The June Revolution (Albanian: Lëvizja e Qershorit) also known as the Antibourgeois Democratic Revolution (Albanian: Revolucioni Demokrat Antiborgjez) was a revolt backed by the parliamentary opposition to the Zog I government, following the 1923 Albanian parliamentary election.

June Revolution

Fan Noli in Tirana after taking power
DateJune 1924

Noli victory

Noli Supporters
AlbaniaGovernment of Albania
Russia White Army[1]
Commanders and leaders

Fan Noli
Riza Cerova
Bajram Curri
Luigj Gurakuqi
Elez Isufi

Hasan Prishtina

Albania Ahmet Zogu
Albania Ceno Kryeziu

Albania Osman Gazep
Albania Iliaz Vrioni
Russia Ilja Miklashevsky
Units involved
Çeta of Dishnicë
Volunteer's from Skrapari,Përmet and Vlora
Albanian Armed Forces
117 soldiers
Casualties and losses
26 Deaths, 50 Injuries



Following the 1923 Albanian elections results, Zogu's faction won 44 seats and opposition candidates 39. The 19 independent, mostly conservative candidates supported Zogu, allowing him to form a government. However, the opposition parties alleged electoral fraud, claiming that their strong performance in the first round of voting should have led to them winning a majority in the second round.[2]

On April 20, 1924 Avni Rustemi, an Albanian politician, was shot in the street of Tirana by an agent of the Toptani Family, Jusuf Reçi (because of his murder of Essad Toptani). His death gave rise to the anti-government demonstrations that led to the June Revolution.[3]



The Uprising was split into two fronts: The Northern Front organized by the Committee of Kosovo and led by Bajram Curri which supported Noli due to the rivalry between them and the government of Zogu, and the southern front which was led by Riza Cerova. The Uprising was strongly supported by Albanian Peasants. The Albanian peasantry appeared diverse. Part of them dreamed of owning a piece of land or expanding the small amount of land they owned. The rest wanted to be freed from heavy and numerous state obligations, such as the tithe, the jalap tax, the slavery tax, and other wastes of the feudal system. The Southern Front was composed of the Përmet Garrison and Volunteers from Skrapar. Following several Skirmishes against the government forces, Riza Cerova leading an armed group of ~120 men would take over Berat and would make his way to Tirana.[4] In Kozare he encountered Osman Gazep who was sent from Tirana with a battalion to suppress the uprising. Following the Battle of Kozare, Cerova would defeat the Government Forces and would occupy Lushnje where he was attacked by Osman's forces again but managed to defeat them. Around this time the Vlora volunteers would arrive to assist the Uprising. With all of the southern forces, the rebels would occupy Tirana as Ahmet Zogu would flee to Yugoslavia. According to US estimates, 20 people were killed and 35 were injured on the northern front, while 6 people were killed and 15 were injured on the southern front.[5]



Following the occupation of Tirana on June 10, Fan Noli became the Prime Minister on June 16. Noli, an idealist, rejected demands for new elections on the grounds that Albania needed a "paternal" government. Noli's coalition proposed his "Twenty Points Program" that would see the implementation of radical reforms in Albania. Fan Noli as politician had Left wing views based on collectivism,egalitarianism,reformism and nationalism but all of them failed. He also failed to gather the financial support that was necessary to implement it. The United States, United Kingdom and other European countries did not recognize Noli's government and they kept affairs only with Soviet Union that under Joseph Stalin.[6]

On 13 December 1924, Ahmet Zogu led an army of 1,000 Yugoslav and Russian volunteers financed by Belgrade into Albania. Noli's supporters clashed with them where Elez Isufi a famous highlander tribesman from Dibra as Noli's supporter got injured during fighting in Peshkopi and died later. On Christmas Eve, Zog's forces reclaimed the capital, and Noli fled to Italy.[citation needed] Noli's government only lasted for six months. The exiled members of the revolution went on to form KONARE.[citation needed]


  1. ^ "The Tragedy of Albania's Russian Community". Retrieved 2024-05-19.
  2. ^ Austin, Robert Clegg (2012-01-01). Founding a Balkan State: Albania's Experiment with Democracy, 1920-1925. University of Toronto Press. pp. 36–7. ISBN 978-1-4426-4435-9.
  3. ^ Dervishi, Kastriot (2008). Plumba politikës: historitë e përgjakjes së politikanëve shqiptarë (in Albanian). Shtëpia Botuese "55". p. 47. ISBN 978-99943-56-43-0.
  4. ^ Telegraf, Gazeta (3 July 2018). "Revolucioni i Qershorit të 1924-s dhe forcat e Riza Cerovës".
  5. ^ Austin, Robert C. (2012). Founding a Balkan State: Albania's Experiment with Democracy, 1920-1925. ROBERT C. AUSTIN. p. 262. ISBN 978-1-4426-9973-1. JSTOR 10.3138/j.ctt2tv0q6.