The Molossians (Greek: Μολοσσοί or Μολοττοί, romanizedMolossoi or Molottoi) were a group of ancient Greek tribes which inhabited the region of Epirus in classical antiquity.[1][2] Together with the Chaonians and the Thesprotians, they formed the main tribal groupings of the northwestern Greek group.[3] On their northern frontier, they neighbored the Chaonians and on their southern frontier neighbored the kingdom of the Thesprotians. They formed their own state around 370 BC and were part of the League of Epirus. The most famous Molossian ruler was Pyrrhus of Epirus, considered one of the greatest generals of antiquity. The Molossians sided against Rome in the Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC) and were defeated. Following the war, the region witnessed devastation while a considerable number of Molossians and other Epirotes were enslaved and transported to the Roman Republic, overwhelmingly in the Italian Peninsula itself.

Molossia in antiquity.

Ancient sources

Coin of Molossi, 360–330/25 BC. Obverse: Vertical thunderbolt on shield, ΜΟΛΟΣΣΩΝ (of Molossians) around shield. Reverse: Thunderbolt within wreath.

According to Strabo, the Molossians, along with the Chaonians and Thesprotians, were the most famous among the fourteen tribes of Epirus, who once ruled over the whole region. The Chaonians ruled Epirus at an earlier time, and afterwards the Thesprotians and Molossians controlled the region. The Thesprotians, the Chaonians, and the Molossians were the three principal clusters of Greek tribes that had emerged from Epirus and were the most powerful among all other tribes.[4]

The Molossians were also renowned for their vicious hounds, which were used by shepherds to guard their flocks. This is where the canine breed Molossoid, native to Greece, received its name. Virgil tells us that in ancient Greece the heavier Molossian dogs were often used by the Greeks and Romans for hunting (canis venaticus) and to watch over the house and livestock (canis pastoralis). "Never, with them on guard," says Virgil, "need you fear for your stalls a midnight thief, or onslaught of wolves, or Iberian brigands at your back."

Strabo records that the Thesprotians, Molossians and Macedonians referred to old men as pelioi (πελιοί) and old women as peliai (πελιαί) (<PIE *pel-, "grey"). Cf. Ancient Greek πέλεια peleia, "pigeon", so-called because of its dusky grey color. Ancient Greek πελός pelos meant "grey".[5] Their senators were called Peligones (Πελιγόνες), similar to Macedonian Peliganes (Πελιγᾶνες).[6]

Molossian royalty


The Molossian ruling dynasty claimed to be descended from mythological Molossus, one of the three sons of Neoptolemus, son of Achilles and Deidamia. Following the sack of Troy, Neoptolemus and his armies settled in Epirus where they joined with the local population. Molossus inherited the kingdom of Epirus after the death of Helenus, son of Priam and Hecuba of Troy, who had married his erstwhile sister-in-law Andromache after Neoptolemus's death. According to some historians, their first king was Phaethon, one of those who came into Epirus with Pelasgus. According to Plutarch, Deucalion and Pyrrha, having set up the worship of Zeus at Dodona, settled there among the Molossians.[4] At the time, among writers of the classical era these stories were not doubted .[7] According to Johannes Engels (2010) in the Oxford Companion to Macedonia, genealogical links through the Trojan cycle and other myths strongly connected Epirus with the rest of Greece, precluding serious debate about the Greekness of the Epirotes, including the Molossians.[8]

The most famed member of the Molossian dynasty was Pyrrhus, who became famous for his several Pyrrhic victories in battle over the Romans. According to Plutarch, Pyrrhus was the son of Aeacides of Epirus and a Greek woman from Thessaly named Phthia, the daughter of a war hero in the Lamian War. Pyrrhus was a second cousin of Alexander the Great. Moreover, Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great, was a member of this celebrated sovereign house.


Political structure of the ancient Greek world (8th–5th centuries BC). Tribal social structures in purple.

Molossian core


During the Late Bronze Age the Molossians were probably located over much of the central and western ranges of the Pindos.[9] They were among the known Greek tribes of the Mycenaean period (1600–1100 BC) after the Proto-Greek split.[10] The area of Pogoni has been regarded as the heartland of the Molossian tribes due to the large number of tumuli burials found in this region dating from that time.[11] They initially lived in small unwalled settlements, kata komas, mainly scattered in the river valleys and lakeside areas of central Epirus. Among those settlements the most excavated were located in Liatovouni at the confluence of the Aoös and Voidomatis rivers at the valley of Konitsa established in the 13th–12th century B.C and Vitsa (from 9th century B.C).[12] At the earliest burial at Liatovouni Mycenaean weapons were unearthed. This Molossian cemetery consist of a total of 103 burials and was in use until late 5th to early 4th century B.C.[13] A large Molossian cemetery, was also found at Koutsokrano, Pogoni.[14]

Molossian expansion


Molossians were also among the Greek colonists that reached the Ionian shore of Asia Minor during the period of its colonization (1020–900 BC).[15][16] The Molossian expansion in Epirus possibly began in the early 6th century BC. As such they became a leading power in the region already from the time of historian Hecataeus (c. 550–476 BC).[17] Their expansion was primarily directed towards the Thesprotians. However, the nearby Chaonians also lost some pastures but they kept control of an area stretching from Grammos (ancient Boion) to the southwest of Ohrid-Prespa.[18]

The Epirotes were traditionally in friendly terms with the Corinthians, however in 5th century BC during the last decades of the reign of Tharyps, the Molossians adopted a pro-Athenian policy. This change had also its effects in trade.[19]

In 385 BC, Alcetas, the deposed Molossian king who was exiled to the court of Dionysius of Syracuse with aid by the Illyrians, attacked the faction of Molossian dynasty who had overthrown him and attempted to take power.[20] Dionysius planned to control all the Ionian Sea. Sparta intervened and expelled the Illyrians who were led by Bardyllis.[21][22][23] Even with the aid of 2,000 Greek hoplites and 500 suits of Greek armour, the Illyrians were defeated by the Spartans (led by Agesilaus) but not before ravaging the region and killing 15,000 Molossians.[23] Alcetas eventually managed to restore his power and brought the Molossian state closer to Athens (the traditional enemy of Sparta).

Unified Epirus


The ruling Molossian Aeacidae dynasty managed to create the first centralized state in Epirus c. 370 BC, expanding their power at the expense of rival tribes. The Aeacids allied themselves with the increasingly powerful kingdom of Macedon, in part against the common threat of Illyrian raids,[24] and in 359 BC the Molossian princess Olympias, niece of Arybbas of Epirus, married King Philip II of Macedon (r. 359–336 BC). She was to become the mother of Alexander the Great. On the death of Arybbas, Alexander the Molossian, uncle of Alexander the Great of Macedon, succeeded to the throne with the title King of Epirus.[25]

In 334 BC, the time Alexander the Great crossed into Asia, Alexander I the Molossian led an expedition in southern Italy in support of the Greek cities of Magna Graecia against the nearby Italian tribes and the emerging Roman Republic. After some successes on the battlefield, he was defeated by a coalition of Italic tribes at the Battle of Pandosia in 331 BC.

In another Illyrian attack in 360 BC, the Molossian king Arymbas (or Arybbas) evacuated his non-combatant population to Aetolia and let the Illyrians loot freely. The stratagem worked, and the Molossians fell upon the Illyrians, who were encumbered with booty, and defeated them.[23][26]

In 330 BC, upon Alexander the Molossian's death, the term "Epirus" appears as a single political unit in the ancient Greek records for the first time, under the leadership of the Molossian dynasty. Subsequently, the coinages of the three major Epirote tribal groups came to an end, and a new coinage was issued with the legend Epirotes.[27]

After Alexander's I death, Aeacides of Epirus, who succeeded him, espoused the cause of Olympias against Cassander, but was dethroned in 313 BC.

Reign of Pyrrhus


Aeacides's son Pyrrhus came to the throne in 295 BC. Pyrrhus, being a skillful general, was encouraged to aid the Greeks of Tarentum and decided to initiate a major offensive in the Italian peninsula and Sicily. Due to its superior martial abilities, the Epirote army defeated the Romans in the Battle of Heraclea (280 BC). Subsequently, Pyrrhus's forces nearly reached the outskirts of Rome, but had to retreat to avoid an unequal conflict with a more numerous Roman army. The following year, Pyrrhus invaded Apulia (279 BC) and the two armies met in the Battle of Asculum where the Epirotes won the eponymous Pyrrhic victory, at a high cost.[28]

In 277 BC, Pyrrhus captured the Carthaginian fortress in Eryx, Sicily. This prompted the rest of the Carthaginian-controlled cities to defect to Pyrrhus.[29] His Italian campaign came to an end following the inconclusive Battle of Beneventum (275 BC). Having lost the vast majority of his army, he decided to return to Epirus, which finally resulted in the loss of all his Italian holdings. Because of his costly victories, the term "Pyrrhic victory" is often used for a victory with devastating cost to the victor.[30]

Koinon of the Epirotes


In 233 BC, the last surviving member of the Aeacid royal house, Deidamia, was murdered. Her death brought the Epirote royal family to an abrupt extinction and a federal republic was set up. The reasons for the swift fall of the Aeacid dynasty were probably complex. Aetolian pressure must have played a part, and the alliance with Macedonia may have been unpopular; in addition, there were perhaps social tensions.[31] However, Epirus remained a substantial power, unified under the auspices of the Epirote League as a federal state with its own parliament (or synedrion).[31]

In the following years, Epirus faced the growing threat of the expansionist Roman Republic, which fought a series of wars with Macedonia. The League remained neutral in the first two Macedonian Wars.[32] However, they sided with the anti-Roman Macedonian-Illyrian pact in the Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC). After the Roman victory, a total of 150,000 Epirotes, mostly Molossians, were enslaved and sent to Italy, by decision of the Roman Senate. This decision is the only such act of the Roman senate and the largest, single, slave-hunting operation in Roman history. In the following years, Epirote slaves in Italy outnumbered slaves of other origins and the majority of slave marriages were between Epirotes.[33] In historiography, the decision of the senate has been the subject of much debate, as the two main anti-Roman powers of the time in that region, the Macedonians and the Illyrians, suffered few consequences in contrast to the Molossians in terms of punishment. In past scholarship, the theory of Howard Hayes Scullard was the most recognized theory. He connected the measures taken by the Romans to Charops of Epirus, member of a rival tribe the Chaonians – a Roman ally – who in order to gain command of the region, pushed for the extermination of the Molossians.[34] This interpretation is based on the negative assessment of Charops, already in ancient sources, as Polybius calls him "the most savage and degenerate of all men". The modern interpretation of the events, focuses more on the structural reasons which led to this decision by the Romans rather than the personal politics of regional actors.[35] The plague of 174 BC caused a great reduction of available labor in Italy, which was supplied almost exclusively by slave labor. In the following years, slave-hunting became a central feature of Roman campaigns. The Roman senate, which represented the landowning elite, specifically targeted the Molossians because of the proximity of their territory to Brundisium and Taranto would require a much lower cost of transportation. In comparison, at least 65,000 Sardinians and many other tribes were enslaved in the same year.[36] However, recent research and new interpretations on the scale of the devastation has challenged those traditional views by some contemporary authors, as such those claims about 70 razed settlements and 150,000 captured slaves were not exact, but symbolic figures.[37] Though the region witnessed widescale destruction the Greek language in Epirus showed remarkable vitality in the following centuries both in the cities as well as outside them.[38]




Map of Ancient Greek dialects.

There is today an overall consensus that the Molossians were among the Greek-speaking population of Epirus, which spoke the North-West Doric dialect of Ancient Greek, akin to that of Aetolia, Phocis, and certain other regions,[39][40] this is also attested by the available epigraphic evidence in Epirus.[41] Eugene Borza argues that the Molossians originated from those Proto-Greek tribes that inhabited northwestern Greece in c. 2.600 BC.[42] Linguist Vladimir Georgiev argues that northwestern Greece, including Molossia, was part of the proto-Greek region, before the Late Bronze Age migrations.[43] After the split of proto-Greek (c. 1700 BC) the northern Greek dialect was spoken in Epirus. Greek speech continued to be spoken in Epirus from the beginning of the Mycenaean period (c.1600) and onwards.[44] As such the Molossians were among the 32 known Greek tribes of the Mycenaean Age in particular after the split of Proto-Greek.[10] N. G. L. Hammond (1982) argues that the Molossians and other Epirote tribes spoke Greek at least from the Dark Ages (1100–800 BC).[45][46] The language the Epirotes spoke was regarded as a primitive Northwestern Greek dialect, but there was no question that it was Greek.[8]

Earlier historians (Nilsson (1909 and 1951), Meyer (1878)) argued for a possible partial Hellenization of pre-classical Epirus, with Greek elites ruling over a population of non-Greek origin. However, such views were based on subjective ancient testimonies and are not supported by the earliest epigraphic evidence.[47]

Society and views among Greeks


In modern research, the question of identity has arisen about what constituted the ancient Greek identity, with mode of life as the main criterion of ethnicity construction, regardless of what language they spoke. In each given historical era, the Molossians were regarded as "barbarians" by many contemporary Greeks, not on the basis of language, but because of their tribal way of life, their organization, and their pastoral economy. In this context, the Epirotes were more similar to the Macedonians and the non-Greek Illyrians than to those ancient Greeks who were organized in city-states.[48][8] A wider hellenization process among Molossians and other Epirotes continued after the Roman conquest,[49] nevertheless most scholars don't object the fact that they were Greek in terms of language.[40] In the view of Irad Malkin, following Hammond, Greek was spoken at least since the 5th century BC, and notes that it may have been the prestige language without the Molossians themselves necessarily being regarded as Greeks.[50] Moreover, Malkin specifies that they were Greek-speakers, though not universally regarded as "Greek" by other Greeks.[51] According to Johannes Engels, however, the way of life in Epirus was more archaic than that in the Corinthian and Corcyrean colonies on the coast, but there was never a discussion about their Greekness.[8]

The ancient historians and geographers did not follow the scientific methods of modern linguists, who record in detail the speech of the groups they study; their information was based, more rarely on personal experiences, and mostly on the impressions of each of their informants, who as a rule, had neither philological training nor particularly linguistic interests.[52] A far more reliable source about the actual views of the Greeks regarding Epirus is the list of theorodokoi (Ancient Greek: θεωρόδοκοι or θεαροδόκοι; sacred envoy-receivers whose duty was to host and assist the theoroi (θεωροί, "viewers") before the Panhellenic games and festivals), listing Greek cities and tribes, to which the major Panhellenic sanctuaries sent theoroi in Epidaurus, which includes all of the Epirotic tribes. The weight of this evidence is decisive because only Greeks were allowed to participate in the Panhellenic games and festivals.[53][54] The list, which was compiled in 360 BC, includes the sacred envoys (members of the ruling family of each tribe or subtribe) of the Molossians, Kassopeans, Chaonians and Thesprotians.[55]

The oracle of Dodona was located in the center of the homeland of the Molossians, the Molossis, which has always been regarded as a Greek oracle, the latter being a well-established religious sanctuary of Zeus since at least the Geometric Age (c. 1100–800 BC). Aristotle stated that "Hellas" was located around Dodona and Achelous. Moreover, according to Malkin, two of the three comprehensive names used for the Greeks still in use to this day (Graikoi, Hellenes and Ionians) are associated with Dodona and Epirus.[56] Aristotle also considered the region around Dodona the region where the Hellenes originated.[57]

Local Greek script


The first inscriptions come from Corinthian colonies or dedications to Dodona and are not representative of sites in Epirus, although some of the early Dodona tablets may be related to Epirus.[58][59] The first epigraphic evidence in Epirus outside of Dodona and the nearby colonies dates from the beginning of 4th century BC. The Molossian decrees issued during the reign of king Neoptolemos I (370–368 BC) display considerable experience in the use of Greek language. They used a Greek dialect which was not borrowed by nearby Corinthian colonies, but a distinct northwestern Greek dialect similar to Akarnanian, Aetolian and Lokrian, which also exhibited several unique features. Thus, the possibility of being borrowed is rejected.[60] Most inscriptions comes from the late Classical or the Hellenistic era, in which they were under influence from a northwestern Doric dialect also used by the adjacent populations.[61] The epigraphic corpus unearthed during the recent decades also yielded a great number of onomastics which is of Greek origin akin to the onomastic areas of Thessaly and Macedon. Based on these points the possibility of Greek being not the ancestral language among Epirotes can be easily rejected.[62]

Historian Elizabeth Meyer, in 2013 suggested a new chronology for some inscriptions in Dodona (from early 4th century to one century later), if accurate this would have larger implications about local history,[63][64][65] but not all historians will be convinced by the interpretations suggested in this account and further investigation is needed.[65]


Bronze figurine of Zeus Keraunios bearing a thunderbold from the oracle of Dodona. National Archeological Museum, Athens.

In terms of religion they worshipped the same gods like the rest of the Greeks. No traces of non-Greek deities were found until the Hellenistic age (with the introduction of oriental deities in the Greek world). Their supreme deity was Zeus and the Oracle of Dodona found in the land of the Molossians attracted pilgrims from all over the Greek world. As with the rest of the Epirotes they were included in the thearodokoi catalogues where only Greeks were allowed to participate in Panhellenic Games and festivals.[66]

Mythological royal genealogy


In ancient Greece common descent was demonstrated thorough genealogies and foundation legends. As such the local royal household, the settlements and tribes traced their origin to Achaean mythical heroes of the Mycenaean era. Such genealogies were known and widely accepted in Ancient Greece at least from the end of the Archaic period, as demonstrated in the poems of Pindar (c. 518 – 438 BC) dedicated to the Achaean Neoptolemos.[67][68] As such, in order to increase their prestige, the ruling dynasty of the Molossians in classical antiquity constructed a prestigious genealogy going back to the Trojan War and then these names from the Trojan cycle were used for contemporary rulers of the dynasty like Neoptolemos and Pyrrhus of Epirus.

In the case of the Molossian ruling class, the philosopher who has been credited with much of the mythological construction of their origins is Proxenus of Atarneus (early 4th century BC).[69] This use of names from Iliad was contrary to ancient Greek name giving customs of classical antiquity in which names from the Iliad were not given to living people.[69] When the ruling class of the Molossians began to construct such a genealogy is unclear. The various theories place it chronologically from a post-Odyssey framework to the 5th century BC. The initial reasons for doing so are also debated.

The conflict with the Thessalian tribes to the east (who claimed similar mythological ancestry as the later Molossians) and the beginning of the Hellenization of the Molossians in the 5th century BC have been argued as contributing factors for these constructions.[70] An important point is that the function of this construction of a fictional genealogy by the ruling dynasty of the Molossians was not to Hellenize the ethnic origin of their people, but to heroize their house.[48] In this context, the purpose of the constructed genealogy was to provide the Molossian dynasty with a "cultural passport as Greeks" in their relations with other ruling houses.[71] These genealogical claims from the Molossian ruling dynasty were part of a planned effort by them in order to use elements of Greek culture for their own political ends in order to dominate in regional power struggles.[72]

Politics and offices


Plutarch writes a story that was related to him, according to which, the Molossian king Tharrhypas was the first in his dynasty to become renowned, as he organized his cities on a system of Greek customs, rules and regulations. He was probably responsible for the earliest known decrees of the Molossian state in 370–368 BC, during the reign of his grandson Neoptolemus I; though, the institutions originated much earlier, and the dialect in which they are written is not, as was believed, the Doric of the Corinthian colonies, but a Northwest Greek dialect with several distinctive features, so as to rule out the case of it having been borrowed.[52][73] In the early 4th century BC (c. 370–368 BC), the Molossian officials were the king, the prostatai (Greek: προστάται) literally meaning "protectors" like most Greek tribal states at the time,[74] the grammateus (Greek: γραμματεύς) meaning "secretary", the hieromnemones (Greek: ἱερομνήμονες) literally meaning "of the sacred memory" and the ten damiourgoi (Greek: δημιουργοί) literally meaning "creators"; one each for the ten tribes which made up the Molossian group (Arctanes, Tripolies, Celaethoi, Genoaei, Ethnestes, Triphyles, Omphales, Onopernoi and Amymnoi.[75] Once a year the king of the Molossians, having sacrificed to Zeus Areios as god of war, made a formal exchange of oaths with the Molossian tribes, swearing to rule in accordance to the laws.[76] A later inscription, dating probably within the reign of Neoptolemus (shortly before c. 360 BC), named the Molossian state as "koinon of the Molossians" and mentioned not only the previous ten tribes but also additional five (among them the Orestae and the Paroroi)[75]—from the region of north Pindus—a region which had evidently entered Molossian rule. The state officials now were: the king, the prostates, the secretary (grammateus) and a board of fifteen synarchontes (Greek: συνάρχοντες), literally meaning "co-rulers", instead of the earlier ten damiourgoi. The king also held the military command as an 'Aeacidae'; a descendant of Achilles.[77]

An inscription from the 4th century stated (referring to Alexander I of Epirus):[78]

When King was Alexandros when of Molossoi prostatas was Aristomachos Omphalas secretary was Menedamos Omphalas resolved by the assembly of the Molossoi; Kreston is benefactor hence to give citizenship to Kteson and descent line

The shrine of Dodona was used for the display of public decisions.[79] Despite having a monarchy, the Molossians sent princes to Athens to learn of democracy, and they did not consider certain aspects of democracy incompatible with their form of government.[80][81]



The typical emblem inscribed on Molossian coins was the molossian dog on a shield with the legend Μολοσσοί. [82]

List of Molossians


Family tree of kings of Epirus

Family of Molossians
king of Epirus
430–392 BC
Alcetas I
king of Epirus
390–370 BC
Neoptolemus I
king of Epirus
370–357 BC
king of Epirus
370–343 BC
Philip II
king of Macedon
OlympiasAlexander I
king of Epirus
343/2–331 BC
TroasAlcetas II
king of Epirus
313–306 BC
king of Epirus
331–316, 313 BC
daughter of
Menon IV of Pharsalus
Alexander the Great
king of Macedon
lord of Asia
CleopatraNeoptolemus II
king of Epirus
302–297 BC
Deidamia IDemetrius I Poliorketes
king of Macedon
daughter of
Agathocles of Syracuse
king of Sicily
Pyrrhus I
king of Epirus 306–302 BC and 297–272 BC,
of Macedon 274–272 BC,
of Syracusse 278–276 BC
∞ 3.Bircenna
daughter of
Philip and Berenice I
Antigonos II Gonatas
king of Macedon
(1) Ptolemy
military officer
(2) Alexander II
king of Epirus
272–242 BC
(1) Olympias II
Demetrius II
king of Macedon
PhthiaPyrrhus II
king of Epirus
242–238 BC
king of Epirus
238–235 BC
king of Syracuse
Deidamia II
queen of Epirus
235 – c. 231 BC
Pyrrhus III
king of Epirus
235 BC

See also





  1. ^ Borza 1992, pp. 62, 78, 98; Encyclopædia Britannica ("Epirus") 2013; Errington 1990, p. 43; Hammond 1998, p. 19; Hammond 1994, pp. 430, 433–434; Hammond 1982, p. 284; Wilkes 1995, p. 104.
  2. ^ Hornblower, Spawforth & Eidinow 2012, p. 966: "Molossi, common name of tribes forming a tribal state (koinon) in Epirus, which originated in northern Pindus including the Orestae, FGrH 1 F 107) and expanded southwards, reaching the Ambraciote Gulf (see AMBRACIA) c.370 BC."
  3. ^ Errington 1990, p. 43.
  4. ^ a b Plutarch. Parallel Lives, "Pyrrhus".
  5. ^ Liddell & Scott 1889: πελός.
  6. ^ Liddell & Scott 1889: πελιγᾶνες.
  7. ^ Hammond, N. G. L. (1997). "The Greek Heroes and the Greek Colonies". Epirus: 4000 Years of Greek Cilization and Culture. Ekdotike Athenon: 46. ISBN 9789602133712. The proposition, that the Molossian kings aroud 500 B.C. were descended from the grandfather of Achilles, Aiakos, born some 800 years earlier, was not doubted by writers of the Classical period.
  8. ^ a b c d Joseph Roisman; Ian Worthington (7 July 2011). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 83–84. ISBN 978-1-4443-5163-7.
  9. ^ Douzougli & Papadopoulos 2010, p. 8
  10. ^ a b Katona, A. L. (2000). "Proto-Greeks and the Kurgan Theory" (PDF). The Journal of Indo-European Studies: 87. The proto-Greeks split progressively... are known (Molosssians...).
  11. ^ Press, Cambridge University (1994). The Cambridge Ancient History: The fourth century B.C. Cambridge University Press. p. 433. A very large cemetery, estimated to have a hundred tumuli, is being excavated at Koutsokrano in Pogoni, the homeland of the Molossian group of tribes.
  12. ^ Papadopoulos, John (31 August 2016). "Komai, Colonies and Cities in Epirus and Southern Albania". Of Odysseys and Oddities: Scales and Modes of Interaction Between Prehistoric Aegean Societies and Their Neighbours. Oxbow Books: 444–446. ISBN 9781785702327.
  13. ^ Papadopoulos, John K. (2010). "A New Type of Early Iron Age Fibula from Albania and Northwest Greece". Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. 79 (2): 243–244. doi:10.2972/hesp.79.2.233. ISSN 0018-098X. JSTOR 40835486. S2CID 59130541. Retrieved 20 December 2022.
  14. ^ Hammond 1994, pp. 433
  15. ^ Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière (1993). Collected Studies. Adolf M. Hakkert. p. 27. ISBN 9789025610500.
  16. ^ Hammond 1967, p. 411: "The participation of Molossians in the Ionian migration (c. 1020 to 900 BC)".
  17. ^ Hammond, 1997, p. 55
  18. ^ Hammond, 1997, p. 56: "The Molossian expansion was at the expense of the Thesprotian group especially. The Chaonians may have lost some pastures, but they kept control of these on the greenstone formation which run from Grammos to the south-western side of the lakeland (by Moschopolis and Shipischa). They suffered losses too at the hands of the Taulantioi and the settlers at Apollonia, who captured the southern part of the coastal plain, the Malakastra."
  19. ^ Vokotopoulou, Julia (1997). "Archaeology and Art". Epirus: 4000 Years of Greek Cilization and Culture. Ekdotike Athenon: 64. ISBN 9789602133712. Thanks to their peaceful trade with the Molossians , the Epirotes were always friends of the Corinthians down to the last decades of the fifth century B . C . , when the king of the Molossoi , Tharyps , embarked upon a pro - Athenian policy .
  20. ^ Hammond 1986, p. 479.
  21. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Library, 15.13.1.
  22. ^ Hammond 1986, p. 470.
  23. ^ a b c Hammond 1994, p. 428.
  24. ^ Anson 2010, p. 5.
  25. ^ Hammond 1994, p. 438.
  26. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Library, 14.92, 15.2, 16.2.
  27. ^ Hammond 1994, p. 442.
  28. ^ Franke 1989, pp. 462–479.
  29. ^ Franke 1989, pp. 477–480.
  30. ^ Franke 1989, p. 468.
  31. ^ a b Walbank 1984, p. 452.
  32. ^ "Linear A and Linear B". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  33. ^ Ziolkowski 1986, p. 79.
  34. ^ Ziolkowski 1986, p. 71.
  35. ^ Ziolkowski 1986, p. 80.
  36. ^ Ziolkowski 1986, p. 75.
  37. ^ Suha 2020, p. 31.
  38. ^ Filos 2017, p. 242.
  39. ^ Filos 2017, p. 224: "There is an overall consensus nowadays that the Greek-speaking population of Epirus, despite its fragmentation into major (Molossoi, Thesprotoi, Chaones) and minor... tribes, spoke a North-West Doric variety akin to that of the numerous neighboring populations of central and western Greece (Aettolia, Acarnania, Phocis, Doris, cf. also certain affinities with the dialects of Elis and Macedonia), even though there were obviously some inevitable local peculiarities... the contact with non-Greek populations (Illyrians) in the northern part of Epirus may have further boosted sub-dialectal variation in this part of the region at least (e.g. lexicon), although we lack any concrete evidence, especially outside the field of onomastics..."
  40. ^ a b Winnifrith, Tom (2002). Badlands, Borderlands: A History of Northern Epirus/Southern Albania. Duckworth. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-7156-3201-7. We are left with the vexed question as to what language there Epirotes tribes spoke. Greek scholars, followed by most people in the West, would have them speaking Greek
  41. ^ Filos 2017, p. 221: "...the epigraphic evidence from the late Archaic period (6th – 5th c. BC) onwards indicates that the population of Epirus proper at least spoke a dialectal variety akin to the so-called 'North-West (NW) Doric' (or 'North-West Greek')..."
  42. ^ Shear, T. Leslie; Vanderpool, Eugene (1982). Studies in Attic Epigraphy, History, and Topography: Presented to Eugene Vanderpool. ASCSA. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-87661-519-5.
  43. ^ Georgiev, Vladimir Ivanov (1981). Introduction to the History of the Indo-European Languages. Publishing House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. pp. 156–157. ISBN 9789535172611. The Proto Greek Region... Μολοσσία , Μολοττία , a derivative of the tribal name Μολοσσοί , and the personal name Μολοσσός ,
  44. ^ van Beek, Lucien (2022). "Greek" (PDF). In Olander, Thomas (ed.). The Indo-European Language Family: A Phylogenetic Perspective. pp. 173, 189. doi:10.1017/9781108758666.011. ISBN 9781108758666.
  45. ^ Trudgill, Peter (16 April 2020). Millennia of Language Change. Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-108-47739-0. "Proto-Greek has been located by Georgiev (1981) to northwestern Greece... around 2500 BC.
  46. ^ Hammond 1982, pp. 284, 285: "Greek speech of the tribes in Epirus should not be ascribed to the influence of the Greek colonies on the coast. Nowhere in fact did the Greek colonies convert the peoples of a large hinterland to Greek speech. If these tribes of the hinterland spoke Greek, it was because they had done so before the Dark Age. What we have seen in this chapter is the consolidation of the Greek-speaking in the north, which enable them to fulfill their future role of defending the frontiers of a city-state civilization and later of leading that civilisation into wider areas."
  47. ^ Filos 2017, p. 222: "...posited a possible (partial) Hellenization of pre-classical Epirus, with Greek elites ruling over non-Greek populations; cf. also Nilsson (1909) [...] Nonetheless, such views, which largely rely on subjective ancient testimonies, are not supported by the earliest (and not only) epigraphic texts.".
  48. ^ a b Douzougli & Papadopoulos 2010, p. 8 In terms of mode of life, moreover, the tribal Epirotes were more similar to Illyrians than they were to those Greeks dwelling in poleis.
  49. ^ Winnifrith, Tom (1983). Greeks and Romans. Springer. p. 73. ISBN 1349051233.
  50. ^ Douzougli & Papadopoulos 2010, p. 7
  51. ^ Malkin, Irad (30 November 1998). The Returns of Odysseus: Colonization and Ethnicity. University of California Press. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-520-92026-2. In Epirus the peoples involved seem to have been Greek-speakers not universally regarded as "Greek" by other Greeks.
  52. ^ a b Hatzopoulos 1997, p. 141.
  53. ^ Hatzopoulos 1997, pp. 140–141: "It is equally incontestable that the Epirote tribes practised the same religion as the other Greeks. The supreme god of the Epirotes was Zeus and his sanctuary at Dodona attracted believers from all over the Greek world. Foreign deities are not attested...The most convincing proof, however, that the Epirotes belonged firmly within the religious body of Greece, is provided by the catalogue of thearodokoi listing Greek cities and tribes to which the major hellenic sanctuaries sent theoroi to... only Greeks were allowed to, participate in the pan-hellenic games and festivals".
  54. ^ Filos 2017, p. 219
  55. ^ Davies 2002, p. 247.
  56. ^ Molloy, Barry (31 August 2016). Of Odysseys and Oddities: Scales and Modes of Interaction Between Prehistoric Aegean Societies and their Neighbours. Oxbow Books. p. 464. ISBN 978-1-78570-234-1. In the centre of all this... real origin of the Greek were Epirote.
  57. ^ Hammond 1986, p. 77: "The original home of the Hellenes was 'Hellas', the area round Dodona in Epirus, according to Aristotle. In the Iliad it was the home of Achilles' Hellenes.".
  58. ^ Filos 2017, p. 233.
  59. ^ Filos 2017, p. 222: "..most epigraphic texts date to the late Classical/Hellenistic period i.e. to a time when the impact of a supraregional NW Doric koina was already felt, even though the Attic-Ionic koine eventually established itself in the region at a later time, i.e. in ca 1st c.AD.".
  60. ^ Hatzopoulos 1997, p. 141: " not from the end but from the beginning of the fourth century B.C.. And it is clear that the composers of the Molossian decrees incised in the reign of Neoptolemos of Alketas between 370 and 368 already had a considerable experience in the use of Greek. Second, it was established that the dialect in which they are written is not, as we believed, the Doric of Corinth, but a north-west dialect, akin to others of the same family (Akarnanian, Aitolian, Lokrian etc.), but exhibiting several distinctive features that preclude the possibility of its being borrowed.".
  61. ^ Filos 2017, p. 222.
  62. ^ Hatzopoulos 1997, p. 141: "The epigraphic evidence of recent decades has also yielded a vast number of personal names. There are not only purely Greek from the very... Indeed the affinities they reveal are not with the onomasticon of the Corinthian colonies, but with those of Macedonia and Thessaly. There is thus no longer any doubt that the ancestral speech of the inhabitants of Epirus was Greek.".
  63. ^ Nakkas, Yannis (2014). "MOLOSSIA – (E.A.) Meyer The Inscriptions of Dodona and a New History of Molossia". The Classical Review. 64 (2). doi:10.1017/S0009840X14000055. S2CID 231892260.
  64. ^ Smith, Philip (2014). "The Inscriptions of Dodona and a New History of Molossia. Heidelberger althistorische Beiträge und epigraphische Studien (HABES), 54". Bryn Mawr Classical Review.
  65. ^ a b D'Alessandro, Adele (2015). "Elizabeth A. Meyer, The Inscriptions of Dodona and a New History of Molossia". Klio. 97 (2): 769. doi:10.1515/klio-2015-0052. S2CID 193681863. The inscription was dated, by Cabanes, in the years before 330 / 328 BC, the last years of Alexander I.s reign. M. seems to trust in Hammond's restoration of the name of the king (Neoptolemus, Alexander's son) in the last line of the inscription: in fact, it is very unlikely (an unicum, in all epigraphic sources in Epirus) that the name of the king would be listed after the name of the prostatas and of the other officials (political, in common scholars' opinion, or religious, as M. suggests).
  66. ^ Hatzopoulos 1997, pp. 140–141: "It is equally inconstestable that the Epirote tribes practised the same religion as the other Greeks. The supreme god of the Epirotes was Zeus and his sanctuary at Dodona attracted believers from all over the Greek world. Foreign deities are not attested...The most convincing proof, however, that the Epirotes belonged firmly within the religious body of Greece, is provided by the catalogue of thearodokoi listing Greek cities and tribes to which the major hellenic sanctuaries sent theoroi to... only Greeks were allowed to, participate in the pan-hellenic games and festivals.".
  67. ^ Currie, Associate Professor in Classical Languages and Literature Bruno; Currie, Bruno (2005). Pindar and the Cult of Heroes. Oxford University Press. p. 342. ISBN 978-0-19-927724-7.
  68. ^ Hatzopoulos 1997, p. 141: "Common descent was not demonstrated by anthropometric research or blood analysis, but by resource to genealogies and the foundation-legends of cities and tribes. And it is known that only the royal households but also the tribes and cities of Epirus traced their origin or their foundation to Achaian heroes of the Mycenaean period. These genealogies were known and accepted as early as the end of the Archaic period at the latest, and are projected in the work of Pindar as fully established and beyond dispute".
  69. ^ a b Douzougli & Papadopoulos 2010, p. 7: "Nilsson argues persuasively that the bold mythological inventions were due to Proxenos, who flattered the royal house with an unsurpassed and excessive abuse of mythology, and that apart from the native names of Tharyps and Arrybas "all other male members of the house have names take from the Trojan myth (...) This plundering of mythical names is contrary to the principles of Greek nomenclature in the classical age in which the heroic names were not given to living men. The whole story shows the overdone eagerness of a barbarian house to appear as heroic Greeks."
  70. ^ Douzougli & Papadopoulos 2010, p. 6
  71. ^ Davies 2002, p. 242.
  72. ^ Davies 2002, p. 237 In fact it was not Greek needs, ambitions or curiosity which eventually eliminated the barriers, so much as a calculated effort by the ruling dynasty of one Epeirote people, the Molossoi, to manoeuvre themselves into a position of predominance within the region. (..) One truck was cultural – to present themselves as Greek (with a Trojan War ancestry) to take from Greek culture what could be turned to political use, and to manipulate the Greek political process in their own interest as best they could.
  73. ^ Hammond 1967, pp. 507–508: "'They relate', says Plutarch in introducing Pyrrhus, 'that Tharyps was the first to become renowned, as he organized the states on a system of Greek customs, and rules and regulations of a humane kind' (Θαρρύπαν πρῶτον ἱστοροῦσιν Ἑλληνικοῖς ἔθεσι καὶ γράμμασι καὶ νόμοις φιλανθρώποις διακοσμήσαντα τὰς πόλεις ὀνομαστὸν γενέσθαι. (Plu. Ρ. 1)). ... It is probable that Tharyps was responsible for the kind of written rules and regulations which we find in the earliest known decrees of the Molossian state in 370–368 B.C. But the institutions were, of course, much earlier in origin.".
  74. ^ Horsley 1987, p. 243; Hornblower 2002, p. 199.
  75. ^ a b Pliakou, 2007, p.
  76. ^ Hammond 1994, p. 431.
  77. ^ Hammond 1994, pp. 431
  78. ^ Brock & Hodkinson 2000, p. 250.
  79. ^ Brock & Hodkinson 2000, p. 257.
  80. ^ Alcock & Osborne 2007, p. 392.
  81. ^ Brock & Hodkinson 2000, p. 256.
  82. ^ Hammond, N. G. L. (1997). "The Affinity of the Epirote Tribes with their Neighbours in the Central Balkan Area". Epirus: 4000 Years of Greek Cilization and Culture. Ekdotike Athenon: 59. ISBN 9789602133712. Its emblem was the Molossian hound, and the issuing authority, the Molossoi, was inscribed around a Molossian shield and it was accompanied by a bronaze coinage which laster until c. 330 B.C.
  83. ^ Cabanes, L'Épire 534,1.
  84. ^ IG IV²,1 95 Line 31.
  85. ^ Woodbury 1979, pp. 95–133
  86. ^ Cabanes, L'Épire 540,4.
  87. ^ Smith 1844, p. 191: "ANTI'NOUS (Άντίνους), a chief among the Molossians in Epeirus, who became involved, against his own will, in the war of Perseus, king of Macedonia, against the Romans."