This article is written like a travel guide rather than an encyclopedic description of the subject. (March 2016)
Junagadh pronunciation (help·info) is the headquarters of Junagadh district in the Indian state of Gujarat. Located at the foot of the Girnar hills, 355 km southwest of the state capitals Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad, it is the 7th largest city in the state.
Gate of the city of Junagadh
|• Body||Junagadh Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Dhirubhai Gohel|
|• Municipal Commissioner||Sourabh Pardhi, IAS|
|• Member of Legislative Assembly||Bhikhabhai Joshi|
|• Member of Parliament||Rajesh Chudasama|
|• Total||160 km2 (60 sq mi)|
|Elevation||107 m (351 ft)|
|• Density||2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Language||Gujarati, Hindi, English|
|Civic agency||Junagadh Municipal Corporation|
Literally translated, Junagadh means "Old Fort". A different etymology derives the name from "Yonagadh" (literally, "City of the Yona (Greeks)", referring to the ancient inhabitants of the city under the Indo-Greek Kingdom). It is also known as "Sorath", the name of the princely state of Junagadh.
After a brief struggle between India and Pakistan, Junagadh joined India on November 9, 1947. It was a part of Saurashtra state and later Bombay state. In 1960, in consequence of the Maha Gujarat movement, it became part of the newly formed Gujarat state.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Economy
- 4 Politics
- 5 Utility services
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 Education
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
This section may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. (November 2017)
An early structure, Uparkot Fort, is located on a plateau in the middle of town. It was originally built in 319 BCE during the Mauryan dynasty by Chandragupta. The fort remained in use until the 6th century, when it was abandoned for about 300 years, then rediscovered by the Chudasama ruler Graharipu in 976 CE. The fort was subsequently besieged 16 times over an 1000-year period. One unsuccessful siege lasted twelve years.
Within 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) of Uparkot Fort is an inscription with fourteen Edicts of Ashoka on a large boulder. The inscriptions are in Brahmi script in a language similar to Pali and date from 250 BCE. On the same rock there is a later inscription in Sanskrit, which was added around 150 CE by Mahakshatrap Rudradaman I, the Saka (Scythian) ruler of Malwa, and a member of the Western Kshatrapas dynasty, and which has been described as "the earliest known Sanskrit inscription of any extent". Another inscription dates from about 450 CE and refers to Skandagupta, the last Gupta emperor. Old rock-cut Buddhist caves in this area, dating from well before 500 CE, have stone carvings and floral work. There are also the Khapra Kodia Caves north of the fort, and the Bava Pyara Caves south of the fort. The Bava Pyara caves contain artworks of both Buddhism and Jainism.
The Maitraka dynasty ruled Gujarat from 475 to 767 CE. The founder of the dynasty, General Bhatarka, military governor of Saurashtra peninsula under the Gupta empire, established himself as the independent ruler of Gujarat around the last quarter of the 5th century.
The early history of the Chudasama dynasty – which ruled Saurashtra from Junagadh – is almost lost. The bardic legends differ very much in the names, order, and numbers of early rulers; so they are not considered reliable. According to tradition, the dynasty is said to have been founded in the late 9th century by Chudachandra. Subsequent rulers – such as Graharipu, Navaghana, and Khengara – were in conflict with the Chaulukya rulers Mularaja and Jayasimha Siddharaja; and Saurashtra was briefly governed by Chaulukya governors during this period. These events are recorded in contemporary and later Jain chronicles.
After the end of the rule of the Chaulukyas and their successors, the Vaghela dynasty, in Gujarat, the Chudasamas ruled independently, or as vassals of successor states, the Delhi Sultanate and the Gujarat Sultanate. Mandalika I was the first Chudasama ruler known from inscriptions; and during his reign, Gujarat was invaded by the Khalji dynasty of Delhi. The last king of the dynasty, Mandalika III, was defeated, and forcibly converted to Islam, in 1472 by Gujarat Sultan Mahmud Begada, who annexed the state.
The Uparkot Fort of Junagadh was occupied by the Chudasamas during the reign of Graharipu. It is said to have been later rebuilt by Navaghana, who had transferred his capital from Vamanasthali to Junagadh. He is also credited with construction of the stepwells Navghan Kuvo and Adi Kadi Vav in the fort. His descendant Khengara is attributed with building a stepwell, Khengar Vav, on the way to Vanthali from Junagadh.
Sultan Mahmud Begada changed the name of Junagadh to Mustafabad and built the fortifications around the town and the mosque in Uparkot Fort.
Under the Gujarat Sultanate, Junagadh was governed by an official, styled thanadar (commander), appointed directly by Ahmedabad. This official collected the tribute and revenue of the crown domain. The first thanadar was Tatar Khan, an adopted son of the Sultan and after him Mirza Khalil, the eldest son of the Sultan who afterwards succeeded him under the title of Sultan Muzaffar. Prince Khalil during his tenure of office founded the village called Khalilpur. The Sultan also installed Bhupatsingh, the son of the last Chudasama king, Mandalika III, in Junagadh as a jagirdar (feudal lord). The jagir allotted to Bhupatsingh was the Sil Bagasra Chovisi; and his descendants were known as Raizada. They continued to rule there. Bhupatsingh was succeeded by his son Khengar.
After the accession of Sultan Muzafar, and indeed during the latter part of Sultan Mahmud's reign, the seat of government was removed from Junagadh to Diu owing to the importance of that island as a naval station and to check the ravages of the Portuguese. Tatarkhan Ghori was left at Junagadh by Malik Eiaz who himself resided at Diu. After the disgrace and death of Malik Eiaz, Tatarkhan Ghori became independent at Junagadh; and after the death of Sultan Bahadur, the Ghori family reigned independently at Junagadh, though still owing a nominal allegiance to the successive Sultans at Ahmadabad. This state of affairs continued until the first conquest of Gujarat by the Mughal emperor Akbar, when Aminkhan Ghori had succeeded his father Tatarkhan at Junagadh.
When the Portuguese took over the ports of Diu and Daman in the 16th century, a fifteen-foot cannon, made in Egypt in 1531, was abandoned by a Turkish admiral opposing the Portuguese forces at Diu, which is now at Uparkot Fort.
Under the Mughal EmpireEdit
- Ghori rule
In 1525, Khengar was succeeded by his son Noghan. Tatarkhan Ghori had now become almost independent. In his time Jam Raval conquered Halar and built Navanagar. In 1551, Noghan was succeeded by his son Shrisingh, who lived till 1586. During this time, Tatarkhan Ghori died and was succeeded by his son Aminkhan Ghori. In his time, Akbar conquered Gujarat, although Sorath yet remained independent under the Ghori rule. The exact date of Tatarkhan Ghori's death is not known; but from the mention of Aminkhan as his successor, it must have been from about 1570 to 1575. On the return of Emperor Akbar to Agra in 1573, after the defeat and death of Muhammad Husain Mirzah and Ikhtiyar ul Mulk, he gave orders that Sorath should be conquered from Aminkhan Ghori. Vazir Khan attempted it but was unequal to the task. Great confusion existed now in Sorath. The Moghal conquest of Gujarat, the collapse of the power of the Gujarat Sultans, the encroachments of the Jam, and the assumption of independence by the Ghori all augmented the confusion afterwards increased by the escape of Sultan Muzaffar in 1583 and subsequent partisan warfare.
During these disturbances Amin Khan Ghori and his son Daulat Khan Ghori espoused the cause of Muzafar, as did the Jam and Loma Khuman of Kherdi. The exact date of Amin Khan Ghori's death is not known but it was about 1589–90. Raizada Khengar also warmly espoused Mnzafar's side. After the siege and capture of Junagadh in 1591–92 by Naurang Khan, Syad Kasim, and Gnjar Khan; Khengar was dismissed to his estate of Sil Bagasra, and the Raizada ceased to rule at Junagadh. Daulat Khan Ghori died of his wounds during the siege, and henceforth Junagadh became the seat of the imperial faujdars (garrison commanders) of Sorath in subordination to the imperial viceroy at Ahmedabad.
- Imperial rule
The first faujdar of Junagad was Naurang Khan and, next, Syad Kasim. The most famous were (1) Mirzah Isa Tarkhan (2) Kutb ud din Kheshgi, and (3) Sardarkhan. Of these Mirzah Isa Tarkhan ruled Sorath from about 1633–34 to 1642, when he was appointed viceroy of Gujarat. On this occasion he left his son Inayat Ullah as faujdar at Junagadh while he himself conducted the government of Gujarat from its capital, Ahmedabad. In Mirzah Isa Tarkhan's time the fortifications of Junagadh were entirely repaired. Kutb ud din was another faujdar, and his tenure of office lasted from about 1653 to 1666. In about 1664, he conquered Navanagar and annexed it to the imperial domain. Sardarkhan also distinguished himself while faujdar of Sorath, both by the firmness of his rule and by his construction (1681, AH 1092) of the Sardar Baug (palace) and excavation of the Sardar Talav (main gate). He built a mausoleum for himself in the Sardar Baug, but he died at Thatta, in Sindh, and is said to have been buried there and not at Junagadh. He was faujdar from about 1666 to 1686, but in 1670 he went for a short time to Idar and was replaced by Syad Dilerkhan. The last of the faujdar s was Sherkhan Babi, who became independent and assumed the title of Nawab Bahadur Khan.
In 1730, Mohammad Sher Khan Babi, who owed allegiance to the Mughal governor of Gujarat Subah, founded the state of Junagadh by declaring independence after the invasion by the Maratha Gaekwad dynasty. Babi founded the Babi Dynasty of Junagadh State. His descendants, the Babi Nawabs of Junagadh—who were Babi or Babai pashtuns from Afghanistan—conquered large territories in southern Saurashtra and ruled for the next two centuries, first as tributaries of Marathas, and later under the suzerainty of the British, who granted them a 13-gun salute.
- 1730–1758 – Mohammad Bahadur Khanji or Mohammad Sher khan Babi
- 1758–1774 – Mohammad Mahabat Khanji I
- 1774–1811 – Mohammad Hamid Khanji I
- 1811–1840 – Mohammad Bahadur Khanji II
- 1840–1851 – Mohammad Hamid Khanji II
- 1851–1882 – Mohammad Mahabat Khanji II
- 1882–1892 – Mohammad Bahadur Khanji III
- 1892–1911 – Mohammad Rasul Khanji
- 1911–1948 – Mohammad Mahabat Khanji III
In 1807, Junagadh State it became a British protectorate. The East India Company took control of the state by 1818, but the Saurashtra area was never directly administered by the British, who instead divided the territory into more than one hundred princely states, which remained in existence until 1947. The present old-town, developed during the 19th and 20th centuries, constituted one of those princely states.
The Shri Swaminarayan Mandir temple in Junagadh was constructed on land presented by Jinabhai (Hemantsingh) Darbar of Panchala, and dedicated on 1 May 1828. Swaminarayan appointed Gunatitanand Swami as the first mahant (religious and administrative head of a temple), who served in this role and preached there for over 40 years.
Annexation by IndiaEdit
During the period just before the independence and partition of India and Pakistan in 1947, the 562 princely states that had existed outside British India, but under British suzerainty, were given the choice of acceding to either India or Pakistan, or to remaining apart. Although the states were theoretically free to choose, Earl Mountbatten stated that "geographic compulsions" meant that most of them would choose India. Mountbatten took the position that only states that shared a common border with Pakistan should choose to accede to it, but he had no power to impose this point of view on the states.
On 15 September 1947, Nawab Mohammad Mahabat Khanji III of Junagadh – which, although located at the south-western end of Gujarat, had no common border with Pakistan – chose to accede to Pakistan, ignoring Mountbatten's views and arguing that Junagadh could access Pakistan by sea. The rulers of two states that were subject to the suzerainty of Junagadh — Mangrol and Babariawad — reacted by declaring their independence from Junagadh and acceding to India. In response, the nawab's forces militarily occupied the two states. Rulers of other neighbouring states reacted angrily, sent troops to the Junagadh frontier, and appealed to the government of India for assistance. A group of Junagadhis, led by Samaldas Gandhi, formed a government-in-exile, the Aarzi Hukumat ("temporary government").
India asserted that Junagadh was not contiguous to Pakistan and, believing that if Junagadh was permitted to accede to Pakistan communal tension already simmering in Gujarat would worsen, refused to accept the nawab's accession to Pakistan. The Indian government pointed out that the state was 96% Hindu, and called for a plebiscite to decide the question of accession. India cut off supplies of fuel and coal to Junagadh, severed air and postal links, sent troops to the frontier, and occupied the principalities of Mangrol and Babariawad, which had acceded to India.
Pakistan agreed to discuss a plebiscite, subject to the withdrawal of Indian troops, a condition India rejected. On 26 October, the nawab and his family fled to Pakistan following clashes between Junagadhi and Indian troops.
On 7 November, Junagadh's court, facing collapse, invited the government of India to take over the state's administration. The Dewan of Junagadh, Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto, the father of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, decided to invite the Government of India to intervene and wrote a letter to Mr. Buch, the regional commissioner of Saurashtra in the government of India to this effect.
The government of India rejected the protests of Pakistan and accepted the invitation of the dewan to intervene. A plebiscite was conducted in February 1948, but it was not internationally monitored. Pakistan claims were not based on the plebiscite but on the logic of the Kashmir annexation, which went almost unanimously in favour of accession to India. Junagadh became a part of the Indian state of Saurashtra until 1 November 1956, when Saurashtra became part of Bombay state. In 1960, Bombay state was split into the linguistic states of Maharashtra and Gujarat, in which Junagadh was located.
|Various Rulers||Time Period|
|Maurya Dynasty ruled over Junagadh||in 319 BC|
|Kalinga Dynasty ruled over Junagadh||in 185 BC|
|Greeks ruled over Junagadh||in 73-70 BC|
|Shaka (Scythians) ruled over Junagadh||100-275 AD|
|Kshatrapa ruled over Junagadh||276-455 AD|
|Gupta ruled over Junagadh||456-770 AD|
|The Chinese Traveller Hu-en-Tsang visited Junagadh||640 AD|
|Chudasama ruled over Junagadh||875-1472 AD|
|Turkic Rulers Mohammed Begada, Khalil Khan||1472-1572 AD|
|Mughals ruled over Junagadh||1573-1730 AD|
|Nawabs of Junagadh Khanji (Babi Pathan) ruled over||1730-1949|
Accession to IndiaEdit
- 15 Aug 1947 Accedes to Pakistan.
- 15 Sep 1947 Accession to Pakistan accepted.
- 9 Nov 1947 Occupied by India.
- 10 Nov 1947 Rescinds accession to Pakistan, accedes to India.
- 24 Feb 1948 Referendum approves accession to India.
- 25 Feb 1948 Accession to India in effect.
Junagadh city is located at. It has an average elevation of 107 metres (351 ft).
Situated at the foot of Mount Girnar, Junagadh has the Arabian sea to the southwest, Porbandar to the north, and Amreli to the east. The city is divided into main city, which is clustered around M.G. Road and Kalwa Chowk, Gandhigram, Zanzarda Road, Talaw Darwaza, Bus-stand, Sakkar Baug, Timbawadi, Joshipara, and Girnar Taleti. These areas are under the administration of the Junagadh Municipal Corporation.
Junagadh has two rivers, the Sonrakh and the Kalwo, which is polluted from city sewers. Junagadh city has many lakes: Narsinh Mehta Sarovar, Damodarji, Sudarshan Lake, etc. Man-made dams in the area are Willingdon Dam, Hasnapur Dam, and Anandpur Weir. These are the main water sources for the city. Ground water supply is widely available in the city, with wells throughout it.
Junagadh's soil is similar to that of the rest of Junagadh district. It is deep- to medium-black coastal alluvium. It is because proximity of sea and long shore line and also because of the Girnar mountain ridge. Because of many fault lines in proximity, Junagadh is in a seismically active zone. Junagadh lies in Seismic Zone III region, which means earthquakes up to magnitude 6.5 on the Richter-scale may be expected.
Junagadh has a tropical wet and dry climate, with three distinct seasons: a mild winter from November to February, a hot summer from March to June, and a monsoon season from July to October. The Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Cambay affect the climate. In the summer months, temperatures range from 28 to 38 °C (82 to 100 °F). In the winter, they range from 10 to 25 °C (50 to 77 °F). From June to September the city is drained by the southwest monsoon. Rainfall averages 1,000 to 1,200 millimetres (39 to 47 in) annually. Factors such as its close proximity to the sea influence the weather. The winds from the sea affect the climatic conditions in the region. The greatest rainfall in a calendar year was recorded back in 1983: 2,800 millimetres (110 in).
|Climate data for Junagadh|
|Average high °C (°F)||27.2
|Average low °C (°F)||13.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||0
Due to its mountainous geography and forest reserves, Junagadh lacks major industries or plants. The main earning sectors for Junagadh are the mineral-based cement industry, agriculture-based industries and the power sector. The presence of large reserves of limestone makes the cement industry a thriving industrial sector. Major crops produced in the district are wheat, oil seeds, cotton, mango, banana, onion, and brinjal. Total production of oilseeds in Junagadh in 2006-07 was 464,400 metric tons, which was the highest in the state. Junagadh is the largest producer of groundnut and garlic in the state, contributing 26% and 34% to total production respectively. Junagadh has Asia's largest ground-nut research laboratory. Mango and onions are grown in large quantities in the district.
Some of the large-scale industry present in Junagadh are Mother Dairy Fruit & Vegetable Pvt Ltd (Popularly known as Junagadh Dairy in the region), Agro Marine Exports, Creative Castings Ltd., and Austin Engineering. With an investment of INR 4,000 crore (US$975.6million), JSW Power Co. proposed to set up a coal-based power plant at Simar in Junagadh, but unfortunately due to technical problems in establishing a port at Simar, it has now been shifted to Dahej. The economy of Junagadh is mainly based on agriculture. With the new government policy of biotechnology, Junagadh has been identified as a agriculture biotechnology zone. This will boost the setting up of agro-biotech industries in the district.
Junagadh boasts of some of the best tourist destinations in the state, so tourism is considered to be a progressing sector. The state government has sanctioned the development of a Circuit Tourism project at Junagadh.
The politics of Junagadh city has always been closely contested between the Indian National Congress (INC) and the Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP). Other national parties are the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), the Communist Party of India, and the Nationalist Congress Party. Regional parties active in Junagadh are the Mahagujarat Janta Party, the Samata Party, and the Republic Party of India. Junagadh has 194,196 registered voters, of which 100,050 are male and 94,146 female.
Junagadh has one state-assembly constituency. The BJP won this seat in the 2007 election, with 52.36% of the 118,888 votes cast, with the next largest vote being 26.32% for the INC candidate. Election for the state assembly is held every 5 years.
The Junagadh Municipal Corporation has 17 wards and total of 51 seats. In the 2009 municipal elections the INC won 26 seats, BJP 21 seats, BSP 3 seats and 1 went to an independent. While the majority of the seats went to the INC, the BJP candidates received more votes: 134,739, or 45.62% of the total, the INC receiving 120,533, 40.81%. The Mayor, Deputy Mayor has terms of 2 and a half years.
Junagadh is connected to Rajkot and Ahmedabad by National Highway 8D (NH8D), which also connects Junagadh to Veraval. Junagadh City Bypass on NH8D obviates the need for through vehicles to enter the city. In the south, Junagadh is connected to Bilkha and the Sasan Gir Lion Sanctuary. The Kalwo River runs through Junagadh; Ferguson Bridge is built over it to connect the two parts of the city. A bridge is also constructed on the Sonrakh River on the northern outskirts of the city. Mount Girnar is connected to Junagadh by road. Rickshaws are generally preferred as a mode of transportation.
Junagadh's population of 320,250 requires 30 million litres (6,600,000 imp gal; 7,900,000 US gal) of water per day, which is supplied through 25,000 tap connections to three major surface water sources, namely Aanandpur Weir, Hasanapur Dam, and Wellingdon Dam, as well as 32 wells. Junagadh has more than 1000 hand pumps and 200 stand posts as ground-water sources situated throughout the city.
In January 2004, Junagadh city was enlarged, which increased its area from 13.47 square kilometres (5.20 sq mi) to 57 square kilometres (22 sq mi), annexing eight grampanchayats and one municipality. The mewly acquired area has its own groundwater supply system of bore wells.
The city generates approximately 150 tonnes of solid waste daily, which is within the recommended limit of 400 grams (14 oz) per capita per day of domestic waste. The waste is collected by deploying 400 wheel barrows (six containers) as per the supreme court guidelines and MSW rule 2000. The Junagadh Municipal Council has set up 800 community bins for solid waste collection. It covers 90% of city area. Junagadh's drainage system is 62 kilometres (39 mi) long but it serves only 67% of the total area and 60% of the population.
The Paschim Gujarat Vij Company Ltd. (P.G.V.C.L.), a state-run electricity company, provides electric power. Telecom service is provided mainly by Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (B.S.N.L.); other service providers include Reliance and Tata. Cell-phone coverage is extensive and the main service providers are Vodafone, B.S.N.L., Airtel, Idea, and Tata Docomo. B.S.N.L. also provides broadband service.
The city has a good network of street lights. There is a total of 12,545 tube lights and 1523 central sodium lighting. A solar light project is also approved for the Narsinh Mehta Sarovar.
As of the[update] 2011 census, Junagadh municipality had a population of 319,462. The municipality had a sex ratio of 955 females per 1,000 males and 9% of the population were under six years old. The effective literacy rate was 88%; male literacy was 92.46% and female literacy was 83.38%.
Junagadh has relatively low to medium housing and land costs in comparison to cities like Rajkot. The city is rapidly expanding, and available land inside the city limits is now limited. Total area under slums is 19.5 square kilometres (7.5 sq mi) (14.5% of the total municipal area) and the total slum population accounts for around 25% of the total population.
The religions represented in Junagadh includes Hindus, Muslims, Jains, Christians, and Buddhists. Among these Hindus are the majority and Muslims are the largest minority group. Jains and Christians are present in considerable numbers. Sikhs and Parsis are very few in number. There are Tibetan migrants who practice Buddhism. The main language group is Gujarati. Others are Hindi and Sindhi. A small community of African origin, known as "Siddis", resides in and around the Gir Sanctuary, but some of them have moved to the city. There are around 8816 Siddi in the state and 65% of them reside in Junagadh. Swaminarayan Hinduism is also widely followed in the city. There are two Swaminarayan temples in the city: the old temple is managed by the Vadtal diocese and the new temple is managed by Bochasanwasi Shri Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha.
Established in 1863, Junagadh's Sakkarbaug Zoological Garden is known as Sakkarbaug Zoo and has an area of around 200 hectares (490 acres). The zoo provides purebred Asiatic lions for the Indian and international endangered species captive breeding programs for critically endangered species. Currently, it is the only zoo in the country to house African cheetahs. The zoo also has museum of natural history.
Junagadh's many ruling dynasties—such as Babi Nawabs, Vilabhis, Kshatraps, Mauryas, Chudasamas, Gujarat Sultans—and its major religious upsurges have greatly influenced the architectural developments of Junagadh.
The Junagadh Buddhist Cave Groups, with their intricately carved gateways, Chaitya halls, sculptured pillars, and sanctums are classic examples of rock-cut architecture. The Chudama Rajputs left specimens of their architectural style in Nabghan Kuvo and Adi Kadi Vav. Religious monuments such as Jami Masjid remind us of Muslim architectural patterns. The Ashokan edicts is a classic example of old rock engraving styles. The Maqbaras and numerous age-old palaces in Junagadh tell the story of its rich historical and architectural past.
About 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) east of Junagadh and 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) west of the foot of Girnar Hill is an edict of Emperor Ashoka, inscribed on an uneven rock and dating from the 3rd century BC. The Ashokan edicts impart moral instructions on dharma, harmony, tolerance, and peace. The rock has a circumference of seven metres and a height of ten metres and bears inscriptions in Brāhmī script etched with an iron pen.
The people of Junagadh celebrate both Western and Indian festivals. Diwali, Maha Shivaratri, Holi, Janmastami, Muharram, Navratri, Christmas, Good Friday, Dussera, Muharram, and Ganesh Chaturthi are some of the popular festivals in the city.
The Shivaratri Mela is organized at the foot of Mount Girnar (Talati) in the month of Maha (9th day of the month of Maagha). The mela lasts for the next five days. About 500,000 people visit Junagadh on this occasion. The Girnar Parikrama is also organized annually. It starts in the month of Kartik and draws 1 to 1.5 million people. People walk the periphery of the Girnar Hills on foot (about 32 kilometres (20 mi)). Muharram is celebrated by Muslims. The sej, which belonged to the peers or gurus of the nawabs, has been taken out; and a fair is been organized. Apart from these religious and national festivals, Junagadh annually celebrates its accession to India on 9 November 1947 as the independence day of the city. 1 May is Gujarat day, to celebrate the formation of Gujarat state on 1 May 1960.
Schools in Junagadh are either "municipal schools" run by the municipal council or private schools run by trusts or individuals, which in some cases receive financial aid from the government. The schools are affiliated either with the Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board, the Central Board of Secondary Education, or the International General Certificate of Secondary Education. English and Gujarati are the predominant languages of instruction.
- "Junagadh City Population Census 2011 | Gujarat". www.census2011.co.in. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- "PIN Code: Junagadh, Gujarat, India". findpincode.net.
- Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam (ed.). India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 179.
- K. V. Soundara Rajan; Archaeological Survey of India (1985). Junagadh. Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
- M1 Ranchodji Amarji, Târikh-i-Soraṭh: A History of the Provinces of Soraṭh and Hâlâr in Kâthiâwâd, pp. 36-46, Trubner & Co. (1882) - translation of the edicts.
- "Junagadh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman", Project South Asia. Archived 23 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- |Meaning, that is not very short. Quoted from D.D. Kosambi in Keay, John, India, a History, p. 132, 2000, HarperCollins, ISBN 0002557177
- "Gujarat, Malwa and Khandesh". The Cambridge Shorter History of India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1934. pp. 307–308. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- Gupta, R. K.; Bakshi, S. R., eds. (2008). Studies In Indian History: Rajasthan Through The Ages: Marwar and British Administration. 5. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-8-17625-841-8. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- Ward (1 January 1998). Gujarat–Daman–Diu: A Travel Guide. Orient Longman Limited. ISBN 9788125013839.
- Jha, Saurav; Roy, Devapriya (15 May 2015). The Heat and Dust Project: The Broke Couple's Guide to Bharat (in Arabic). HarperCollins India. ISBN 9789351367505.
- Watson, James W., ed. (1884). Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency : Kathiawar. VIII. Bombay: Government Central Press. pp. 489–502. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Junagadh Princely State (13 gun salute)
- Nawabs of Junagadh British Library.
- Desai, Shambhuprasad Harprasd (1990). Saurashtrano Itihas. pp. 746–748.
- Williams, Raymond (2001). An Introduction To Swaminarayan Hinduism. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 38. ISBN 0-521-65422-X.
- Ishwarcharandas, Sadhu (2007). Aksharbrahma Gunatitanand Swami. Ahmedabad: Swaminarayan Aksharpith. p. 94. ISBN 81-7526-302-4.
- Lumby 1954, pp. 237–238
- Lumby 1954, p. 238
- "Letter Inviting India to Intervene". Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Lumby 1954, pp. 238–239
- Furber 1951, p. 359
- Soszynski, Henry (23 January 2018). "Junagadh (Princely State) – (13 gun salute)". Indian Princely States. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
- "History of Junagadh". Retrieved 22 June 2010.
- "Soil Condition" (PDF). Government of Gujarat. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- "Junagadh District Profile" (PDF). Government Of Gujarat.
- "Junagadh weather maximum temperature in 2012 was 47 degrees Celsius and minimum recorded was 1 degree". Maps of India. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- "Annual weather report" (PDF). Junagadh Agriculture University. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- "Climate Data for Junagadh". Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- "Junagadh District Profile, Agriculture" (PDF). Government Of Gujarat.
- "Spotlight to be on energy sector". The Times of India. 11 January 2005.
- "Junagadh District Profile, Tourism" (PDF). Government Of Gujarat.
- Statistical Report on General Election, 2007, to the Legislative Assembly of Gujarat (PDF) (Report). Election Commission of India. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
- "Municipal Corporation Elections: July 2009" (PDF). Election Commission of Gujarat.
- "Water works". Water works department, Junagadh.
- "Solid waste management". Junagadh Municipal Corporation.
- "Drainage system". JMC.
- "Street Lights". Junagadh Municipal Corporation.
- "Housing and Slums". Engineering Works.
- "Junagadh City Census 2011 data". Census 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
- "Brief Profile of PTG Communities in Gujarat" (PDF).
- "African Settlements in India" (PDF). Abdulaziz Y. Lodhi, Uppsala University, Sweden.
- "Shree Swaminarayan Mandir". Shree Swaminarayan Mandir, Junagadh.
- "Cheetahs". Junagadh city district news.
- "Junagadh Architecture". Maps of India.
- Keay, John (2000). India: A History. New York: Grove Press. pp. 129–131. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.
- "Festivals celebrated in Gujarat". Gujarat state Tourism.
- "Shivaratri Fair". Festivals of India.
- "Junagadh City District Independence day November 9, 1947(Junagadh Aazad Din-Divas)". Historical Junagadh.
- "Parlianmentary Details". Retrieved 18 October 2011.