Open main menu

Parliament of Albania

The Parliament of Albania (Albanian: Kuvendi i Shqipërisë) or Kuvendi is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Albania; it is Albania's legislature. The Parliament is composed of not less than 140 members elected to a four-year term on the basis of direct, universal, periodic and equal suffrage by secret ballot.[3][4][5] The Parliament is presided over by a Speaker of the Parliament, who is assisted by at least one deputy speaker. The electoral system is based on party-list proportional representation. There are 12 multi-seat constituencies, corresponding to the country's administrative divisions.

Parliament of Albania

Kuvendi i Shqipërisë
IX Legislature
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
Leadership
Taulant Balla (PS)

Rudina Hajdari (PD)

Nimet Musai (“The Independents”)[1] Formally part of LSI
Structure
Seats140
Current Structure of the Assembly of the Republic of Albania
Political groups
Government (75)

Supported by (4)

Opposition (43)

Vacancies (18)

  •      Vacant (18)[2]
Elections
Closed party-list proportional representation
D'hondt method
Last election
25 June 2017
Next election
2021
Meeting place
Kuvendi i Shqipërisë.jpg
Website
Official Website

The Parliament's powers are defined by the Constitution of Albania. It is responsible to amend the borders of Albania or the Constitution, passes all laws, approves the cabinet, supervises the work of the government, declares war, decides on cessation of hostilities, adopt the state's budgets and approve the state's accounts. Another duties includes, calling referenda, performs elections and appointments conforming to the constitution and applicable legislation, supervises operations of the government and other civil services responsible to the parliament, grants amnesty for criminal offences and performs other duties defined by the constitution. The Parliament also elects the President of the Republic. When the Parliament is elected, the first session shall be held no later than 20 days after the completion of elections with the President as the speaker.[6] However, all laws passed by the Parliament are published by the Albanian Official Journal (Albanian: Fletorja Zyrtare), which is the official journal of the Government of Albania.[7]

The oldest Parliament with extant records was held in Lezhë on 2 March 1444. The League of Lezhë (Kuvëndi i Lezhës) forged in Lezhë under Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu as the leader against the Ottoman Empire.[8]

History of the ParliamentEdit

ModernEdit

The legislative system in Albania has evolved under many different regimes, most notably in the period before 1947. From 1920 to 1923, Albania's legislature was known as the National Council (Albanian: Këshillit Kombëtar).[9] During the period of the Albanian Republic, the country had a bicameral legislature, consisting of a Senate (Albanian: Senati) and a Chamber of Deputies (Albanian: Dhoma e Deputetëve).[9] From 1928 to 1939, during the era of the Albanian Monarchy, Albania's legislature was known simply as the Parliament (Albanian: Parlamenti).[9]

During the Italian occupation of Albania and the existence of the 1939-43 Albanian Kingdom, Albania's legislature was known as the Supreme Fascist Cooperative (Albanian: Korporativi i Epërm Fashist).[9] From 1943 to 1944, during Nazi occupation of Albania and the formation of the 1943-44 Albanian Kingdom, Albania's legislature was known as the National Assembly (Albanian: Kuvendi Kombëtar).[9] From 1944 to late 1945, a National Anti-fascist Liberation Council (Albanian: Këshilli Antifashist Nacional Çlirimtar) was formed by politicians opposing the Nazi puppet government.[10]

Later during multiple periods of regime changes, Albania's legislature was known as the Constituent Assembly (Albanian: Asambleja Kushtetuese or Kuvendi Kushtetues). This occurred in 1924, prior to the formation of the Albanian Republic, in 1928, prior to the formation of the first iteration of the Albanian Kingdom, and from 1946 to 1947, prior during the era Democratic Government of Albania and prior to the formation of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania.[9]

RecentEdit

From 1947 to 1999, during the era of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania, Albania's legislature was known as the People's Assembly (Albanian: Kuvendi Popullor).[9] Since 1997, the parliament has been known simply as the Parliament of the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Kuvendi i Republikës së Shqipërisë).[9][a] Currently the President is elected by the parliament. The current members were chosen in the 2017 Albanian parliamentary election.

Powers, duties and responsibilitiesEdit

The Parliament's powers are defined by the Constitution of Albania. The Parliament represents the citizens of the Republic of Albania, it acts as the country's legislature. It convenes regularly in two sessions each year, the first session on the third Monday of January and the second session on the first Monday of September.[14] However, extraordinary sessions may be called by the President of Albania, the Prime Minister of Albania or by one-fifth of the parliamentary members.[15] Further the sessions are open to the public.[16] The parliament decides through a majority votes, in the presence of more than half of its members, except for cases where the constitution provides for a qualified majority. However, decisions are made by three-fifths majority votes.[17]

Other powers of the parliament include defining economic, legal and political relations in Albania; preservation of Albania's natural and cultural heritage and its utilisation; and forming alliances with other nations. The parliament elect the President by secret ballot and without debate by three-fifths of the parliamentary members. The president addresses messages to the Parliament and sets the date of parliamentary elections, for the organs of local power and for the conduct of referenda. The president appoints the Prime Minister on the proposal of the parliament; if the Prime Minister is not approved, the parliament elects another Prime Minister within 10 days. As specified by the Constitution, no foreign military force may be situated in, or pass through, the borders of Albania, except by a law approved by the parliament. Due to that, it has the right to deploy Albanian Armed Forces outside its borders.[18]

ElectionEdit

The 140 members of the Parliament serve four-year terms, with elections held every four years, or earlier in the relatively rare case that the Parliament is dissolved prematurely by the President.[19] 100 members are elected directly.[3] Elections for the Parliament are held 60 to 30 days before the end of the mandate and not later than 45 days after its dissolution. The seats of the Parliament are elected in a 12 constituency by closed list proportional representation. Seats are allocated using the d'Hondt method with a 2.5% electoral threshold. The Parliament can be dissolved by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister if the latter has lost a vote of confidence in the Parliament, if the recommendation is made and accepted before the Parliament acts to elect a new Prime Minister.[20]

Composition of the ParliamentEdit

The Constitution of Albania mandates that the Parliament consists of not less than 140 members, elected by a direct elected secret ballot for four-year terms. The electoral system is closed list proportional representation. There are 12 multi-member constituencies corresponding to the 12 administrative regions of the country. Parliamentary elections are held within 60 days to 30 days before the end of the mandate and not later than 45 days after dissolution.

As specified by the current electoral legislation in Albania, 140 members of the Parliament are elected in multi-seat constituencies. Within any constituency, parties must meet a threshold of 3 percent of votes, and pre-election coalitions must meet a threshold of 5 percent of votes.[21][22]

31st ParliamentEdit

The two largest political parties in Albania are the Socialist Party (PS) and the Democratic Party (PD). The last elections were held on 25 June 2017. Following is a list of political parties with representation in the Parliament by the 2017 Albanian parliamentary election:

Logo Name Abbr. Founded Leader Ideology MPs
  Socialist Party of Albania
Partia Socialiste e Shqipërisë
PS 15 August 1991 Edi Rama Social democracy, Third Way, Progressive, Centre-left, Western, Modernism, Social liberalism
74 / 140
  Democratic Party of Albania
Partia Demokratike e Shqipërisë
PD 19 December 1990 Lulzim Basha Liberal conservatism, Conservatism, Nationalism, Pro-Europeanism, Centre-right, Economic liberalism
43 / 140
  Socialist Movement for Integration
Lëvizja Socialiste për Intigrim
LSI 23 September 2004 Monika Kryemadhi Social democracy, Progressivism, Centre-left
19 / 140
  Party for Justice, Integration and Unity
Partia për Drejtësi, Integrim dhe Unitet
PDIU 1 March 2011 Shpëtim Idrizi Nationalism, Right-wing, Ethnic nationalism, Cham issue
3 / 140
  Social Democratic Party of Albania
Partia Socialdemokrate e Shqipërisë
PSD 23 April 1991 Ëngjëll Bejtaj Social democracy, Centre-left
1 / 140

Post February 2019 Parliamentary CompositionEdit

During the political crisis, opposition parties announced that all their MP's in the Parliament would resign from the parliament on February 22nd, more than 40 seats were vacated and the Central Elections Commission started in the following days the procedures to replace the MP's with mostly unknown and inexperienced figures that were part of the candidate lists during the 2017 election.

After weeks of filling the vacancies, in the end the parliament had this composition.

Logo Name Abbr. Founded Leader Ideology MPs
  Socialist Party of Albania
Partia Socialiste e Shqipërisë
PS 15 August 1991 Edi Rama Social democracy, Third Way, Progressive, Centre-left, Western, Modernism, Social liberalism
74 / 140
  Party for Justice, Integration and Unity
Partia për Drejtësi, Integrim dhe Unitet
PDIU 1 March 2011 Shpëtim Idrizi Nationalism, Right-wing, Ethnic nationalism, Cham issue
3 / 140
  Social Democratic Party of Albania
Partia Socialdemokrate e Shqipërisë
PSD 23 April 1991 Ëngjëll Bejtaj Social democracy, Centre-left
1 / 140
Democratic Group
Grupi Demokrat
8 / 140
Right-wing group
Grupi partitë e djathta
7 / 140
Independent
Të Pavarur
9 / 140
Vacant Seats
18 / 140

Committees of the ParliamentEdit

Parliamentary committees investigate specific matters of policy or government administration or performance that cannot be directly handled by the Parliament due to their volume. The committees provide an opportunity for organisations and individuals to participate in policy making and to have their views placed on the public record and considered as part of the decision-making process.

The Parliament has the following committees:[23]

  • Committee on Legal Affairs, Public Administration and Human Rights
  • Committee on European Integration
  • Committee on Foreign Policy
  • Committee on Economy and Finance
  • Committee on National Security
  • Committee on Production Activities, Trade and Environment
  • Committee on Labour, Social Affairs and Health
  • Committee on Education and Public Information Media

Legislatures (1920–present)Edit

No. Legislature
Mandate
MPs Parties
1 National Council 27 March 1920 20 December 1920 42 0
2 National Council 21 April 1921 30 September 1923 65 2
3 Constitutional Assembly 21 January 1924 2 June 1924 95 2
4 Deputies Chamber – Senate 1 June 1925 7 June 1928 46/16 0
5 Constituent Assembly/Parliament 25 August 1928 11 May 1932 49 0
6 Parliament 21 November 1932 16 November 1936 54 0
7 Parliament 10 February 1937 7 April 1939 57 0
8 Constitutional Assembly 12 April 1939 3 April 1940 162 1
9 Superior Fascist Corporative Council 3 April 1940 31 July 1943 69 1
10 National Assembly/Parliament 16 October 1943 14 September 1944 193 0
11 Anti-Fascist National Liberation Council 24 May 1944 22 December 1945 119 1
12 Constitutional Assembly/People's Assembly 10 January 1946 21 January 1950 101 1
13 People's Assembly 30 June 1950 14 April 1954 116 1
14 People's Assembly 20 July 1954 21 February 1958 129 1
15 People's Assembly 21 June 1958 3 June 1962 180 1
16 People's Assembly 14 July 1962 12 March 1966 210 1
17 People's Assembly 10 September 1966 4 May 1970 234 1
18 People's Assembly 20 November 1970 19 June 1974 261 1
19 People's Assembly 28 October 1974 21 February 1978 238 1
20 People's Assembly 25 December 1978 14 July 1982 250 1
21 People's Assembly 22 November 1982 10 January 1987 250 1
22 People's Assembly 19 February 1987 13 November 1990 250 1
23 Constitutional Assembly 15 April 1991 4 February 1992 250 3
24 People's Assembly 4 April 1992 29 March 1996 130 5
25 People's Assembly 1 July 1996 15 May 1997 140 5
26 Assembly 23 July 1997 17 May 2001 150 13
27 Assembly 3 September 2001 20 May 2005 135 12
28 Assembly 2 September 2005 14 May 2009 140 12
29 Assembly 14 September 2009 5 September 2013 140 6
30 Assembly 5 September 2013 4 September 2017 140 6
31 Assembly 9 September 2017 Incumbent 140 5

SpeakersEdit

The Speaker (Albanian: Kryetar i Kuvendit) is the head of the Parliament whose term coincides with the term of the Parliament and they are elected by a vote during the opening session. If the President is temporarily absent or incapable of exercising his or her powers, the speaker takes over the functions of the office, as specified by the Constitution.[24][25] Since the first multi-party elections held after the collapse of the Communist rule, there have been eight speakers of the Parliament. As of 9 September 2017, the Speaker of the Parliament is Gramoz Ruçi.

Speakers of the Assembly
No. Portrait Name Term in office Party
1   Xhemal Naipi
(1887–1955)
 
29 March 1920 27 May 1920 Unaffiliated
1 month and 28 days
2   Dhimitër Kacimbra
(1875–1950)
 
25 September 1920 15 November 1920 Unaffiliated
1 month and 21 days
3   Pandeli Evangjeli
(1859–1949)
 
9 May 1921 16 July 1921 Unaffiliated
2 months and 7 days
4   Eshref Frashëri
(1874–1938)
 
16 July 1921 30 September 1923 Unaffiliated
2 months and 14 days
  Eshref Frashëri
(1874–1938)
 
21 January 1924 17 April 1924 Unaffiliated
2 months and 27 days
5   Petro Poga
(1850–1944)
 
17 April 1924 17 January 1925 Unaffiliated
9 months
  Eshref Frashëri
(1874–1938)
 
Unaffiliated
  Pandeli Evangjeli
(1859–1949)
 
24 September 1925 15 September 1926 Unaffiliated
11 months and 22 days
6   Kostaq Kotta
(1889–1949)
 
1926 7 June 1928 Unaffiliated
  Pandeli Evangjeli
(1859–1949)
 
25 August 1928 5 March 1930 Unaffiliated
1 year, 6 months and 8 days
  Kostaq Kotta
(1889–1949)
 
20 October 1930 10 February 1937 Unaffiliated
6 years, 3 months and 21 days
  Pandeli Evangjeli
(1859–1949)
 
11 February 1937 12 April 1939 Unaffiliated
2 years, 2 months and 1 day
7   Terenc Toçi
(1880–1945)
 
9 April 1940 23 November 1942 Unaffiliated
2 years, 7 months and 14 days
8   Ernest Koliqi
(1903–1975)
 
23 November 1942 16 May 1943 Unaffiliated
5 months and 23 days
9   Fejzi Alizoti
(1874–1938)
 
16 May 1943 4 August 1943 Unaffiliated
2 months and 19 days
10   Lef Nosi
(1877–1946)
 
18 October 1943 25 October 1943 Unaffiliated
7 days
11   Idhomen Kosturi
(1874–1938)
 
26 October 1943 5 November 1943 Unaffiliated
10 days
12   Mihal Zallari
(1894–1976)
9 November 1943 14 September 1944 Unaffiliated
10 months and 5 days
13   Tuk Jakova
(1914–1959)  
10 January 1946 20 March 1946 Communist Party
2 months and 10 days
14   Ymer Dishnica
(1912–1998)
25 March 1946 12 July 1947 Communist Party
1 year, 3 months and 17 days
15 Manush Myftiu
(1919–1997)
 
12 July 1947 28 June 1950 Communist Party
renamed in 1948 to
Party of Labour
2 years, 11 months and 16 days
16 Teodor Heba
(1914–2001)
28 June 1950 6 June 1951 Party of Labour
11 months and 9 days
17 Mihal Prifti
(1918–1986)
6 June 1951 19 July 1954 Party of Labour
3 years, 1 month and 13 days
18   Gogo Nushi
(1913–1970)
19 July 1954 14 November 1956 Party of Labour
2 years, 3 months and 26 days
19 Rita Marko
(1920–2018)
14 November 1956 21 June 1958 Party of Labour
1 year, 7 months and 7 days
20 Medar Shtylla
(1907–1963)
21 June 1958 20 December 1963 Party of Labour
5 years, 5 months and 29 days
21 Lefter Goga
(1921–1997)
20 November 1964 10 September 1966 Party of Labour
1 year, 9 months and 21 days
22 Abdyl Këllezi
(1919–1977)
10 September 1966 13 January 1969 Party of Labour
2 years, 4 months and 3 days
23 Behar Shtylla
(1918–1994)
13 January 1969 20 November 1970 Party of Labour
1 year, 10 months and 7 days
24 Fadil Paçrami
(1922–2008)
20 November 1970 25 September 1973 Party of Labour
2 years, 10 months and 5 days
25 Iljaz Reka
(1924–1975)
25 September 1973 27 December 1975 Party of Labour
2 years, 3 months and 2 days
26 Ali Manaj
(born 1937)
11 February 1976 25 December 1978 Party of Labour
2 years, 10 months and 14 days
27 Simon Stefani
(1929–2000)
25 December 1978 22 November 1982 Party of Labour
3 years, 10 months and 28 days
28 Pali Miska
(1931-2008)
22 November 1982 19 February 1987 Party of Labour
4 years, 2 months and 28 days
29 Petro Dode
(born 1924)
19 February 1987 15 April 1991 Party of Labour
4 years, 1 month and 27 days
30 Kastriot Islami
(born 1952)
17 April 1991 6 April 1992 Socialist Party
11 months and 20 days
31 Pjetër Arbnori
(1935–2006)
6 April 1992 24 July 1997 Democratic Party
5 years, 3 months and 18 days
32 Skënder Gjinushi
(born 1949)
24 July 1997 4 September 2001 Social Democratic Party
4 years, 1 month and 11 days
33 Namik Dokle
(born 1946)
4 September 2001 30 April 2002 Socialist Party
7 months and 26 days
34 Servet Pëllumbi
(born 1936)
30 April 2002 3 September 2005 Socialist Party
3 years, 4 months and 4 days
35   Jozefina Topalli
(born 1963)
 
3 September 2005 10 September 2013 Democratic Party
8 years and 7 days
36   Ilir Meta
(born 1969)
 
10 September 2013 24 July 2017 Socialist Movement for Integration
3 years, 10 months and 14 days
37 Gramoz Ruçi
(born 1951)
 
9 September 2017 Incumbent Socialist Party
2 years, 2 months and 22 days

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ A direct dictionary translation would be "Assembly."[11][12] However, the Albanian government uses the translation "Parliament."[13]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://top-channel.tv/2019/04/18/opozita-e-re-krijon-grupet-aksioni-i-pare-ne-kuvend-interpelanca-per-rinasin/
  2. ^ "Albania's democracy hangs by a thread as opposition quits parliament, launches mass protests · Global Voices". Global Voices. 25 February 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  3. ^ a b "1998 Constitution of the Republic of Albania" (PDF). osce.org. p. 12. Article 64 - 1. The Assembly consists of 140 deputies. One hundred deputies are elected directly in single member electoral zones with an approximately equal number of voters. Forty deputies are elected from multi-name lists of parties or party coalitions according to their ranking
  4. ^ "1998 Constitution of the Republic of Albania" (PDF). osce.org. p. 1. Article 1 - 3.: Governance is based on a system of elections that are free, equal, general and periodic.
  5. ^ "1998 Constitution of the Republic of Albania" (PDF). osce.org. p. 1. Article 2 - 1 & 2.: Sovereignty in the Republic of Albania belongs to the people.; The people exercise sovereignty through their representatives or directly.
  6. ^ "1998 Constitution of the Republic of Albania" (PDF). osce.org. p. Article 67.
  7. ^ "CRL Foreign Official Gazette Database – Albania". apps.crl.edu.
  8. ^ "Kuvendi i Lezhës (1444)". letersia.fajtori.com (in Albanian).
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h "Leaders over the years". parlament.al. Albanian Parliament. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  10. ^ "Kronologji e legjislaturave në Shqipëri (Chronology of legislatures in Albania)" (in Albanian). Albanian Parliament. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  11. ^ Hysa, Ramazan (2003). Albanian-English, English-Albanian Standard Dictionary. New York, NY: Hippocrene Books. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-7818-0979-5.
  12. ^ Leonard, Newmark, ed. (1999). Albanian-English Dictionary. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 431–432. ISBN 0-19-860322-3.
  13. ^ "Republic of Albania Parliament". Albanian Parliament. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  14. ^ "1998 Constitution of the Republic of Albania". osce.org. p. 14. The Assembly conducts its annual work in two sessions. The first session begins on the third Monday of January and the second session on the first Monday of September
  15. ^ "1998 Constitution of the Republic of Albania". osce.org. The Assembly meets in extraordinary session when requested by the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister or by one-fifth of all the deputies
  16. ^ "1998 Constitution of the Republic of Albania". osce.org. p. 15. Meetings of the Assembly are open.
  17. ^ "1998 Constitution of the Republic of Albania". osce.org. p. 15. There are approved by three-fifths of all members of the Assembly
  18. ^ "1998 Constitution of the Republic of Albania". osce.org. p. 3. No foreign military force may be situated in, or pass through, the Albanian territory, and no Albanian military force may be sent abroad, except by a law approved by a majority of all members of the Assembly.
  19. ^ "1998 Constitution of the Republic of Albania". osce.org. p. 12. The Assembly is elected for four years.
  20. ^ "1998 Constitution of the Republic of Albania". osce.org. p. 19. If the Assembly fails to elect a new Prime Minister, the President of the Republic dissolves the Assembly.
  21. ^ "IFES Election Guide - Country Profile: Albania". www.electionguide.org. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  22. ^ "Part XII Allocation of Seats". The Electoral Code of the Republic of Albania (English translation by OSCE) (pdf). p. 140. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  23. ^ "Komisionet". parlament.al (in Albanian).
  24. ^ Dervishi, Kastriot (2006). Historia e Shtetit Shqiptar 1912-2005. Tiranë: Shtëpia Botuese "55". p. 955. ISBN 9994379933.
  25. ^ "KUSHTETUTA E REPUBLIKËS SË SHQIPËRISË" (PDF) (in Albanian). p. Article 94.

External linksEdit