Wilhelm, Prince of Albania
Prince Wilhelm of Wied (German: Wilhelm Friedrich Heinrich Prinz zu Wied, 26 March 1876 – 18 April 1945), reigned briefly as sovereign of the Principality of Albania as Vilhelm I from 7 March to 3 September 1914, when he left for exile. His reign officially came to an end on 31 January 1925, when the country was declared an Albanian Republic.
|Prince of Albania|
|Reign||7 March 1914 – 3 September 1914[a]|
|Coronation||21 February 1914[b]|
Zog I as next monarch, 1928–1939
|Born||26 March 1876|
|Died||18 April 1945 (aged 69)|
|Spouse||Sophie, Princess of Albania|
|Issue||Princess Marie Eleonore of Albania|
Carol Victor, Hereditary Prince of Albania
|Father||Wilhelm, Prince of Wied|
|Mother||Princess Marie of the Netherlands|
Outside the country and in diplomatic correspondence, he was styled "sovereign prince", but in Albania, he was referred to as mbret, or king. He was also styled Skanderbeg II, in homage to Skanderbeg, the national hero.
Family and early lifeEdit
William was born on 26 March 1876 in Neuwied Castle, near Koblenz, in the Prussian Rhineland, as Prince William of Wied (German: Wilhelm Friedrich Heinrich Prinz zu Wied). Born into the mediatised house of Wied-Neuwied, he was the third son of William, 5th Prince of Wied (brother of Queen Elisabeth of Romania), and his wife Princess Marie of the Netherlands (sister of Queen Louise of Sweden). He was also second cousin of Wilhelm II, German Emperor.
Candidate for the Albanian throneEdit
Prince William's aunt, Queen Elisabeth of Romania, on learning that the Great Powers were looking for an aristocrat to rule over Albania, asked Take Ionescu to attempt to persuade them to appoint her nephew to the post.
Eventually the European Great Powers — Austria-Hungary, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the French Third Republic, the German Empire, the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Italy — selected William, a member of the German princely house of Wied, and related to the Queen of the Netherlands to rule over the newly independent Albania. The announcement was made in November 1913 and the decision was accepted by Ismail Qemali, the head of the provisional government. The offer of the Albanian throne was first made to him in the spring of 1913 but he turned it down. Despite rejecting the offer, the Austrians put pressure on Prince William in an attempt to change his mind.
Western Europeans considered Albania to be a poor, lawless and backward country in 1913, and some foreign opinion was scathing. The French press referred to Wilhelm as "le Prince de Vide", meaning "the prince of emptiness"; vide being a pun on his homeland of Wied.
Prince of AlbaniaEdit
On 7 February 1914, William let the Great Powers know that he would accept the throne. On 21 February 1914 a delegation of Albanian notables led by Essad Pasha Toptani and Arbëreshë ones (headed by Luigi Baffa and Vincenzo Baffa Trasci), made a formal request, which he accepted thereby becoming By the grace of the powers and the will of the people the Prince (Mbret) of Albania. One month after accepting the throne on 7 March, he arrived in his provisional capital of Durrës and started to organise his government, appointing Turhan Pasha Përmeti to form the first Albanian cabinet. This first cabinet was dominated by aristocrats (prince Essad Pasha Toptani defence and foreign affairs, prince Gjergj Adhamidhi bej Frashëri finances, prince Aziz Pasha Vrioni agriculture).
His brief reign proved a turbulent one. Immediately following his arrival revolts of Muslims broke out in central Albania against his Chief Minister, Essad Pasha, and against foreign domination that was not Turkish. Greece encouraged the formation of a separatist provisional government in North Epirus. Although an agreement was made to grant extra rights to the Greek minority there, the Hellenic Army occupied Southern Albania excluding Berat and Korçë. William's position was also undermined by his own officials, notably Essad Pasha himself, who actually accepted money from Italy to finance a revolt and to stage a coup against William. The plot was exposed, Pasha was arrested on 19 May 1914, tried for treason and sentenced to death. Only the intervention of the Italian government saved his life and he escaped to exile in Italy.
The outbreak of World War I presented more problems for Prince William as Austria-Hungary demanded that he send Albanian soldiers to fight alongside them. When he refused, citing the neutrality of Albania in the Treaty of London, the remuneration that he had been receiving was cut off.
Exile and deathEdit
Prince William left the country on 3 September 1914 originally heading to Venice. Despite leaving Albania he did so insisting that he remained head of state. In his proclamation he informed the people that "he deemed it necessary to absent himself temporarily."
He returned to Germany and rejoined the Imperial German Army under the pseudonym "Count of Kruja". The name derived from the city of Krujë in Albania. When the Austro-Hungarians forced the Serbian and Montenegrin armies out of Northern Albania in the early months of 1916, William's hopes of being restored were raised although ultimately they came to nothing. After the war, he still harboured ambitions that he might be restored, but the participants at the Paris Peace Conference were unlikely to restore the throne to someone who had just fought against them.
Although several of the factions competing for power in post-war Albania billed themselves as regencies for William, once central authority was definitively restored in 1924, the country was declared a republic on 31 January 1925, officially ending his reign.
With the monarchy in Albania set to be restored with President Ahmet Zogu becoming king, Prince William reaffirmed his claim to the throne announcing he still claimed the throne for himself and his heirs.
Prince William died in Predeal, near Sinaia, in Romania, leaving his son, Hereditary Prince Carol Victor, as heir to his Albanian claims. He was buried in the Lutheran church in Bucharest.
Marriage and childrenEdit
On 30 November 1906 at Waldenburg, Saxony, Prince William married Princess Sophie of Schönburg-Waldenburg (1885–1936); she was distantly related to the Orthodox Ghica family of Albanian origin. They had two children:
- Albania: Founder and Sovereign of the Princely Order of the Black Eagle, 26 March 1914
- Russia: Knight of St. Alexander Nevsky, 27 February 1914
- Sweden: Commander Grand Cross of the Polar Star, 1896
- Württemberg: Grand Cross of the Friedrich Order, 29 October 1898
- Italy: Grand Cross of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, 10 February 1914
- Austria-Hungary: Grand Cross of the Imperial Order of Leopold, 13 February 1914
- France: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, 19 February 1914
- Bulgaria: Knight of the Royal Order of Military Merit, 5th Class
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|Ancestors of Wilhelm, Prince of Albania|
In popular cultureEdit
Prince Wilhelm is portrayed in the 2008 Albanian film Time of the Comet (based on Ismail Kadare's novel "The dark year" (Viti i mbrapshtë), which takes place during his reign. He is played by the German actor Thomas Heinze.
- On-paper he was head of state until 31 January 1925
- An official delegation of Albania, led by Essad Pasha Toptani, made a formal request, which he accepted thereby becoming By the grace of the powers and the will of the people the Prince (Mbret) of Albania.
- Only Prime Minister during the de facto reign.
- Pearson, Owen (2006). Albania in the Twentieth Century: a history. I.B. Tauris. p. 568. ISBN 1-84511-013-7.
- Pearson, Owen (2006). Albania in the Twentieth Century: a history. IB Tauris. pp. 50, 64, 292. ISBN 1-84511-013-7.
- Heaton-Armstrong, Duncan (2005). The Six Month Kingdom: Albania 1914. IB Tauris. pp. xii, 12. ISBN 1-85043-761-0.
- Kola, Paulin (2003). The Search for Greater Albania. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 16. ISBN 1-85065-596-0.
- Springer, Elisabeth; Leopold Kammerhofer (1993). Archiv und Forschung. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag. p. 346. ISBN 3-486-55989-3.
- Miller, Iii William (September 9, 1966), The Ottoman Empire and Its Successors, 1801 -1927 (Hardcover Revised and Enl ed.), Frank Cass Publishers, p. 529, ISBN 0-7146-1974-4,
On September 3, 1914, Prince William had ended his inglorious six months' reign with proclamation, informing his people that "he deemed it necessary to absent himself temporarily."
- Elsie, Robert (2010). Historical Dictionary of Albania. Historical Dictionaries of Europe. 75 (2 ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. 255. ISBN 978-0810861886.
- Pearson, Owen (2006). Albania in Occupation and War: From Fascism to Communism 1940–1945. I.B.Tauris. p. 436. ISBN 1-84511-104-4.
- "Sveriges statskalender" (in Swedish). 1905. p. 489. Retrieved 2018-01-06 – via runeberg.org.
- Justus Perthes, Almanach de Gotha 1921 (1921) page 2
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to William, Prince of Albania.|
- Wilhelm zu Wied:Memorandum on Albania
- A listing of Princes of Wied since 1791 and their descendants
- Newspaper clippings about Wilhelm, Prince of Albania in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
Wilhelm, Prince of AlbaniaBorn: 26 March 1876 Died: 18 April 1945
Fejzi Bej Alizoti
as Chairman of the Central Government
| Prince of Albania
7 March 1914 – 3 September 1914
Qamil Musa Haxhi Feza
as Chairman of the Administrative Commission
|Titles in pretence|
|New title||— TITULAR —
Prince of Albania
3 September 1914 – 18 April 1945