Prime Minister of Albania

The Prime Minister of Albania (Albanian: Kryeministri i Shqipërisë), officially styled Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Kryeministri i Republikës së Shqipërisë), is the head of government of the Republic of Albania and the most powerful and influential person in Albanian politics. The prime minister holds the executive power of the nation and represents the Council of Ministers and chairs its meetings.

Prime Minister of Albania
Kryeministri i Shqipërisë
Kryeministri i Shqipërisë.svg
Rama in 2020
Incumbent
Edi Rama

since 15 September 2013
StyleHis Excellency (diplomatic)
Member ofCouncil of Ministers
ResidenceKryeministria
AppointerPresident
Formation29 November 1912; 109 years ago (1912-11-29)
First holderIsmail Qemali
WebsiteOfficial Page

The prime minister is appointed by the president of Albania after each general election and must have the confidence of the Parliament of Albania to stay in office. The Council is responsible for carrying out both foreign and domestic policies. It directs and controls the activities of the ministries and other state organs. The prime minister is elected on the basis of universal suffrage, through a secret ballot, for a four-year term. The Constitution of Albania sets no limit as to office terms of the prime minister.

The 33rd and current officeholder is Edi Rama of the Socialist Party who was elected on 23 June 2013 and started his first four-year-term on 15 September 2013.

Powers, duties and responsibilitiesEdit

The prime minister of the Albania, officially styled Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania, is the most powerful and influential state officeholder in the Albanian system of government.

One important role of the president is to designate a candidate for the office of prime minister who, in the opinion of the president, is best able to command a majority of the members of the Parliament.[1] As head of government, the prime minister is charged with directing the internal policy of the country and leads the public administration. In this regard, the government cooperates with other interested social actors. If the prime minister is temporarily absent or incapable of exercising its executive power, the deputy prime minister takes over his functions, such as chairing the cabinet and the council of ministers.

The Constitution states that the prime minister represents the council of ministers and chairs its meetings,[2] outlines and presents the principal general policies of the state and is responsible for them, assures the implementation of legislation and policies approved by the Council of Ministers, coordinates and supervises the work of the members of the Council of Ministers and other institutions of the central state administration, performs other duties contemplated in the Constitution and laws, resolves disagreements among ministers, and issues orders in the exercise of his powers.[3] The prime minister can also initiate a proceeding of the Constitutional Court of Albania.[4]

OathEdit

Before assuming duty, the prime minister-elect is required to take an oath of office before the President, swearing loyalty to the Constitution. The text of the oath in its Albanian form is sensitive to gender and all nouns always retain a neutral form. The prime minister-elect takes the following oath of office, specified by the Constitution:[5][6]

Albanian: Betohem se do t’i bindem Kushtetutës dhe ligjeve të vendit, do të respektoj të drejtat dhe liritë e shtetasve, do të mbroj pavarësinë e Republikës së Shqipërisë dhe do t’i shërbej interesit të përgjithshëm dhe përparimit të Popullit Shqiptar. The President may add: Zoti më ndihmoftë!

English:

I swear that I will obey to the Constitution and laws of the country, that I will respect the rights and freedoms of citizens, protect the independence of the Republic of Albania, and I will serve the general interest and the progress of the Albanian People. The President may add: So help me God!

Office and residenceEdit

 
The facade of the Kryeministria.

The Prime Minister's Office (Albanian: Kryeministria) is the official office and residence of the prime minister. It provides secretarial assistance to the prime minister. The prime minister through his office coordinates with all ministers in the central union cabinet, minister of independent charges and governors and ministers of state government. Furthermore informal meetings between the prime minister and other government or foreign officials takes place in the Office. It also consists of the immediate staff of the prime minister of Albania, as well as multiple levels of support staff reporting to the prime minister. Since 1941, the building serves as the office and residence of the prime minister. The building is in the capital city of Tirana at the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard, near the Mother Teresa Square.

The building was planned by the Italian architects Florestano Di Fausto and Gherardo Bosio, and constructed together with the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard, the Mother Teresa Square and all the buildings located on these squares, during the Italian occupation of Albania in 1939 to 1941, in a Rationalist style.

List of prime ministers (1912–present)Edit

No. Portrait Name Term in office Government
  Albania (1912–1914)[7]
1st   Ismail Qemali
(1844–1919)
 
4 December 1912 22 January 1914 Provisional Government
1 year, 1 month and 18 days
International Control Commission
(22 January 1914 – 7 March 1914)
  Principality of Albania (1914–1925)
2nd   Turhan Pasha Përmeti
(1846–1927)
 
14 March 1914 3 September 1914 Përmeti Governments (I and II)
5 months and 20 days
3rd   Esad Toptani
(1863–1920)
 
5 October 1914 27 January 1916 Toptani Government
1 year, 3 months and 22 days
Austro-Hungarian Command
(23 January 1916 – 30 October 1918)
  Turhan Pasha Përmeti
(1846–1927)
 
25 December 1918 29 January 1920 Përmeti III Government
1 year, 1 month and 4 days
4th   Sulejman Delvina
(1884–1933)
 
30 January 1920 14 November 1920 Delvina Government
9 months and 15 days
5th   Ilias Vrioni
(1882–1932)
 
15 November 1920 16 October 1921 Vrioni Governments (I and II)
11 months and 1 day
6th   Pandeli Evangjeli
(1859–1949)
 
16 October 1921 6 December 1921 Evangjeli I Government
1 month and 20 days
7th   Qazim Koculi
Acting Prime Minister
(1887–1943)
 
6 December 1921 6 December 1921 Koculi Government
0 days
8th   Hasan Prishtina
(1873–1933)
 
7 December 1921 12 December 1921 Prishtina Government
5 days
9th   Idhomen Kosturi
Acting Prime Minister
(1873–1943)
 
12 December 1921 24 December 1921 Kosturi Government
12 days
10th   Xhafer Ypi
(1880–1940)
 
24 December 1921 2 December 1922 Ypi Government
11 months and 8 days
11th   Ahmet Zogu
(1895–1961)
 
2 December 1922 25 February 1924 Zogu I Government
1 year, 2 months and 23 days
12th   Shefqet Vërlaci
(1877–1946)
 
3 March 1924 27 May 1924 Vërlaci Government
2 months and 24 days
  Ilias Vrioni
(1882–1932)
 
30 May 1924 10 June 1924 Vrioni III Government
11 days
13th   Fan Noli
(1882–1965)
 
16 June 1924 24 December 1924 Noli Government
6 months and 8 days
  Ahmet Zogu
(1895–1961)
 
6 January 1925 31 January 1925 Zogu II Government
8 months and 17 days
During the period of the Republic, the role of the prime minister was exersised by the Minister of Justice.
(1 February 1925 – 1 September 1928)
  Albanian Kingdom (1928–1939)
14th   Kostaq Kotta
(1886–1947)
 
5 September 1928 5 March 1930 Kotta I Government
1 year and 6 months
  Pandeli Evangjeli
(1859–1949)
 
6 March 1930 16 October 1935 Evangjeli Governments (II, III and IV)
5 years, 7 months and 10 days
15th   Mehdi Frashëri
(1872–1963)
 
21 October 1935 7 November 1936 Frashëri Government
1 year and 17 days
  Kostaq Kotta
(1886–1947)
 
9 November 1936 7 April 1939 Kotta II Government
2 years, 4 months and 29 days
Interim Administrative Committee
(8 April 1939 – 12 April 1939)
  Italian Occupation (1939–1943)
  Shefqet Vërlaci
(1877–1946)
 
12 April 1939 3 December 1941 Vërlaci II Government
2 years, 7 months and 21 days
16th   Mustafa Merlika-Kruja
(1887–1958)
 
3 December 1941 4 January 1943 Merlika-Kruja Government
1 year, 1 month and 1 day
17th   Ekrem Libohova
(1882–1948)
 
18 January 1943 11 February 1943 Libohova I Government
24 days
18th   Maliq Bushati
(1880–1946)
 
12 February 1943 28 April 1943 Bushati Government
2 months and 16 days
  Ekrem Libohova
(1882–1948)
 
11 May 1943 12 September 1943 Libohova II Government
4 months and 1 day
German Occupation (1943–1944)
Interim Executive Committee
(14 September 1943 – 4 November 1943)
19th   Rexhep Mitrovica
(1887–1967)
 
5 November 1943 16 June 1944 Mitrovica Government
7 months and 11 days
20th   Fiqri Dine
(1897–1960)
 
18 July 1944 28 August 1944[8] Dine Government
1 month and 10 days
21st   Ibrahim Biçaku
(1905–1977)
 
6 September 1944 25 October 1944 Biçaku Government
1 month and 19 days
  People's Socialist Republic of Albania (1944–1991)
22nd   Enver Hoxha
(1908–1985)
 
23 October 1944 19 July 1954 Hoxha Governments (I, II and III)
9 years, 8 months and 26 days
23rd   Mehmet Shehu
(1913–1981)
 
20 July 1954 26 April 1980 Shehu Governments (I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII)
27 years, 4 months and 28 days
24th   Adil Çarçani
(1922–1997)
 
15 January 1982 21 February 1991 Çarçani Governments (I, II and III)
9 years, 1 month and 6 days
  Republic of Albania (1991–present)
25th   Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
 
22 February 1991 4 June 1991 Nano Governments (I and II)
3 months and 13 days
26th   Ylli Bufi
(born 1948)
 
11 June 1991 6 December 1991 Bufi Government
5 months and 25 days
27th   Vilson Ahmeti
(born 1951)
 
18 December 1991 13 April 1992 Ahmeti Government
3 months and 26 days
28th   Aleksandër Meksi
(born 1939)
 
13 April 1992 1 March 1997 Meksi Governments (I and II)
4 years, 10 months and 16 days
29th   Bashkim Fino
(1962–2021)
 
11 March 1997 24 July 1997 Fino Government
4 months and 13 days
  Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
 
25 July 1997 28 September 1998 Nano III Government
1 year, 2 months and 3 days
30th   Pandeli Majko
(born 1967)
 
2 October 1998 25 October 1999 Majko I Government
1 year and 23 days
31st   Ilir Meta
(born 1969)
 
28 October 1999 29 January 2002 Meta Governments (I and II)
2 years, 3 months and 1 day
  Pandeli Majko
(born 1967)
 
22 February 2002 25 July 2002 Majko II Government
5 months and 3 days
  Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
 
29 July 2002 10 September 2005 Nano IV Government
3 years, 1 month and 12 days
32nd   Sali Berisha
(born 1944)
 
10 September 2005 13 September 2013 Berisha Governments (I and II)
8 years and 3 days
33rd   Edi Rama
(born 1964)
 
13 September 2013 Incumbent Rama Governments (I, II and III)
8 years, 4 months and 5 days

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA". osce.org. p. 19. At the beginning of a legislature, as well as when the position of Prime Minister is vacant, the President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister on the proposal of the party or coalition of parties that has the majority of seats in the Assembly.
  2. ^ "1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA". osce.org. p. 20. represents the Council of Ministers and chairs its meetings;
  3. ^ Article 102, Section 1-3 of the Constitution of Albania (22 November 1998)
  4. ^ Article 134, Section 1(b) of the Constitution of Albania (22 November 1998)
  5. ^ "1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA". osce.org. p. 19. Before taking office, the Prime Minister, the deputy prime minister, and the ministers take an oath before the President of the Republic.
  6. ^ "KUSHTETUTA E REPUBLIKËS SË SHQIPËRISË" (PDF). wipo.int (in Albanian). Betohem se do t'i bindem Kushtetutes dhe ligjeve te vendit, do te respektoj te drejtat dhe lirite e shtetasve, do te mbroj pavaresine e Republikes se Shqiperise dhe do t'i sherbej interesit te pergjithshem dhe perparimit te Popullit Shqiptar". Presidenti mund te shtoje edhe: "zoti me ndihmofte
  7. ^ Dervishi, Kastriot (2012). Kryeministrat dhe ministrat e shtetit shqiptar në 100 vjet. Tiranë: Shtëpia Botuese "55". p. 273. ISBN 978-9994356225. OCLC 861296248.
  8. ^ Pearson, Owen (2005). Albania in Occupation and War: From Fascism to Communism, 1940-1945. London: The Centre for Albanian Studies. p. 1982. ISBN 1-84511-014-5.