping both gāndhāram and dhaivatam.

Structure and LakshanaEdit

 
Madhyamavati scale with shadjam at C

Madhyamavati is a symmetric rāga that does not contain gāndhāram or dhaivatam. It is a pentatonic scale (audava-audava rāgam[1][3] in Carnatic music classification - audava meaning 'of 5'). Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure (ascending and descending scale) is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms):

This scale uses the notes chatushruti rishabham, shuddha madhyamam, panchamam and kaisiki nishadam. Madhyamavati is considered a janya rāga of Kharaharapriya, the 22nd Melakarta rāga, though it can be derived from other melakarta rāgas, Charukesi, Natabhairavi or Harikambhoji, by dropping both gāndhāram and dhaivatam.[citation needed]

Popular compositionsEdit

Madhyamavati rāgam lends itself for extensive elaboration and exploration and has many compositions. Here are some popular kritis composed in this scale.

Non Film SongsEdit

Song Language Album Composer Lyricist Singer Audio Label
Nagendra Haraya[4] Sanskrit Shiva Stotram Mahesh Mahadev Adi Shankaracharya Mahesh Mahadev, Priyadarshini PM Audios
Paliso Sri Hari enna ne Paliso Kannada Dasamruta Mahesh Mahadev Harapanahalli Bhimavva Mahesh Mahadev, Priyadarshini PM Audios

Film SongsEdit

Language:KannadaEdit

Song Movie Composer Singer
Nammora Mandara Hoove Aalemane C. Ashwath S. P. Balasubramanyam
Hrudayave Ninna Belli Modagalu Upendra Kumar S. Janaki, Mano
Kodagana Koli Nungitha Santa Shishunala Sharifa C. Ashwath C. Ashwath
Sakala Karya Karanige Malaya Marutha K.J. Yesudas Vijaya Narasimha

Language:TamilEdit

Song Movie Composer Singer
Arbutha Leelaigalai Sivagami K. V. Mahadevan M. K. Thyagaraja Bhagavathar
Engiruntho Vanthan Padikkadha Medhai Seerkazhi Govindarajan
Thirumal Perumaikku(Ragamalika) Thirumal Perumai T. M. Soundararajan
Malarodu Vilaiyaadum Deiva Balam Aswathama P. B. Srinivas,S. Janaki
Muthukkalo Kangal Nenjirukkum Varai M.S.Viswanathan T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela
Pachaikili Muthucharam Ulagam Sutrum Valiban
Sandhanathil Nala Vaasam Praptham
Aagaya Gangai Dharma Yuddham Illayaraja Malaysia Vasudevan, S. Janaki
Anandham Then Sindhum Mann Vasanai
Nila Kayuthu(Sri Ragam traces too) Sakalakala Vallavan
Adi Penney Mullum Malarum Jency Anthony
En Kalyana Azhage Unnai Aarathikkiren Vani Jairam
Solaikuyile Ponnu Oorukku Pudhusu S. P. Sailaja
Eeramana Rojave Ilamai Kaalangal K. J. Yesudas,S. Janaki(little girl's voice)
Thazham Poovae Vaasam Kai Kodukkum Kai S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Sevvanthi pookalil Mella Pesungal Deepan Chakravarthy, Uma Ramanan
Kuyile Kuyile Aan Paavam Malaysia Vasudevan, K.S. Chitra
Nee Pogum Pathayil Gramatthu Minnal Malaysia Vasudevan
Ejamaan Kaladi Ejamaan
Azhagaana Mancha Pura Ellame En Rasathan Mano, S. Janaki
Nee Thane Enthan Ninaivellam Nithya S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Kavithai Paadu Thendrale Ennai Thodu
Thanga Nilavukkul Rickshaw Mama
Ponmeni Uruguthey Moondram Pirai S. Janaki
Kadhal Vennila Lakshmi Vandhachu Ravindran
Tholvi Nilayenna Oomai Vizhigal Manoj Gyan P. B. Srinivas,Aabavanan
Thom Karuvil Irundom Star A. R. Rahman Shankar Mahadevan
Columbus Jeans A. R. Rahman
Thaiyya Thaiyya Uyire Sukhwinder Singh,Malgudi Subha,Palakkad Sriram
Alangatti Mazhai Thenali Kamal Haasan,Srinivas,Sujatha Mohan,Baby Silono Rath & Baby Sharanya Srinivas
Thumbi Thullal(Abheri traces also) Cobra Nakul Abhyankar,Shreya Ghoshal
Anandham Anandham Murai Maman Vidyasagar P. Unni Krishnan, Sujatha Mohan, Manorama
Aiyyarettu Majaa Shankar Mahadevan, Anuradha Sriram
Kandaen Kandaen Madhurey Madhu Balakrishnan, Sadhana Sargam
Edhedho Karpanai Vaai Kozhuppu Chandrabose TL Thyagarajan,Lalitha Sagari
Vizhamale Irukka Mudiyuma Student Number 1 M. M. Keeravaani S. P. B. Charan, K.S. Chitra
Aadiyile Sedhi En Aasai Machan Deva K.S. Chitra
Mamarakkuyile Maamarakuyile En Aasai Rasave S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Swarnalatha
Uthu Uthu Paakathinga Veeram Vilanja Mannu P. Unnikrishnan,Swarnalatha
Athipazham Sivappa Raja Pandi S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chithra
Paathi Nila Kamarasu S. A. Rajkumar
Dhavanipotta Deepavali Sandakozhi Yuvan Shankar Raja Vijay Yesudas, Shreya Ghoshal
Thaaliyae Thevaiyillai Thaamirabharani Hariharan,Bhavatharini
Dheivangal Ellam Kedi Billa Killadi Ranga Vijay Yesudas
Ivan Yaaro Minnale Harris Jayaraj P. Unni Krishnan,Harini
Nenjangootil Dishyum Vijay Antony Jayadev, Rajalakshmi
Chembaruthi Poo Vinnukum Mannukum Sirpy Arunmozhi, K.S. Chitra
Paathi Kadhal Modhi Vilayadu Colonial Cousins Bombay Jayashree,Sunitha Sarathy
Kannum Kannum Sundhara Travels Bharani Krishnaraj

Related rāgasEdit

This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rāgam.

Graha bhedamEdit

Madhyamavati's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam, yields 4 other major pentatonic rāgas, namely, Mohanam, Hindolam, Shuddha Saveri and Udayaravichandrika (also known as Shuddha Dhanyasi).[3] Graha bhedam is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rāga. For more details and illustration of this concept refer Graha bhedam on Mohanam.

Scale similaritiesEdit

  • Kedaragaula is a rāgam\ which has the ascending scale of Madhyamavati and descending scale of Harikambhoji. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is S R₂ M₁ P N₂ S: S N₂ D₂ P M₁ G₃ R₂ 
  • Manirangu is a rāga which has gāndhāram in the descending scale, while all other notes in both the ascending and descending scale are same as Madhyamavati. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is  R₂ M₁ P N₂ S: S N₂ P M₁ G₂ R₂ 
  • Revati is a rāga which has shuddha rishabham in place of chatushruti rishabham in the scale, while all other notes are same as Madhyamavati. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is  R₁ M₁ P N₂ S: S N₂ P M₁ R₁ 
  • Brindāvana Sāranga is also a rāga that has some similarities in scale with Madhyamavati. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is  R₂ M₁ P N₃ S: S N₂ P M₁ R₂ G₂ 
  • Andolika is an asymmetric rāga which has chatusruti dhaivata in place of panchama only in the descending scale, while all other notes are same as Madhyamavati. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is  R₂ M₁ P N₂ S: S N₂ D₂ M₁ R₂ S

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani: S R M P  
    • Western: C D F G B C
  2. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani:   P M R S
    • Western: C B G F D C

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras
  2. ^ Rao, B. Subba (1956). Bharatiya Sangeet: Raga Nidhi: Encyclopedia of Indian Ragas, a Comparative Study of Hindustani & Karnatak Ragas. V. Patwardhan, Chairman, Vishnu Digambar Smarak Samiti.
  3. ^ a b c d Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications
  4. ^ Nagendra Haraya (Full Song) - Mahesh Mahadev feat. Priyadarshini - Download or Listen Free - JioSaavn, retrieved 5 September 2020