The Sardinians, or also the Sards (Sardinian: Sardos or Sardus; Italian and Sassarese: Sardi; Gallurese: Saldi), are the native people and ethnic group from which Sardinia, a western Mediterranean island and autonomous region of Italy, derives its name.
Sardinian people and their traditional regional attires in 1880s
|Regions with significant populations|
(Inhabitants of Sardinia, regardless of ethnic origin rather than ethnic Sards)
|Italian (as a result of language shift) • Sardinian|
|Mostly Christian (Roman Catholicism)|
The ethnic origin of the Sardinians is hidden in the darkness of ante-historic ages: the ethnonym "S(a)rd" belongs to the Pre-Indo-European linguistic substratum, and whilst they might have derived from the Iberians, the accounts of the old authors differ greatly in this respect. The oldest written attestation of the ethnonym is on the Nora stone, where the word Šrdn (Shardan) bears witness to its original existence by the time the Phoenician merchants first arrived to the Sardinian shores. According to Timaeus, one of Plato's dialogues, Sardinia and its people as well, the "Sardonioi" or "Sardianoi" (Σαρδονιοί or Σαρδιανοί), might have been named after "Sardò" (Σαρδώ), a legendary Lydian woman from Sardis (Σάρδεις), in the region of western Anatolia (now Turkey). Some other authors, like Pausanias and Sallust, reported instead that Sardinians traced their descent back to a mythical ancestor, a Libyan son of Hercules or Makeris (either related to the Kabyle Berber Maqqur "He is the greatest" or associated with the figure of Melqart) revered as a deity going by Sardus Pater Babai ("Sardinian Father" or "Father of the Sardinians"), who gave the island its name. It has also been claimed that the ancient Nuragic Sards were associated with the Sherden (šrdn in Egyptian), one of the Sea Peoples. The ethnonym was then romanised, with regard for the singular masculine and feminine form, as sardus and sarda.
Sardinia was first colonized in a stable manner during the Upper Paleolithic and the Mesolithic by people from the Iberian and the Italian peninsula. During the Neolithic period and the Early Eneolithic, people from Italy, Spain and the Aegean area settled in Sardinia. In the Late Eneolithic-Early Bronze age the "Beaker folk" from Southern France, Northeastern Spain and then from Central Europe settled on the island, bringing new metallurgical techniques and ceramic styles and probably some kind of Indo-European speech.
The Nuragic civilization arose in the Middle Bronze Age, during the Late Bonnanaro culture, which showed connections with the previous Beaker culture and the Polada culture of northern Italy. At that time, the grand tribal identities of Nuragic Sardinia were said to be three (roughly from the South to the North): the Iolei/Ilienses, inhabiting the area from the southernmost plains to the mountainous zone of eastern Sardinia (later part of what would be called by the Romans Barbaria); the Balares, living in the North-West corner; and finally the Corsi stationed in today's Gallura and the island to which they gave the name, Corsica. Nuragic Sardinians have been connected by some scholars to the Sherden, a tribe of the so-called Sea Peoples, whose presence is registered several times in ancient Egyptian records.
The language (or languages) spoken in Sardinia during the Bronze Age is unknown, since there are no written records of such period. According to Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, the Proto-Sardinian language was akin to Proto-Basque and the ancient Iberian, while others believe it was related to Etruscan. Other scholars theorize that there were actually various linguistic areas (two or more) in Nuragic Sardinia, possibly Pre-Indoeuropeans and Indoeuropeans.
The south and west part of Sardinia was annexed by the Carthaginians in the late 6th century BC and later the whole island was conquered by the Romans in the 3rd century BC, after the First Punic War. Sardinia and Corsica were then made into a single province; however, it took the Romans more than another 150 years to manage to subdue the more belligerent Nuragic tribes of the interior, and after 184 years since the Sardinians fell under Roman sway, Cicero noted how there was still not on the island a single community which had friendly intercourse with the Roman people.
Sardinia, with the exception of the innerlands and especially the central mountainous area called Barbagia (Barbaria in Latin, due to the locals' refusal to assimilate during Roman rule), was heavily Latinized during the Roman period, and the modern Sardinian language is considered one of the most conservative Romance languages. Besides, during the Roman rule there was a considerable immigration flow from the Italian peninsula into the island; ancient sources mention several populations of likely Italic origin settling down in Sardinia, like the Patulcenses Campani (from Campania), the Falisci (from southern Etruria), the Buduntini (from Apulia) and the Siculenses (from Sicily). Roman colonies were also established in Porto Torres (Turris Libisonis) and Usellus. Strabo gave a brief summary about the Mountaineer tribes, living in what would be called civitates Barbariae, Geographica V ch.2:
There are four nations of mountaineers, the Parati, Sossinati, Balari, and the Aconites. These people dwell in caverns. Although they have some arable land, they neglect its cultivation, preferring rather to plunder what they find cultivated by others, whether on the island or on the continent, where they make descents, especially upon the Pisatæ. The prefects sent [into Sardinia] sometimes resist them, but at other times leave them alone, since it would cost too dear to maintain an army always on foot in an unhealthy place.
During the Middle Ages, the "Sardinian Nation" (Nació Sarda or Sardesca, as reported from the native and Aragonese dispatches) was juridically divided into four independent Kingdoms (known individually in Sardinian as Judicadu, Giudicau or simply Logu, that is "place"; in Italian: Giudicato); all of them, with the exception of Arborea, fell under the influence of the Italian maritime republics of Genoa and Pisa, as well as some noble families from the two cities, like the Dorias and the Della Gherardescas. The Dorias founded the cities of Alghero and Castelgenovese (today Castelsardo), while the Pisans founded Castel di Castro (today Cagliari) and Terranova (today Olbia); the famous count Ugolino della Gherardesca, quoted by Dante Alighieri in his Divine Comedy, favored the birth of the mining town of Villa di Chiesa (today Iglesias), which became an Italian medieval commune along with Sassari and Castel di Castro.
Following the Aragonese conquest of the Sardinian territories under Pisan rule, which took place between 1323 and 1326, and then the long conflict between the Aragonese Kingdom and the Judicate of Arborea (1353–1420), the newborn Kingdom of Sardinia became one of the Associate States of the Crown of Aragon. The Aragonese repopulated the cities of Castel di Castro and Alghero with Spaniards, mainly Catalans. A local dialect of Catalan is still spoken by a minority of people in the city of Alghero.
Modern and contemporary historyEdit
In the 16th and 17th centuries, the main Sardinian cities of Cagliari (the capital of the Kingdom), Alghero and Sassari appear well placed in the trades of the time. The cosmopolitan composition of its people provides evidence of it: the population was not only indigenous, but also hailing from Spain, Liguria, France and the island of Corsica in particular. Especially in Sassari and across the strip of territory that goes from Anglona to Gallura, the Corsicans became the majority of the population at least since the 15th century. This migration from the neighboring island, which is likely to have led to the birth of the Tuscan-sounding Sassarese and Gallurese dialects, went on continuously until the 19th century.
The Spanish era ended in 1713, when the whole island was ceded to the Austrian House of Habsburg, followed with another cession in 1718 to the Dukes of Savoy, who assumed the title of "Kings of Sardinia". During this period, Ligurian colonists, escaped from Tabarka, settled on the little islands of San Pietro and Sant'Antioco (at Carloforte and Calasetta), in the south-west area of Sardinia, bringing with them a Gallo-Italic dialect called "Tabarchino", still widely spoken there. Then, the Piedmontese Kingdom of Sardinia annexed the whole Italian peninsula and Sicily in 1861 after the Risorgimento, becoming the Kingdom of Italy.
Since 1850, with the reorganization of the Sardinian mines, there had been a considerable migration flow from the Italian peninsula towards the Sardinian mining areas; these mainland miners came mostly from Lombardy, Piedmont, Tuscany and Romagna. According to an 1882 census realised by the French engineer Leon Goüine, in the south-western Sardinian mines worked 10.000 miners, one third of which coming from the Italian mainland; most of them settled in Iglesias and frazioni .
At the end of the 19th century, communities of fishermen from Sicily, Torre del Greco (Campania) and Ponza (Lazio) migrated on the east coasts of the island, in the towns of Arbatax/Tortolì, Siniscola and La Maddalena.
In the 20th century, a large immigration flow from the Italian peninsula during the Fascist period occurred, as a result of a government policy: a number of people hailing from Veneto but also from Marche, Abruzzo and Sicily came to Sardinia to populate the island, especially the new mining town of Carbonia and the villages of Mussolinia di Sardegna (now Arborea) and Fertilia; besides, after World War II, Istrian Italian refugees were relocated in the Nurra region, along the north-west coastline. Today Istriot, Venetian and Friulan are spoken by the elderly in Fertilia, Tanca Marchese and Arborea. In the same period, few Italian Tunisian families settled in the sparsely populated area of Castiadas, east of Cagliari.
Following the Italian economic miracle, a historic migratory movement from the inland to the coastal and urban areas of Cagliari, Sassari-Alghero-Porto Torres and Olbia, which today collect most of the people, took place.
With a population density of 69/km2, slightly more than a third of the national average, Sardinia is the fourth least populated region in Italy. The population distribution is anomalous compared to that of other Italian regions lying on the sea. In fact, contrary to the general trend, urban settlement has not taken place primarily along the coast but towards the centre of the island. Historical reasons for this include repeated Moorish raids during the Middle Ages (making the coast unsafe), widespread pastoral activities inland, and the swampy nature of the coastal plains (reclaimed only in the 20th century). The situation has been reversed with the expansion of seaside tourism; today all Sardinia's major urban centres are located near the coasts, while the island's interior is very sparsely populated.
It is the region of Italy with the lowest total fertility rate (1.087 births per woman), and the region with the second-lowest birth rate; The Sardinian fertility rate is actually the lowest in the world. However, the population in Sardinia has increased in recent years because of massive immigration, mainly from the Italian mainland, but also from Eastern Europe (esp. Romania), Africa and China.
As of 2013, there were 42.159 foreign (that is, any people who have not applied for Italian citizenship) national residents, forming 2.5% of the total population.
Age expectancy and LongevityEdit
Sardinia is the first discovered Blue Zone, a demographic and/or geographic area of the world where people live measurably longer lives. Sardinians share with the Ryukyuans from Okinawa (Japan) the highest rate of centenarians in the world (22 centenarians/100,000 inhabitants). The key factors of such a high concentration of centenarians are identified in the genetics of the Sardinians, lifestyle such as diet and nutrition, and the social structure.
- Birth Rate: 8.3 (per 1,000 inhabitants – 2005) 
- Fertility Rate: 1.07 (births per woman – 2005) 
- Mortality rate: 8.7 (per 1,000 inhabitants – 2005) 
- Infant mortality rate males: 4.6 (per 1,000 births- 2000) 
- Infant mortality rate females: 3.0 (per 1,000 births – 2000) 
- Marriage rate: 2.9 (per 1,000 inhabitants – 2014) 
- Suicide rate: 22.65 (per 100,000 inhabitants)
- Total literacy rate: 98.2%
- Literacy rate under 65 years old: 99.5%
|Source: ISTAT 2011, – D.Angioni-S.Loi-G.Puggioni, La popolazione dei comuni sardi dal 1688 al 1991, CUEC, Cagliari, 1997 – F. Corridore, Storia documentata della popolazione di Sardegna, Carlo Clausen, Torino, 1902|
Division by gender and ageEdit
Total population by ageEdit
Most Sardinians are native to the island but a sizable number of people have settled outside Sardinia: it had been estimated that, between 1955 and 1971, 308,000 Sardinians have emigrated to the Italian mainland. Sizable Sardinian communities are located in Piedmont, Liguria, Lombardy, Tuscany and Latium.
Sardinians and their descendants are also numerous in Germany, France, Belgium, Switzerland. Almost all the Sardinians migrating to the Americas settled down in the Southern part of the continent, especially in Argentina (between 1900 and 1913 about 12,000 Sardinians lived in Buenos Aires and neighbourhoods) and Uruguay (in Montevideo in the 1870s lived 12,500 Sardinians). Between 1876 and 1903, 92% of the Sardinians that moved towards the Americas settled in Brazil. Between 1876 and 1925 34,190 Sardinians migrated to Africa, in particular towards the then French Algeria and Tunisia. Small communities with Sardinians ancestors, about 5000 people, are also found in Brazil (mostly in the cities of Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo), the UK and Australia.
The Region of Sardinia keeps a register of overseas Sardinians that managed to set up, in the Italian mainland and the rest of the world, a number of cultural associations: these are meant to provide the people of Sardinian descent, or those with an interest on Sardinian culture, an opportunity to enjoy a wide range of activities. As of 2012, there are 145 clubs registered on it.
|Sardinians residing in European countries 2008|
Unlike the rest of Italian emigration, where migrants were mainly males, between 1953–1974 an equal number of females and males emigrated from Sardinia to the Italian mainland.
Surnames and given namesEdit
The most common Sardinian surnames, like Sanna (fang), Piras (pears), Pinna (feather, pen) and Melis (honey), derive from the Sardinian language and developed in the Middle Ages as a result of being registered in documents like the condaghes for administrative purposes; most of them derive either from Sardinian place names (e.g. Fonnesu "from Fonni", Busincu "from Bosa" etc.), from animal names (e.g. Porcu "pig", Piga "magpie", Cadeddu "puppy" etc.) or from a person's occupation, nickname (e.g. Pittau "Sebastian"), distinctive trait (e.g. Mannu "big"), and filiation (last names ending in -eddu which could stand for "son of", e.g. Corbeddu "son/daughter of Corbu"); a number of them have undergone Italianization over the most recent centuries (e.g. Pintori, Scano, Zanfarino, Spano, etc.). Some local surnames also derive from terms of the Paleo-Sardinian substrate. The largest percentage of last names originating from outside the island is from Southern Corsica (like Cossu, Cossiga, Alivesi and Achenza, originally from the towns of Olivese and Quenza respectively), followed by Italian (especially Piedmontese but also Campanian, Sicilian and Ligurian, originating from the days of the Savoyard rule and the assimilation policy: some of them have been "Sardinianized", like Accardu, Calzinu, Gambinu, Raggiu, etc.) and Spanish (especially Catalan) surnames.
|Most common surnames|
As to what pertains to given names, the Sardinians have adopted the Italian ones, even though a number of Sardinian-specific personal names (like Baínzu, Bachis, Bobore, Iroxi, Chìriga, Elianora, etc.) is historically attested and they were prevalent among the islanders up until the contemporary era.
Italian (italiano) was first introduced in Sardinia by the Savoyards in July 1760 and its regional variety is the most commonly spoken language nowadays, as a result of language shift. Sardinian (sardu) is the other most widely spoken language of the island and has also been the historical language of indigenous Sards, ever since Latin supplanted the Pre-Indo-European Paleo-Sardinian. Because of a movement, described by some authors like a "linguistic and cultural revival" that took off in the postwar period, the Sardinians' cultural heritage has been recognized in 1999, and they therefore constitute the largest ethnolinguistic minority group in Italy, with around a million Sardinian speakers. However, because of a rather rigid model of Italian education system that strongly discouraged the Sardinian youth from learning and speaking their language, the people retaining Sardinian have gradually become a minority in their own island. Therefore, Sardinian is currently facing challenges analogue to other minority languages across Europe, and both the Logudorese and Campidanese dialects (the main varieties of Sardinian, as defined by their orthographies) have been designated as definitely endangered by UNESCO. The other languages spoken on Sardinia, all also endangered but with much fewer speakers than Sardinian, developed after the contact with certain communities, namely Corsicans, Catalans and Italians from Genoa and Pisa, settling in different regions of the island over the recent centuries; these include Sassarese (sassaresu) and Gallurese (gadduresu), two languages of remote Corsican and Tuscan origin but often associated with Sardinian, Algherese Catalan (alguerés), and Ligurian Tabarchino (tabarchin).
The so-called flag of the Four Moors is the historical and official flag of Sardinia. The flag is composed of the St George's Cross and four Moor's heads wearing a white bandana in each quarter. Its origins are basically shrouded in mystery, but it is presumed it originated in Aragon to symbolize the defeat of the Saracen invaders in the battle of Alcoraz.
Sardinia's Day (Sa die de sa Sardigna in Sardinian) is a holiday celebrated each 28 April to commemorate the revolt occurring from 1794 to 1796 against the feudal privileges, and the execution or expulsion of the Savoyard officials (including the Piedmontese viceroy, Balbiano) from Sardinia on 28 April 1794. The rebellion was spurred by the King's refusal to grant the island the autonomy the locals demanded in exchange for defeating the French. The holiday has been formally recognised by the Sardinian Council since 14 September 1993. Some public events are annually held to commemorate the episode, while the schools are closed.
Colourful and of various and original forms, the Sardinian traditional clothes are an ancient symbol of belonging to specific collective identities, as well as one of the most genuine ethnic expressions of the Mediterranean folklore. Although the basic model is homogeneous and common throughout the island, each town or village has its own traditional clothing which differentiates it from the others. The Sardinians' traditional garments, as well as their feminine jewellery, have been defined as an object of study in ethnography since the late 19th century, at a time in which they first started to be slowly displaced in favour of the "Continental fashion" in the various contexts of everyday life, and their primary function switched to become a marker of ethnic identity.
In the past, the clothes diversified themselves even within the communities, performing a specific function of communication as it made it immediately clear the marital status and the role of each member in the social area. Until the mid-20th century the traditional costume represented the everyday clothing in most of Sardinia, but even today in various parts of the island it is possible to meet elderly people dressed in costume.
The materials used for their packaging are among the most varied, ranging from the typical Sardinian woollen fabric (orbace) to silk and from linen to leather. The various components of the feminine apparel are: the headgear (mucadore), the shirt (camisa), the bodice (palas, cossu), the jacket (coritu, gipone), the skirt (unnedda, sauciu), the apron (farda, antalena, defentale). Those of the male are: the headdress (berrita), the shirt (bentone or camisa), the jacket (gipone), the trousers (cartzones or bragas), the skirt (ragas or bragotis), the overcoat (gabbanu and colletu), and finally the piece of clothing most associated with the Sardinians, the mastruca, a sheep or lamb leather jacket without sleeves: "Sardi pelliti" and "mastrucati latrones" "[Sardinian] thieves with rough wool cloaks" were names by which Cicero denigrated the Sardinian rebels against the Roman power.
Sardinians, while being part of the European gene pool, are outliers in the European genetic landscape (together with the Basques, the Sami and the Icelanders) as a result of the Pre-Indo-European origin of the Sardinians and of particular phenomena that are often found in isolated populations, such as the founder effect and the genetic drift. The data seem to suggest that the current population is derived in large part from the Stone age settlers, plus the contribution of the historical colonizers. The researchers found the Basques to be the genetically closest population to the Sardinians, and that such similarity is not mediated by the influence of other Spaniards in modern times. Several studies have been carried out on the genetics of the Sardinian population, in light of the way such peculiarities can also further research on some pathologies to which the Sardinians seem to be predisposed, like diabetes mellitus type 1, beta thalassemia and favism, multiple sclerosis and coeliac disease.
Recent comparisons between the Sardinians' genome and that of some individuals from the Neolithic and the early Chalcolithic, who lived in the Alpine (Oetzi), German, and Hungarian regions, showed considerable similarities between the two populations, while at the same time consistent differences between the prehistoric samples and the present inhabitants of the same geographical areas were noted. From this it can be deduced that, while central and northern Europe have undergone significant demographic changes due to post-Neolithic migrations, presumably from the eastern periphery of Europe (Pontic-Caspian steppe), Southern Europe and Sardinia in particular were affected less; Sardinians appear to be the population that has best preserved the Neolithic legacy of Western Europe. A 2016 study, published on the journal Genetics, traced the origin of the Sardinians in conjunction with a genetically isolated landrace dog breed from the island, the Sardinian Shepherd Dog or Fonni's dog, pinpointing a Middle Eastern and Central European lineage.
A 2019 study estimated that the current Sardinian genome derives at roughly 61.4% from Neolithic Anatolia, at 9.5% from the Western Hunter-gatherers, at 19.1% from the Neolithic Ganj Dareh (Iran) and, lastly, at 10.0% from the Yamnaya Samara populations.
However, Sardinians as a whole are not a homogeneous population genetically: some studies have found some differences among the various villages of the island; in this regard, the mountainous area of Ogliastra (part of the wider region of Barbagia) is more distant from the rest of Europe and the Mediterranean than other Sardinian sub-regions located in the plains and in the coastal areas, in part because these more accessible areas show, like the rest of much of Europe, a moderate genetic influx from the Yamna culture pastoralists, thought to be the carriers of Indo-European languages into Europe, while Ogliastra has retained unaltered Mesolithic/Neolithic roots.
According to a study released in 2014, the genetic diversity among some Sardinian individuals from different regions of the island is between 7 and 30 times higher than the one found among other European ethnicities living thousands kilometers away from each other, like Spaniards and Romanians. A similar phenomenon is common to some other isolated populations, like the Ladin groups living in Veneto and the Alpine area, where the local orography did not facilitate intraregional communications.
However, while a very high degree of interindividual genetic differentiation has been detected on multiple occasions, other studies have also stated that such variability does not occur among the main macro-regions of the island: a Sardinian region like the Barbagia has been proven not to be significantly different from the regions on the coast, like the area of Cagliari and Oristano. A study by Contu et al. (2008) found a relatively high degree of genetic homogeneity between Sardinian individuals from three different regions of the island: the Northernmost area (Tempio, Gallura), a central zone (Sorgono, Barbagia of Mandrolisai) and the Southernmost area (Cagliari, Campidano). Another study, based on the multinomial logistic regression model, suggested again a high degree of homogeneity within the Sardinian population.
The SardiNIA study in 2015 showed, by using the FST differentiation statistic, a clear genetic differentiation between Sardinians (whole genome sequence of 2120 individuals from across the island and especially the Lanusei valley) and mainland Italian populations (1000 genomes), and reported an even greater difference between Sardinians from the Lanusei valley and other European populations. This pattern of differentiation is also evident in the lengths for haplotypes surrounding rare variants loci, with a similar haplotype length for Sardinian populations and shorter length for populations with low grade of common ancestry.
Children from Ovodda
Urthos mask of Fonni
Robes from Maracalagonis
Woman from Ollolai
Robes from Cagliari
Robes from Busachi
Robes from Olbia
Robe from Sennori
Daily traditional clothe from Dorgali
Folk robes from Quartu Sant'Elena
Robes from Selargius
Robes from Assemini
Child from Aritzo
Women dressed in traditional Sardinian clothing (Selargius)
Robes from Settimo San Pietro
Robe from Dolianova
Robe from Nuragus
Knights from Teulada
Traditional robe from Laconi
Robe from Tonara
Robes from Fonni
A Mamuthone and an Issohadore, traditional carnival garments from Mamoiada
Sardinian knights on Sa Sartiglia day (Oristano).
People in traditional dress (Busachi)
Robe from Orgosolo
Sardinian men and children in traditional dress at the Sagra del Redentore (Nuoro)
Children from Ovodda in traditional dress
An Issohadore, typical mask of the Sardinian carnival (Mamoiada)
A Mamuthone, another typical mask of the Sardinian carnival (Mamoiada)
Boe and Merdule (Ottana)
Sardinians in traditional dress (Orgosolo)
Robe from Atzara
Robe from Oliena
Robe from Orune
Man from Austis
Robe from Ittiri
Robe from Sassari
Sardinian man in traditional dress playing the Launeddas
Robe from Cossoine
Robe from Isili
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to People of Sardinia.|
- Historia de la isla de Cerdeña, por el caballero G. de Gregory, traducida al castellano por una sociedad literaria (1840). Barcelona: Imprenta de Guardia Nacional.
- Murru Corriga, Giannetta (1977). Etnia, lingua, cultura : un dibattito aperto in Sardegna. EDES.
- Sanna, Natale (1986). Il cammino dei Sardi: Storia, economia, letteratura ed arte di Sardegna (3 Volumes). Ed.Sardegna.
- Gonen, Amiram (1996). Diccionario de los pueblos del mundo. Anaya&Mario Muchnik.
- Casula, Francesco Cesare (1994). La Storia di Sardegna. Sassari: Carlo Delfino Editore.
- Brigaglia, Manlio; Giuseppina Fois; Laura Galoppini; Attilio Mastino; Antonello Mattone; Guido Melis; Piero Sanna; Giuseppe Tanda (1995). Storia della Sardegna. Sassari: Soter Editore.
- Perra, Mario (1997). ΣΑΡΔΩ, Sardinia, Sardegna (3 Volumes). Oristano: S'Alvure.
- Floris, Giovanni (1998). L'uomo in Sardegna : aspetti di antropobiologia ed ecologia umana. Sestu: Zonza.
- Ugas, Giovanni (2006). L'Alba dei Nuraghi. Cagliari: Fabula Editore. ISBN 978-88-89661-00-0.
- Sanna, Emanuele (2009). Nella preistoria le origini dei Sardi. Cagliari: CUEC.
- Cole, Jeffrey (2011). Ethnic Groups of Europe: an Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-302-6.
- Danver, Steven Laurence. Native peoples of the world: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures, and Contemporary Issues. Routledge. ISBN 978-0765682222..
- Contu, Ercole (2014). I sardi sono diversi. Carlo Delfino Editore.
- Onnis, Omar (2015). La Sardegna e i sardi nel tempo. Arkadia Editore.
- Ugas, Giovanni (2017). Shardana e Sardegna : i popoli del mare, gli alleati del Nordafrica e la fine dei grandi regni (15.-12. secolo a.C.). Edizioni della Torre.
- Casula, Francesco Cèsare (2017). La Storia di Sardegna (8 Volumes). Sassari: La Nuova Sardegna.
- Statistiche demografiche ISTAT
- Usually spoken either in the standard or more commonly in its own Sardinian-influenced regional variety.
- Including Sassarese and Gallurese, linguistically transitioning to Southern Corsican and often colloquially considered to be northern Sardinian varieties.
- Sardinia, Lonely Planet, Damien Simonis
- Sardinians – World Directory of Minorities
- Sard. Oxford Dictionary.
- Minahan, James (2000). One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 588. ISBN 978-0313309847.
The Sards are a Romance people, the descendants of early Latins and later admixtures of the island's many conquerors.
- Danver, Steven L. Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues, pp.370-371
- Lang, Peter; Petricioli, Marta. L’Europe Méditerranéenne, pp.201-254,
- Edelsward, Lisa-Marlene; Salzman, Philip (1996). Sardinians - Encyclopedia of World Cultures
- Cole, Jeffrey. Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, pp.321-325
- "Tempio-Altare di monte d'Accoddi". SardegnaTurismo.
- Serra, Marcello (1978). Enciclopedia della Sardegna : con un saggio introduttivo intitolato Alla scoperta dell'isola, Pisa, Giardini editori e stampatori, p.29: "Origine e carattere dei Sardi"
- <<Sull'origine del popolo sardo le fonti classiche non riescono a darci che poche e scarse notizie, la cui interpretazione non è affatto facile.>> Sanna, Natale (1986). Il cammino dei Sardi: storia, economia, letteratura ed arte di Sardegna, I, Ed.Sardegna, Cagliari, p.19
- "Sardinia". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- "Sardi in Dizionario di Storia (2011)". Treccani.
- I.E.S. Edwards , C.J. Gadd , N.G.L. Hammond , E.Sollberger (edited by). 1970. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume II, Part 2, Cambridge University Press, p.369
- La stele di Nora contiene la lingua sarda delle origini, Salvatore Dedola
- Platonis dialogi, scholia in Timaeum (edit. C. F. Hermann, Lipsia 1877), 25 B, pag. 368
- M. Pittau, La Lingua dei Sardi Nuragici e degli Etruschi, Sassari 1981, pag. 57
- Sanna, Emanuele (2009). Nella preistoria le origini dei sardi, CUEC, Cagliari, p.76
- Attilio Mastino (2015). "L'iscrizione latina del restauro del tempio del Sardus Pater ad Antas e la problematica istituzionale".
- Casula, Francesco Cèsare (2017). La storia di Sardegna, I, Evo Antico Sardo : Dalla Sardegna Medio-Nuragica (100 a.C. c.) alla Sardegna Bizantina (900 d.C. c.), p.92
- Bartoloni, Piero (2009). I Fenici e i Cartaginesi in Sardegna, C. Delfino, Sassari, p.130
- Sallust, Historiae, II, fr.4
- Pausanias, Ελλάδοσ περιήγησισ, X, 17
- Silius Italicus, Punica, XII, 360
- Gaius Julius Solinus, Collectanea rerum memorabilium, IV, 1
- Isidore of Seville, XIV, Etymologiae, Thapsumque iacentem, 39
- E. De Rougè (1867), Révue Archéologique, XVI, p.35 ff.
- F. J. Chabas (1872), Étude sur l'antiquité historique d'après les sources égyptiennes et les monuments réputés préhistoriques, impr. de J. Dejussieu (Chalon-sur-Saône), p.191-192, 314
- Ugas, Giovanni (2017). Shardana e Sardegna : i popoli del mare, gli alleati del Nordafrica e la fine dei grandi regni (15.-12. secolo a.C.), Edizioni della Torre, Cagliari, pp.398-408
- Sardi in Enciclopedia Italiana (1936), Giacomo Devoto, Treccani
- Nuovo studio dell’archeologo Ugas: “È certo, i nuragici erano gli Shardana”
- Shardana, sardi nuragici: erano lo stesso popolo?, Interview with Giovanni Ugas (in Italian)
- "La certezza degli accademici egiziani: "Gli shardana erano i nuragici sardi"". SardiniaPost.
- Manlio Brigaglia – Storia della Sardegna, pg. 48-49-50
- Giovanni Ugas – L'alba dei Nuraghi , pg.22-23-24
- Motzo, Bacchisio Raimondo (1933). Iliensi in Enciclopedia Italiana, cited in Treccani
- Iliensi, Enciclopedia on line Treccani
- Motzo, Bacchisio Raimondo (1933). Balari in Enciclopedia Italiana, cited in Treccani
- Giovanni Ugas – L'alba dei Nuraghi, p. 241
- SardiniaPoint.it – Interview with Giovanni Ugas, archaeologist and professor of the University of Cagliari (in Italian)
- Giovanni Ugas - L'Alba dei Nuraghi pg.241,254 - Cagliari, 2005
- Casula, Francesco Cèsare (2017). La storia di Sardegna, I, Evo Antico Sardo : Dalla Sardegna Medio-Nuragica (100 a.C. c.) alla Sardegna Bizantina (900 d.C. c.), p.110, 137-151
- Casula, Francesco Cèsare (2017). La storia di Sardegna, I, Evo Antico Sardo : Dalla Sardegna Medio-Nuragica (100 a.C. c.) alla Sardegna Bizantina (900 d.C. c.), p.184
- Emmanuel Anati (ed. by). I sardi : la Sardegna dal paleolitico all'eta romana, Editrice Mediterranea, Cagliari, p.21
-  Neque ego, cum de vitiis gentis loquor, neminem excipio; sed a me est de universo genere dicendum, in quo fortasse aliqui suis moribus et humanitate stirpis ipsius et gentis vitia vicerunt. Magnam quidem esse partem sine fide, sine societate et coniunctione nominis nostri res ipsa declarat. Quae est enim praeter Sardiniam provincia quae nullam habeat amicam populo Romano ac liberam civitatem? . Cicero, Pro Scauro
- Casula, Francesco Cèsare (2017). La storia di Sardegna, I, Evo Antico Sardo : Dalla Sardegna Medio-Nuragica (100 a.C. c.) alla Sardegna Bizantina (900 d.C. c.), p.186
- Contini & Tuttle, 1982: 171; Blasco Ferrer, 1989: 14.
- Story of Language, Mario Pei, 1949
- Romance Languages: A Historical Introduction, Cambridge University Press
- A. Mastino, Storia della Sardegna antica, p.173
- Casula, Francesco Cèsare (2017). La storia di Sardegna, I, Evo Antico Sardo : Dalla Sardegna Medio-Nuragica (100 a.C. c.) alla Sardegna Bizantina (900 d.C. c.), pp. 255-269
- Francesco Cesare Casula – La Storia di Sardegna, pg.141
- Casula, Francesco Cèsare (1982). Profilo storico della Sardegna catalano-aragonese, Edizioni della Torre, Cagliari, pp.8-10 ; Casula, Francesco Cèsare (1985). La Sardenya catalano-aragonesa : perfil historic, Dalmau, Barcelona, p.14
- Cèsare, Francesco Cèsare (1985). La Sardenya catalano-aragonesa : perfil historic, Dalmau, Barcelona, p.19
- Casula, Francesco Cèsare (1990). La Sardegna aragonese, 6.2 La nazione sarda, Sassari, Chiarella
- Manlio Brigaglia – Storia della Sardegna , pg.158
- Minority Rights Group International – Sardinians
- Stranieri nella Cagliari del XVI e XVII secolo da "Los Otros: genti, culture e religioni diverse nella Sardegna spagnola”, Cagliari, 23 aprile 2004.
- Antonio Budruni, Da vila a ciutat: aspetti di vita sociale in Alghero, nei secoli XVI e XVII
- Carlo Maxia, Studi Sardo-Corsi, Dialettologia e storia della lingua fra le due isole
- Stefano Musso, Tra fabbrica e società: mondi operai nell'Italia del Novecento, Volume 33, p.316
- Quando i bergamaschi occuparono le case Archived 12 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Il progresso sociale della Sardegna e lo sfruttamento industriale delle miniere – Sardegnaminiere.it
- Veneti nel Mondo (Venetians in the World) – Anno III – numero 1 – Gennaio 1999 (in Italian)
- E al ritorno conquistarono le terre abbandonate – La Nuova Sardegna
- Sardinia Travel Guide, Eupedia.com
- ISTAT Numero medio di figli per donna per regione 2002–2005
- Solo 1,1 figli per madre, la Sardegna ultima in Italia - La Nuova Sardegna
- ISTAT Tassi generici di natalità, mortalità e nuzialità per regione 2002–2005
- Fertilità, Sardegna ultima al mondo - Sardinian socio-economic Observatory
- Rapporto Istat – La popolazione straniera residente in Italia al 31º dicembre 2013
- ISTAT - Indicatori demografici anno 2015, p.6
- Sardinia, Italy – Blue Zones
- Okinawa Exploration Backgrounds – Blue Zones
- Does Sardinia hold the secret of long life - mystery, The Guardian
- Francesco Cucca: “Caratteri immutati da diecimila anni, ecco perché la Sardegna è speciale” (di Elena Dusi) - Sardegna Soprattutto
- Sardinia Exploration Backgrounds – Blue Zones
- Polidori MC, Mariani E, Baggio G, et al. (July 2007). "Different antioxidant profiles in Italian centenarians: the Sardinian peculiarity". Eur J Clin Nutr. 61 (7): 922–4. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602596. PMID 17228351.
- Susan Pinker: why face-to-face contact matters in our digital age – The Guardian
- ISTAT Tassi generici di natalità, mortalità e nuzialità per regione 2002–2005
- ISTAT Numero medio di figli per donna per regione 2002–2005
- Ministero della Salute Speranza di vita e mortalità Archived 20 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Matrimoni, Il processo di secolarizzazione in Sardegna - Sardinian Socio-Economic Observatory
- Isola prima in Italia per suicidi, Ansa.it
- Sardegna, il paradiso dei suicidi, Sardegna Dìes
- La Sardegna prima in Italia nella classifica dei suicidi, La Nuova Sardegna
- Analfabetismo Italia – Censimento 2001
- Sardegna Statistiche: Analfabeti
- Giuseppe Sanna – L'emigrazione della Sardegna (Emigration of Sardinia) (in Italian)
- L'emigrazione sarda tra la fine dell' 800 e i primi del 900
- http://lipari.istat.it/digibib/Annuari/TO00176482Annuario_statistico_emigrazione_italiana_1876_1925.pdf Commissariato generale dell'emigrazione (a cura di), Annuario statistico della emigrazione italiana dal 1876 al 1925
- Il messagero sardo – Una piccola ma attiva colonia di sardi vive nello stato di Bahia (in Italian)
- Museo Nazionale Emigrazione Italiana – 25-03-2012
- "Le origini dei cognomi sardi, il primo Sanna aveva i canini affilati come zanne, Mauro Maxia".
- "Cognomi sardi. Piras, secondo nell'isola: le origini in villaggi dell'Ozierese e del Sulcis, Mauro Maxia".
- "I segreti dei cognomi. Cinquemila famiglie Pinna: tutto iniziò con la piuma e la penna di uno scrivano, Mauro Maxia".
- "Il cognome: Melis, dolce come il miele. La prima apparizione risale al 1200 nel Regno di Arborea, Mauro Maxia".
- I Sanna battono i Piras: è loro il cognome più diffuso in Sardegna. Ecco la classifica - La Nuova Sardegna
- Cognomi | I più diffusi in Sardegna per territorio - Sardinian Socio-Economic Observatory
- Manconi, Lorenzo (1987). Dizionario dei cognomi sardi, Edizioni della Torre, p.15
- Rivista italiana di onomastica, Mauro Maxia, Cognomi sardi medioevali formati da toponimi
- "All'origine di Piga c'è la gazza non la lentiggine". La Nuova Sardegna.
- Manconi, Lorenzo (1987). Dizionario dei cognomi sardi, Edizioni della Torre, p.16
- Pittau, Massimo, 2014. I cognomi della Sardegna: Significato e origine di 8.000 cognomi indigeni e forestieri, Ipazia Books
- Manconi, Lorenzo (1987). Dizionario dei cognomi sardi, Edizioni della Torre, p.12
- Le origini dei cognomi sardi, dai colori agli animali, La Nuova Sardegna
- Maxia, Mauro (2002). Dizionario dei cognomi sardo-corsi. Frequenze, fonti, etimologia, Condaghes, ISBN 978-88-7356-005-0
- "Cognomi sardi, Cossu: breve, antico e con un'infinità di complicazioni". La Nuova Sardegna.
- "I segreti dei cognomi sardi: Cossiga è glorioso e raro. Ma l'accento andrebbe sulla o". La Nuova Sardegna.
- "I segreti dei cognomi sardi: Achenza, viaggio dalla Corsica al Nord Sardegna". La Nuova Sardegna.
- Manconi, Lorenzo (1987). Dizionario dei cognomi sardi, Edizioni della Torre, p.13
- Bonamore, Daniele (2004). Lingue minoritarie, lingue nazionali, lingue ufficiali nella Legge 482/1999, Franco Angeli, Milano, pp.62-63
- Roberto Bolognesi, The phonology of Campidanian Sardinian : a unitary account of a self-organizing structure, The Hague : Holland Academic Graphics
- Amos Cardia, S'italianu in Sardìnnia, Iskra
- Settecento sardo e cultura europea: Lumi, società, istituzioni nella crisi dell'Antico Regime; Antonello Mattone, Piero Sanna; FrancoAngeli Storia; pp.18
- Salvi, Sergio (1974). Le lingue tagliate, Rizzoli, pg.181
- Floris, Giovanni (1998). L'uomo in Sardegna : aspetti di antropobiologia ed ecologia umana, Sestu, Zonza, Distribuzione delle frequenze fenotipiche del sistema AB0 in diversi gruppi linguistici, p.206
- Danver, Steven. Native peoples of the world - An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures, and Contemporary Issues
- Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, ed. 2010. Paleosardo: Le radici linguistiche della Sardegna neolitica (Paleosardo: The Linguistic Roots of Neolithic Sardinian). De Gruyter Mouton
- Giannetta Murru Corriga (edited by), 1977. Etnia, lingua, cultura : un dibattito aperto in Sardegna, EDES, Tradizione, identità e cultura sarde nella scuola, Giovanni Lilliu, pp.128-131
- <<Nel 1948 la Sardegna diventa, anche per le sue peculiarità linguistiche, Regione Autonoma a statuto speciale. Tuttavia a livello politico, ufficiale, non cambia molto per la minoranza linguistica sarda, che, con circa 1,2 milioni di parlanti, è la più numerosa tra tutte le comunità alloglotte esistenti sul territorio italiano...>>. De Concini, Wolftraud (2003). Gli altri d'Italia : minoranze linguistiche allo specchio, Pergine Valsugana : Comune, p.196.
- Bonamore, Daniele (2004). Lingue minoritarie, lingue nazionali, lingue ufficiali nella Legge 482/1999, Franco Angeli, Milano, pp.96-98
- Lingue di minoranza e scuola: Sardo
- Legislazione sulle altre minoranze linguistiche, Sardegna Cultura
- Manuale di linguistica sarda (Manual of Sardinian linguistics), 2017, Ed. by Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Peter Koch, Daniela Marzo. Manuals of Romance Linguistics, De Gruyter Mouton, pp.208
- Sardinia, Lonely Planet, Damien Simonis, pg. 44
- UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger
- Floris, Giovanni (1998). L'uomo in Sardegna : aspetti di antropobiologia ed ecologia umana, Sestu, Zonza, Distribuzione delle frequenze fenotipiche del sistema AB0 in diversi gruppi linguistici, p.207
- Sassarese Sardinian, Ethnologue
- Gallurese Sardinian, Ethnologue
- B. Fois, The crest of the four Moors, brief history of the Sardinian emblem, Carlo Delfino, Sassari 1990
- Onnis, Omar (2015). La Sardegna e i sardi nel tempo, Arkadia, Cagliari, pp.150-151
- Alberto Loni e Giuliano Carta. Sa die de sa Sardigna - Storia di una giornata gloriosa. Sassari, Isola editrice, 2003.
- Massimo Pistis, Rivoluzionari in sottana. Ales sotto il vescovado di mons. Michele Aymerich, Roma, Albatros Il Filo, 2009.
- Adriano Bomboi, L'indipendentismo sardo. Le ragioni, la storia, i protagonisti, Cagliari, Condaghes, 2014.
- Sa die de sa Sardigna, Sardegna Cultura
- "Religious observances, Aspects of daily life, Regions and type of municipality". ISTAT. 20 March 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
- Arata, Giulio Ulisse (1983). Arte sarda, C. Delfino, Sassari, p.11
- Arata, Giulio Ulisse (1983). Arte sarda, C. Delfino, Sassari, p.27
- Mario Atzori (ed. by), 2000, Gli ornamenti preziosi dei sardi, Sassari, C. Delfino, p.31
- Costumi: storia, linguaggio e prospettive del vestire in Sardegna (2003). Ilisso, Nuoro, p.53
- Costumi: storia, linguaggio e prospettive del vestire in Sardegna (2003). Ilisso, Nuoro, p.20
- Olivieri, A; Sidore, C; Achilli, A; Angius, A; Posth, C; Furtwängler, A; Brandini, S; Capodiferro, MR; Gandini, F; Zoledziewska, M; Pitzalis, M; Maschio, A; Busonero, F; Lai, L; Skeates, R; Gradoli, MG; Beckett, J; Marongiu, M; Mazzarello, V; Marongiu, P; Rubino, S; Rito, T; Macaulay, V; Semino, O; Pala, M; Abecasis, GR; Schlessinger, D; Conde-Sousa, E; Soares, P; Richards, MB; Cucca, F; Torroni, A (2017). "Mitogenome Diversity in Sardinians: A Genetic Window onto an Island's Past". Mol Biol Evol. 34 (5): 1230–1239. doi:10.1093/molbev/msx082. PMC 5400395. PMID 28177087.
- Gabriella Grimaldi. "Il dna dei sardi è unico in Europa, è lo stesso dei loro avi nuragici". La Nuova Sardegna.
- Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi, Alberto Piazza - The History and Geography of Human Genes, 1994, Princeton University Press, pp.272
- Rickards O., De Stefano G.F., Biondi G., Vecchi F. (1990). Diversità genetica in Italia, Rivista di Antropologia, 68, p.295-301
- Marcus et al.,Population history from the Neolithic to present on the Mediterranean island of Sardinia: An ancient DNA perspective, 2019
- Genomic history of the Sardinian population, Nature
- Genetica, malattie e caratteri dei sardi, Francesco Cucca - Sardegna Ricerche
- I dialoghi della scienza di Sardegna Ricerche: "I sardi hanno caratteristiche genetiche uniche"
- The sardinians' dna, a key to explain human illness
- Diabetes Mellitus (DM) - Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - MSD Manual
- Floris, Giovanni (1998). L'uomo in Sardegna : aspetti di antropobiologia ed ecologia umana, Sestu, Zonza, Sull'evoluzione dei Sardi dalla Preistoria ad oggi, p.13
- Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory
- Keller at al 2011, Nature
- Mathieson et al 2015, Nature
- supp. info (p.16)
- A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures, Olalde et al 2015, Molecular Biology and Evolution
- Gamba et al 2014, Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory, Nature
- Omrak et al 2016, Genomic Evidence Establishes Anatolia as the Source of the European Neolithic Gene Pool, Current Biology, Volume 26, Issue 2, p270–275, 25 January 2016
- Haak et al 2015, Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe
- supp. info (p.120)
- Reference Populations Genographic Project. National Geographic
- Dayna L. Dreger, Brian W. Davis, Raffaella Cocco, Sara Sechi, Alessandro Di Cerbo, Heidi G. Parker, Michele Polli, Stefano P. Marelli, Paola Crepaldi and Elaine A. Ostrander (2016). "Commonalities in Development of Pure Breeds and Population Isolates Revealed in the Genome of the Sardinian Fonni's Dog". Genetics.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Nel genoma del cane da pastore fonnese la storia dei sardi". La Nuova Sardegna. 2016.
- Jane Brackman. "Genome of Sardinian Sheepdog Provides Insight into Human Migration Patterns".
- Fernandes et al.,The Arrival of Steppe and Iranian Related Ancestry in the Islands of the 1 Western Mediterranean, 2019
- High Differentiation among Eight Villages in a Secluded Area of Sardinia Revealed by Genome-Wide High Density SNPs Analysis
- Genome-wide scan with nearly 700 000 SNPs in two Sardinian sub-populations suggests some regions as candidate targets for positive selection
- Chiang et al., Using whole-genome sequencing to shed insight on the complex prehistory of Sardinia
- Il Dna sardo è il più vario d'Europa Ricerca sugli abitanti di Benetutti – Unione Sarda
- Italiani, i più ricchi in Europa … di diversità genetica – Uniroma
- Gli italiani sono il popolo con la varietà genetica più ricca d'Europa – La Repubblica
- D. Contu, L. Morelli, F. Santoni, J.W. Foster, P. Francalacci, F. Cucca (2008). Y-chromosome based evidence for pre-neolithic origin of the genetically homogenous but diverse Sardinian population; inference for association scans. PloS ONE, Jan 9, 3(1): e1430
- Di Gaetano, C; Fiorito, G; Ortu, MF; Rosa, F; Guarrera, S; Pardini, B; Cusi, D; Frau, F; Barlassina, C; Troffa, C; Argiolas, G; Zaninello, R; Fresu, G; Glorioso, N; Piazza, A; Matullo, G (2014). "Sardinians genetic background explained by runs of homozygosity and genomic regions under positive selection". PLoS One. 9 (3): e91237. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091237. PMC 3961211. PMID 24651212.
- Sidore, C., y colaboradores (2015). "Genome sequencing elucidates Sardinian genetic architecture and augments association analyses for lipid and blood inflammatory markers". Nature Genetics. 47 (11): 1272–1281. doi:10.1038/ng.3368. PMC 4627508. PMID 26366554.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)